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2013 Chemicals Research Review

  • December 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 159 pages

FOREWORD

Research Reviews from BCC Research provide market professionals with concise market coverage within a specific research category. These Research Reviews include portions of several market research reports that were published in 2013, and are an efficient way for market professionals to keep up with the general market developments of 2013.
Please note that page references in the text are to pages in the original, complete report, and do not reflect the actual page numbers in this Research Review.

This 2013 Chemicals Research Review includes excerpts from the following reports:
• CHM014L Flame Retardant Chemicals: Technologies and Global Markets.
• CHM041D The Global Industrial Gas Business.
• CHM049C Global Markets and Advanced Technologies for Paints and Coatings.
• CHM062A Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty Acids.
• CHM072A Seed Treatment: Technologies and Global Markets.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

• Global consumption of flame retardant chemicals in 2012 totaled 3.9 billion lbs. In 2013 consumption is expected to increase to more than 4 billion lbs and to about 5.2 billion lbs by 2018. This represents a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5% over the five year period.
• The market for industrial gas was valued at $60.3 billion in 2011 and increased to $62.1 billion in 2012. Total market value is expected to reach $76.3 billion in 2017 after increasing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.2%.
• The market for paints and coatings was valued at $111.2 billion in 2012 and should reach $116.9 billion in 2013. Total market valued is expected to reach $141 billion in 2018 after increasing at a five-year compound annual growth rate of 3.8%.

Table Of Contents

2013 Chemicals Research Review
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ABOUT BCC RESEARCH REVIEWS 2

FOREWORD 2

CHAPTER 2 FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS: TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS (REPORT CHM014L) 4

INTRODUCTION 4
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 4
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 4
INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
SCOPE OF REPORT 5
METHODOLOGY 5
INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS 5
SUMMARY 6
TABLE 1 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS, THROUGH
2018 (MILLION LBS) 7
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS, 2 (MILLION
LBS) 7
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY 8
FLAME RETARDANCY BASICS 10
TERMINOLOGY 10
MECHANISMS OF BURNING 10
TABLE 2 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROLLING BURNING 11
NEW METHOD TO STUDY THE COMBUSTION OF POLYMERS 11
FLAME RETARDANT CONCEPTS 12
PHYSICAL DILUTION 12
CHEMICAL INTERFERENCES 12
INERT GAS DILUTION 13
THERMAL QUENCHING 13
PROTECTIVE COATINGS 13
GENERALLY ACCEPTED MECHANISMS OF FLAME RETARDANT CONTROL 13
TABLE 3 FLAME RETARDANTS AND GENERALLY ACCEPTED MECHANISMS OF
CONTROL 14
TYPES OF FLAME RETARDANTS 14
ADDITIVE FLAME RETARDANTS 14
TABLE 4 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROL OF BURNING 15
REACTIVE FLAME RETARDANTS 15
SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANTS 16
TABLE 5 REPRESENTATIVE SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANT COMBINATIONS (%) 16
DIVERSITY OF FLAME-RETARDED PRODUCTS 17
TABLE 6 FLAME RETARDANTS AND PRODUCTS WHERE THEY ARE COMMONLY
USED 17
COMBINED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 18
TABLE 7 COMMON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 18
TESTING 18
TABLE 8 OXYGEN INDICES OF SOME COMMON MATERIALS 19
Cone Calorimeter 19
TABLE 9 CONE CALORIMETRY PARAMETERS AND VALUES 19
Medium-Scale Testing 20
Large-Scale Testing 20
LOI 20
UL-94 21
TABLE 10 UL-94 BURN TEST RATINGS 21
Additional Tests 21
INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT 22
THE NEGATIVE VIEW OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 23
BABY PRODUCTS WITH TOXIC OR UNTESTED FLAME RETARDANTS 24
FLAME RETARDANTS MAY BE LINKED TO FELINE ILLNESS 25
U. S. REGULATIONS RESTRICTING USE OF CERTAIN FLAME RETARDANTS 25
Toxic Substances Control Act 25
EPA Regulations 25
State Laws 26
EUROPEAN RESTRICTIONS ON FLAME RETARDANTS 27
WEEE 27
RoHS 27
SIGNIFICANT ORGANIZATIONS REGULATING FIRE CONTROL 28
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST) 28
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 29
U.S. FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS 30
UPHOLSTERY REGULATIONS 30
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) 30
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) 31
OSHA Standards 31
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.132 31
OSHA CFR 29 1910.269 31
ROLE OF NON-FEDERAL AGENCIES 32
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION 32
TABLE 11 NFPA GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS 33
TABLE 12 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING FLAME RETARDANT AND
PROTECTIVE STANDARDS 34
ASTM INTERNATIONAL 34
ASTM Standards 34
ASTM D6413 34
ASTM 1506 35
ASTM F1959 35
ASTM F1958 35
ASTM 1891 36
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) 36
UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES INC. 36
OTHER COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS 37
OTHER ORGANIZATIONS OF INTEREST 37
ALLIANCE FOR CONSUMER FIRE SAFETY IN EUROPE 37
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE FIRE MARSHALS 37
AMERICAN FIRE SAFETY COUNCIL (AFSC) 38
BROMINE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL FORUM (BSEF) 38
EUROPEAN BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANT INDUSTRY PANEL 38
EUROPEAN FLAME RETARDANTS ASSOCIATION (EFRA) 38
GROUPEMENT TECHNIQUE Français CONTRE L'INCENDIE 38
INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS ON USE OF FLAME RETARDANTS 38
ASIAN REGULATIONS 39
SPECIFIC EUROPEAN REGULATIONS 39
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION 40
ISO TC61 COMMITTEE STANDARDS 40
THE DEPARTMENT FOR BUSINESS, ENTERPRISE AND REGULATORY
REFORM (BERR) 40
THE BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (BSI) 41
TABLE 13 EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS AND NETWORKS RELATED TO FIRES AND
FIRE MANAGEMENT 41
TABLE 14 ITEM FIRST IGNITED IN TYPICAL U.S. RESIDENTIAL FIRES (MARKET/%) 43
STRATEGIES AND OPPORTUNITIES 44
DRIVING FORCES 44

CHAPTER 3 THE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS BUSINESS (REPORT CHM041D) 47

INTRODUCTION 47
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 47
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 47
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 48
SCOPE AND FORMAT 49
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 49
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 50
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 50
SUMMARY 51
TABLE 15 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, 2011-2017 ($
BILLIONS) 51
IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRIAL GASES 52
PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIAL GAS TYPES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 52
CARBON DIOXIDE 53
HYDROGEN 53
HELIUM 53
NITROGEN 54
OXYGEN 54

CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL MARKETS AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR PAINTS AND COATINGS (REPORT CHM049C) 56

INTRODUCTION 56
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 56
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 57
INTENDED AUDIENCE 57
SCOPE AND FORMAT 57
INFORMATION SOURCES 57
AUTHOR CREDENTIALS 57
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 58
SUMMARY 58
TABLE 16 MARKET FOR PAINTS AND COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 59
FIGURE 3 MARKET FOR PAINTS AND COATINGS, 2011-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 59
DEFINITION OF THE INDUSTRY 60
INDUSTRY CONCEPTS 60
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY 60
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT 61
LIFE CYCLE COST 61
TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE 62
HISTORY OF PAINTS AND COATINGS 62
HISTORY OF POWDER COATINGS 64
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS 65
EUROPEAN UNION REGULATIONS 66
REACH 66
U.S. REGULATIONS 67
POLLUTION PREVENTION IN COATING APPLICATION PROCESSES 68
TABLE 17 POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR COATINGS PROCESSES 69

CHAPTER 5 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR OLEOCHEMICAL FATTY ACIDS (REPORT CHM062A) 71

INTRODUCTION 71
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 71
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 72
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 73
SCOPE AND FORMAT 74
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 75
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 76
RELATED BCC RESEARCH EFFORTS 76
SUMMARY 77
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS THROUGH 2017 ($
MILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, 2008-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 80
REPORT HIGHLIGHTS 81
OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY 82
CHANGES IN THE OLEOCHEMICAL WORLD 83
RECENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN BRIEF 84
WHAT ARE OLEOCHEMICALS? 86
TABLE 19 AN OVERVIEW OF OLEOCHEMICALS 87
FIGURE 5 BASIC OVERVIEW OF THE OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 87
NATURAL FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN 87
FIGURE 6 SATURATED FATTY ACID 88
FIGURE 7 UNSATURATED FATTY ACID 89
TABLE 20 NATURAL SATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH,
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 89
TABLE 21 NATURAL UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH,
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 90
Tall Oil Fatty Acids (TOFA) 90
Castor Oil 91
Branched Fatty Acids 91
Glycerin€ 92
FIGURE 8 GLYCERIN MOLECULE 92
Biodiesel and Glycerin 93
Synthetic Glycerin and the Glycerin Market 93
FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES 94
FATTY ALCOHOLS 94
SOAPS 95
DIMERS 96
ESTERS 96
FIGURE 9 ESTER MOLECULE: THE "R" IS THE VARIABLE, COMMONLY AN ACID "REST"
GROUP 96
Esterification/Transesterification Process 97
AMIDES 98
FIGURE 10 ETHANAMIDE, AN EXAMPLE OF AN AMIDE MOLECULE 98
AMINES 98
FIGURE 11 AMINES 98
SULFONATES 99
FIGURE 12 SULFONATE 99
FUNCTIONALITY AND BUILDING BLOCKS 100
NONIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM METHYL ESTERS 101
BUILDING BLOCKS FOR POLYMERS 101
RAW MATERIALS 101
GLOBAL PRODUCTION OILS AND FATS 101
TABLE 22 WORLD PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS BY SOURCE, THROUGH 2017
(MILLION METRIC TONS) 102
FIGURE 13 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION OF FATS AND OILS BY SOURCE, 2017
(%) 103
FIGURE 14 ESTIMATED VEGETABLE/ANIMAL FATS AND OILS, 2010 AND 2017 (%) 103
CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS IN OLEOCHEMICALS 105
FIGURE 15 ESTIMATED PERCENTAGE OF USAGE OF OILS AND FATS, 2000 AND
2012 (%) 106
PRODUCTION OILS AND FATS, REGIONAL DIFFERENCES AND DEMAND 107
TABLE 23 WORLD PRODUCTION OILS AND FATS BY REGION, THROUGH 2017
(MILLION METRIC TONS) 108
CHOICE OF RAW MATERIALS 108
FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERIN 109
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS NATURAL OILS AND FATS 110
Nomenclature 110
Composition, Saturated vs. Unsaturated, MUFA vs. PUFA 110
Properties 112
TABLE 24 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL OILS AND FATS 112
COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL FATTY ACIDS AND
GLYCERIN 113
Properties 114
SATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF COMMON NAMES 115
Arachidic Acid (C20) 115
Behenic Acid (C22) 115
Capric Acid (C10) 115
Caproic Acid (C6) 116
Caprylic Acid (C8) 116
Lauric Acid (C12) 116
Myristic Acid (C14) 117
Palmitic Acid (C16) 117
Stearic Acid (C18) 117
TABLE 25 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS 118
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER OF COMMON
NAMES 118
Erucic Acid (C22:1) 119
Gadoleic Acid (C20:1) 119
Linoleic Acid (C18:2) 119
Linolenic Acid (C18:3) 120
Myristoleic Acid (C14:1) 120
Oleic Acid (C18:1) 121
Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1) 121
Ricinoleic Acid (C18:1OH) 121
TABLE 26 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 122
PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN AND TOFA 122
Glycerin 122
TABLE 27 PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN 124
Tall Oil Fatty Acids (TOFA) 124
TABLE 28 EXAMPLE OF PROPERTIES TOFA 125
END USES, APPLICATIONS 125
THE MANUFACTURING LANDSCAPE 125
Hydrolysis or Splitting 126
FIGURE 16 SPLITTING COLUMN 126
Segregation/Separation 127
Distillation of Fatty Acids 127
Hydrogenation (Hardening) 128
Partial Hydrogenation 128
GLYCERIN PURIFICATION 128
MANUFACTURERS OF PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 129
Which Technology to Use 129
FATTY ACID MANUFACTURERS AND THE INDUSTRY 131
A Changing Manufacturer's Landscape 131
Mergers and Acquisitions, Strategic Changes 132
TABLE 29 SELECTION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WITH AN IMPACT IN THE
FATTY ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES INDUSTRY 135
TABLE 30 CAPACITY CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS 138
LEGISLATION 142
TRENDS AND IMPACTS 143
REGIONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DEVELOPMENTS 143
RENEWABLES-GREEN CHEMISTRY-SUSTAINABILITY 145
FIGURE 17 RSPO ENTRY PAGE FOR PLAYERS IN THE PALM OIL PRODUCTION
SUPPLY CHAIN 147

CHAPTER 6 SEED TREATMENT: TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS (REPORT CHM072A) 151

INTRODUCTION 151
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 151
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 151
SCOPE OF REPORT 152
INTENDED AUDIENCE 152
METHODOLOGY 152
INFORMATION SOURCES 152
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 153
RELATED BCC REPORTS 153
SUMMARY 153
TABLE 31 GLOBAL SEED TREATMENT MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 153
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL SEED TREATMENT MARKET BY REGION, 2012-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 154
OVERVIEW 155
TABLE 32 SEED TREATMENT TYPES: AREA/MODE OF ACTION AND BENEFITS 156
TABLE 33 PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT ON SEED QUALITIES 156
EVOLUTION OF THE SEED TREATMENT MARKET 157
FIGURE 19 EVOLUTION OF SEED TREATMENT MARKET, 1910-2010 157
SEED TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 158
TYPES OF SEED TREATMENT PROCESSES 159
CONTINUOUS SYSTEM 159
BATCH SYSTEM 159
TABLE 34 SEED TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY GUSTAFSON (BAYER CROPSCIENCE) 160
Dust/Powder Treater 160
Slurry Treater 160
On-Farm/Direct Treater 161
SEED TREATMENT APPLICATOR 161
COMMERCIAL SEED TREATMENTS 161
DOWNSTREAM SEED TREATMENTS 162
GROWER-APPLIED SEED TREATMENTS 162
SEED MARKET OVERVIEW 162
TYPES OF SEED 162
Farm-Saved Seed 162
Seed Supplied Commercially 162
TABLE 35 GLOBAL SEED MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 163
CONVENTIONAL SEED 163
GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) SEED 163
STAGES IN COMMERCIAL SEED PRODUCTION 164
FOUNDATION OR BASIC SEED 164
CERTIFIED SEED 164
SEED TREATMENT APPLICATION TECHNIQUES 164
TABLE 36 SEED TREATMENT APPLICATION TECHNIQUES BY CROPS 165



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS, THROUGH
2018 (MILLION LBS) 7
TABLE 2 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROLLING BURNING 11
TABLE 3 FLAME RETARDANTS AND GENERALLY ACCEPTED MECHANISMS OF
CONTROL 14
TABLE 4 ADDITIVES/MODIFIERS FOR CONTROL OF BURNING 15
TABLE 5 REPRESENTATIVE SYNERGISTIC FLAME RETARDANT COMBINATIONS (%) 16
TABLE 6 FLAME RETARDANTS AND PRODUCTS WHERE THEY ARE COMMONLY USED 17
TABLE 7 COMMON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS 18
TABLE 8 OXYGEN INDICES OF SOME COMMON MATERIALS 19
TABLE 9 CONE CALORIMETRY PARAMETERS AND VALUES 19
TABLE 10 UL-94 BURN TEST RATINGS 21
TABLE 11 NFPA GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS 33
TABLE 12 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING FLAME RETARDANT AND
PROTECTIVE STANDARDS 34
TABLE 13 EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS AND NETWORKS RELATED TO FIRES AND
FIRE MANAGEMENT 41
TABLE 14 ITEM FIRST IGNITED IN TYPICAL U.S. RESIDENTIAL FIRES (MARKET/%) 43
TABLE 15 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, THROUGH
2017 ($ BILLIONS) 51
TABLE 16 MARKET FOR PAINTS AND COATINGS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 17 POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR COATINGS PROCESSES 69
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 19 AN OVERVIEW OF OLEOCHEMICALS 87
TABLE 20 NATURAL SATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH,
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 89
TABLE 21 NATURAL UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH,
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGIN 90
TABLE 22 WORLD PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS BY SOURCE, THROUGH 2017
(MILLION METRIC TONS) 102
TABLE 23 WORLD PRODUCTION OILS AND FATS BY REGION, THROUGH 2017
(MILLION METRIC TONS) 108
TABLE 24 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL OILS AND FATS 112
TABLE 25 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS 118
TABLE 26 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS 122
TABLE 27 PROPERTIES OF GLYCERIN 124
TABLE 28 EXAMPLE OF PROPERTIES TOFA 125
TABLE 29 SELECTION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WITH AN IMPACT IN THE
FATTY ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES INDUSTRY 135
TABLE 30 CAPACITY CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS 138
TABLE 31 GLOBAL SEED TREATMENT MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 153
TABLE 32 SEED TREATMENT TYPES: AREA/MODE OF ACTION AND BENEFITS 156
TABLE 33 PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT ON SEED QUALITIES 156
TABLE 34 SEED TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY GUSTAFSON (BAYER CROPSCIENCE) 160
TABLE 35 GLOBAL SEED MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 163
TABLE 36 SEED TREATMENT APPLICATION TECHNIQUES BY CROPS 165



LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS, 2 (MILLION
LBS) 7
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL GAS MARKET BY END-USE SEGMENT, 2011-2017 ($
BILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 3 MARKET FOR PAINTS AND COATINGS, 2011-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 59
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, 2008-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 5 BASIC OVERVIEW OF THE OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 87
FIGURE 6 SATURATED FATTY ACID 88
FIGURE 7 UNSATURATED FATTY ACID 89
FIGURE 8 GLYCERIN MOLECULE 92
FIGURE 9 ESTER MOLECULE: THE "R" IS THE VARIABLE, COMMONLY AN ACID "REST"
GROUP 96
FIGURE 10 ETHANAMIDE, AN EXAMPLE OF AN AMIDE MOLECULE 98
FIGURE 11 AMINES 98
FIGURE 12 SULFONATE 99
FIGURE 13 ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION OF FATS AND OILS BY SOURCE, 2017
(%) 103
FIGURE 14 ESTIMATED VEGETABLE/ANIMAL FATS AND OILS, 2010 AND 2017 (%) 103
FIGURE 15 ESTIMATED PERCENTAGE OF USAGE OF OILS AND FATS, 2000 AND 2012
(%) 106
FIGURE 16 SPLITTING COLUMN 126
FIGURE 17 RSPO ENTRY PAGE FOR PLAYERS IN THE PALM OIL PRODUCTION SUPPLY
CHAIN 147
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL SEED TREATMENT MARKET BY REGION, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 154
FIGURE 19 EVOLUTION OF SEED TREATMENT MARKET, 1910-2010 157

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