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This BCC Research study identifies the opportunities and technological requirements of the PEMFC and the MEA and the bipolar plates for the PEMFC. Includes forecasts through 2020.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global market for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) reached $340 million and $460 million in 2010 and 2014, respectively. This market is expected to reach $534 million by 2015 and $1.9 billion by 2020, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 29.4% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:

- An overview of the global market for materials for proton exchange membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells.
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2010 and 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
- Examination of bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs); this includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink/electrode, the membrane itself, and the bipolar plate.
- Discussion covering the history and advancing technology of these components, the companies involved in these developments, the current and projected incentives, and the projected markets for such technologies.
- Presentations of consensus, optimistic, and pessimistic scenarios.
- Patent analysis as well as discussion covering power sources and vehicle components, emphasizing intellectual property issues.
- Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the field.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The fuel cell industry in various forms has been developing for decades. There are notable examples of fuel cell successes. The PEMFC is emerging as a winner in many of the primary categories that fuel cells can satisfy. Existing membranes and assemblies still have room for improvement. PEMFC development and commercialization is an ever-changing process. This BCC Research analysis examines the market and technology for the materials and technology of proton exchange membranes and electrode assemblies and for bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink or electrode, the membrane itself and the bipolar plate. Ancillary stack assembly materials such as bolts, gaskets, tie-outs, and final assembly and packaging costs are excluded.
This report details the actuals for 2010 and 2014, forecasts for 2015, and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) projections for 2020. When appropriate, consensus, optimistic and pessimistic scenarios are presented. A patent analysis and discussion of power sources and vehicle components describes where research is performed and emphasizes intellectual property issues. An extensive set of company profiles is provided.

Table Of Contents

Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2010-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW 10
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 10
TABLE 1 FUEL CELL COMPARISON 10
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS 12
FIGURE 1 GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS 14
FUEL AND FUEL REFORMING FUNDAMENTALS 14
Improved Hydrogen Separation 15
Filtering Hydrogen and Oxygen 15
THE DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL VARIATION 17
FIGURE 2 DMFC CHEMISTRY 17
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL COMPANIES 18
TABLE 2 PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS 18
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 19
MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION 20
Portable Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 22
TABLE 3 TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS 22
TABLE 4 IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS 23
TABLE 5 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 24
TABLE 6 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 24
Stationary Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 24
Uninterruptible Power Supplies 25
Combined Heat and Power 25
Utility Load Leveling 25
Stationary Market Drivers 27
TABLE 7 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 27
TABLE 8 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 27
Transportation Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 28
TABLE 9 TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 28
TABLE 10 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC PEMFC VEHICLE SCENARIOS 29
"Other"Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 30
Portable Military Products 31
TABLE 11 SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES 31
Recreational Vehicles 31
Anti-Idling Power 32
Other Market Drivers 32
TABLE 12 OTHER PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 32
TABLE 13 OTHER PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 33
GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET FORECASTS 33
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 33
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
FIGURE 4 TOTAL GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
Optimistic and Pessimistic Scenarios 34
Pessimistic Scenarios: 35
Optimistic Scenarios: 35
TABLE 15 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET RECESSION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 36
TABLE 16 HYDROGEN STATION SAFETY CRISIS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 17 FAILED FUEL CELL VEHICLE SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 18 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY BAN ON AIRCRAFT SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 19 CONSENSUS ON GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 20 TWO OR MORE SIMULTANEOUS WARS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 38
CHAPTER 4 MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES 40
MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNDAMENTALS 40
FIGURE 5 SIMPLE MEA SCHEMATIC 41
MEA OBJECTIVES 42
TABLE 21 FUEL CELL MEA PERFORMANCE GOALS 43
MEA FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY 43
FIGURE 6 MEA CREATION FLOW CHART 44
MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNCTIONAL STACK DESIGNS 45
ELECTROCHEMISTRY 45
WATER MANAGEMENT 45
ANCILLARY FACTORS 46
MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES 47
3M Innovative Properties Co. Approach 47
DuPont Approach 48
GM Approach 49
Hoku Scientific Approach 50
ReliOn (Plug Power)/Avista Approach 50
Gore Approach 50
National Renewable Energy Laboratory MEA Manufacturing Approach 51
Other Approaches 52
CARBON CORROSION AND GRAPHITE 52
Asbury Carbons Approach 53
Northwestern University Approach 57
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) Approach 58
Imerys Synthetic Graphite Approach 58
TABLE 22 IMERYS GRAPHITE PROPERTIES 59
DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL MEA APPROACHES 60
University of North Florida Improved DMFC Approach 60
Gillette Co. Approach 61
Sony Corp. Approach 61
Los Alamos National Laboratory Approach 62
California Institute of Technology Approach 62
University of Connecticut Approach 62
ViaSpace Approach 63
Gore DMFC Approach 64
Cambridge Display Technology Approach 64
Russian Academy of Sciences Approach 65
Ube Industries Ltd. Approach 65
Matsushita Battery Approach 65
Sumitomo Metal Approach 65
Oorja Approach 66
Panasonic Approach 66
TABLE 23 PANASONIC DMFC SPECIFICATIONS 67
University of Dayton Approach 67
Arizona State University Approach 67
Rice University Approach 68
Drexel University Approach 69
GLOBAL MEA COMPONENT FOR PEMFCS MARKET 70
STRUCTURE AND FORECAST 70
Membrane Electrode Assembly Market Structure 70
TABLE 24 ESTIMATED MEA COMPANY MARKET SHARES BY YEAR, THROUGH 2015
(%) 71
Bipolar Plate Market Structure 71
Gas Diffusion Layers and Carbon Market Structure 71
Ink and Catalyst Market Structure 71
Putting It All Together: MEA Market Forecast 72
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MEA MARKET BY COMPONENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 72
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MEA MARKET SHARE BY COMPONENT, 2015 (%) 73
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS 73
MEMBRANE BACKGROUND 73
Types of Membranes 73
Membrane Processes 74
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membranes 74
WHAT MAKES A GOOD PEMFC MEMBRANE? 75
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUNCTIONAL FACTORS 75
TABLE 26 MEMBRANE PARAMETER VARIABLES 77
Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyte Compatibility Factors 77
TABLE 27 PEM ELECTROLYTE ISSUES 77
MEMBRANE TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE FACTORS 78
High-Temperature Tolerance 78
TABLE 28 ADVANTAGES OF A HIGHER TEMPERATURE MEMBRANE FOR A PEMFC 78
Freezing Temperature Tolerance 79
MEMBRANE WATER TOLERANCE FACTORS 79
FIGURE 8 WATER TRANSPORT IN A PEMFC 80
FUEL TOLERANCE FACTORS 81
FUEL CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE 81
MEMBRANE FABRICATION AND SYNTHESIS 82
TABLE 29 APPROACHES TO FUEL CELL IONOMER SYNTHESIS 82
TABLE 30 MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES 83
COMMON MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES 83
Phase Separation 83
Expanded Film 84
Leaching 84
Interfacial Polymerization 84
Grafting 84
CASTING SOLVENT 85
Ethylene Glycol as Solvent 85
IMPACT OF MEMBRANE THICKNESS 85
MEMBRANE FUNCTIONALIZATION 86
Membrane Pretreatment 86
MEMBRANE MATERIAL COMPOSITIONS 86
PEM MEMBRANES 88
Perfluorocarbonsulfonic Acid Ionomers 88
Nafion PFSA Membranes 89
TABLE 31 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF NAFION PFSA MEMBRANES 90
Gore Select Membranes 91
TABLE 32 CONDUCTANCE COMPARISONS 91
Aciplex Membranes 91
Asahi Glass Flemion Membranes 92
Polytetrafluoroethylene Membrane Durability Enhancement 92
Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and UC Berkeley's
Department of Chemical Engineering Polymer Membrane 93
University of Rochester Thin Filter and SiMPore Membranes 93
FIGURE 9 SIMPORE MEMBRANES 94
PolyFuel Hydrocarbon Membranes 95
MIT and the University of Pennsylvania Nanocomposite Membrane
Barriers 96
Toray Industries Hydrocarbon Membranes 97
Akron Polymer Systems Membranes 97
Heraeus-Daychem Approach 97
JSR Multilayered Structure 98
Ballard Power Systems BAM Membranes 98
Dais Analytic Corp. Modified Polystyrene Sulfonated Membranes and
Styrene/Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene Triblock Polymer Membranes 98
Victrex Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) Membranes 100
Hoku Scientific SEK Membranes 100
Shimizu and University of Calgary Membranes 101
Tosoh's Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone) Membranes 101
Virginia Polytechnic Institute Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether) Sulfone
Membrane 101
TABLE 33 VIRGINIA TECH BPS MEMBRANE PROPERTIES COMPARED WITH NAFION
117 102
Argonne National Lab Dendritic Sulfonated Polyaryl Ether Membranes 103
Tianjin University Chemical Engineering Polystyrene Sulfonic
Acid/Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Membranes 104
Gas Technology Institute Membranes 104
3M Sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutane Membranes 104
Motorola Heterocyclic and Polybenimidizole Membranes 104
University of Texas and Other Variations of PBI Membranes 105
Plug Power and DOE and PBI Membranes 105
Rensselaer's Chain-Transfer (RAFT) Polymerized Membranes 105
Samsung Polyimide Derivative 106
Other Modifications of PBI 106
CEA Sulfonated Polyimide Membranes 107
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Tailored Imide Membranes 107
Poly(Bisbenzoxazole) [PBO] Membranes 107
University of Massachusetts Co-Polymer Membranes 108
Aciplex and Titanias Composite Membranes 108
Various Inorganic-Organic Composite Membranes 109
Glen Research Center Modified Siloxane (ORMOSIL) Membranes 109
Illinois Institute of Technology Organic/Heteropolyacids and Nafion
Membranes 110
Honda Aniline and Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer Membranes 110
Johnson Matthey Randomly Arranged Fibers and Perfluorinated
Membranes 111
McMaster University Ionic Gel Fill Membranes 111
Zirconium Phosphonate Fill 112
National Science Foundation Oxidation Resistant Carbon Support
Membranes 112
Altergy Freedom Power 112
NOVEL AND EXPERIMENTAL PEM MATERIALS 113
Georgia Tech Triazole Booster 113
Dow XUS 13204.1 114
3M Acid Functional Fluoropolymers Membrane 114
Glass Membranes 115
Microcell Microfiber 115
Oak Ridge National Lab Metallized Bio-Cellulosics 116
University of Florida Intermediate-Temperature Proton-Conducting
Membranes 116
MEMBRANE COMPANIES 117
TABLE 34 COMPANIES PRODUCING ION SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS 117
TABLE 35 ESTIMATED PEMFC FLUOROPOLYMER MEMBRANE COMPANY MARKET
SHARE, 2015 (%) 118
ASAHI GLASS CO. LTD. 119
ASAHI KASEI CHEMICALS CORP. 120
AXANE 120
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 121
BASF CORP. 123
CAMBRIDGE DISPLAY (MAXDEM INC.) 124
DAIS ANALYTIC CORP. 124
DUPONT FUEL CELLS 125
GOLDEN ENERGY FUEL CELL CO. LTD. 126
GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 127
HOKU SCIENTIFIC INC. 128
HYDROGENICS CORP. 128
INFINTIUM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS 130
ITM POWER 131
JSR CORP. 131
TORAY INDUSTRIES INC. 132
OTHERS 133
GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET STRUCTURE AND FORECAST 134
PEM MEMBRANE MATERIALS MARKET SHARE 134
TABLE 36 GLOBAL PEM MATERIALS MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (%) 134
PEM MEMBRANE MATERIALS VALUE 134
TABLE 37 GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE,
2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR
PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2015 (%) 135
TABLE 38 GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 136
CHAPTER 5 MEA, GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS AND BIPOLAR PLATES 138
GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS 138
GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYER BACKGROUND 138
ATTRIBUTES OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS 139
TABLE 39 ATTRIBUTES NEEDED FOR GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MATERIALS 139
GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MANUFACTURING 140
TABLE 40 PROS AND CONS OF GDL MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES 140
GrafTech International Approach 141
Umicore Group Approach 142
Lydall Inc. Approach 143
TABLE 41 TYPICAL SOLUPOR PROPERTIES 144
Mitsubishi Rayon Approach 145
SGL Carbon Group Approach 145
TABLE 42 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGRACET GAS DIFFUSION LAYER 146
Toray/Mitsui Approach 146
University of Maine Approach 146
Trenergi Approach 147
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Approach 148
Zoltek Approach 148
Cabot and IRD Fuel Cell Approach 149
Other Approaches 149
BIPOLAR PLATES 149
BIPOLAR PLATE BACKGROUND 149
BIPOLAR PLATE DESIGNS 150
TABLE 43 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIPOLAR PLATES 150
TABLE 44 MATERIAL TYPES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES 151
Corrosion Protection of Metallic Plates 151
Ballard Powers' Bipolar Metal Plate 152
Surface Modification 152
Tech-Etch Metal Plates 152
Entegris Approach 153
DuPont T8 Series 154
IdaTech Layered Bipolar Plate Assembly 154
Celanese Ticona Thermoplastic 155
Intelligent Energy's Proprietary Design 156
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Battery Material and
Component Simulations 156
Nisshinbo Approach 157
Illinois Urbana-Champaign Fuel Cell Separator Plate with Controlled
Fiber Orientation 158
Plug Power Assembly 158
Porvair Approach 159
SGL Group Approach 159
TABLE 45 SGL BIPOLAR PLATE TYPICAL PROPERTIES 159
Bac2 ElectroPhen 160
George Marchetti Improved Gasket Approach 160
Federal-Mogul's Liquid Elastomer Molding 161
AEG Carbon Fiber-Elastomer Composite Bipolar Plates 162
myFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell FuelCellSticker 162
DMFC ANODE APPROACHES 163
Toshiba Approach 163
DuPont GEN IV Approach 163
Medis Conductive Polymer Approach 164
PolyFuel Approach 164
Smart Fuel Cell Approach 165
MEA, GDL AND BIPOLAR PLATE COMPANIES 165
10X MICROSTRUCTURES 165
3M 166
ACAL ENERGY LTD 166
ASBURY CARBONS 168
TABLE 46 NATURAL GRAPHITE TYPICAL VALUES 169
TABLE 47 S.E.F.G. (SURFACED ENHANCED FLAKE GRAPHITE) TYPICAL VALUES 169
TABLE 48 HIGH PURITY ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES 169
TABLE 49 STANDARD ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES 170
TABLE 50 CARBON FIBERS TYPICAL VALUES 170
AUTOMOTIVE FUEL CELL COOPERATION CORP. 170
AVCARB 171
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 171
DAIMLER 173
DUPONT FUEL CELL 175
ELECTROCHEM INC. (FUELCELL.COM) 175
TABLE 51 ELECTROCHEM RESEARCH PROJECTS 176
ENTEGRIS INC. 177
FUELCELLSETC 178
GENERAL MOTORS CORP. 179
GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 180
GRAFTECH INTERNATIONAL LTD. 181
HYDROGENICS CORP. 183
HONDA 183
Honda U.S. Headquarters 183
HORIZON FUEL CELLS 185
IMERYS GRAPHITE and CARBON 187
METRO MOLD and DESIGN 187
JOHNSON MATTHEY FUEL CELLS RESEARCH 189
Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells (USA) 189
MANHATTAN SCIENTIFICS INC. 190
Research Headquarters 190
MATERIALS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH CORP. 191
MITSUBISHI RAYON CO. LTD. 191
NEDSTACK FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 191
NISSHINBO INDUSTRIES INC. 192
NUVERA FUEL CELLS (NACCO MATERIALS HANDLING GROUP) 193
OORJA PROTONICS INC. 194
PALCAN FUEL CELLS LTD. 195
PAXITECH 196
PLUG POWER 196
PORVAIR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 200
POWERCELL SWEDEN AB (VOLVO) 200
PROTON POWER SYSTEMS 201
PROTONEX TECHNOLOGY CORP. 202
SGL GROUP 203
SGL Technik 203
SHANGHAI SHENLI HIGH TECH CO. LTD. 205
SHARP CORP. 205
SMART FUEL CELL AG (SFC) 205
SPECTRACORP 207
SUMITOMO METAL MINING 207
SUPERIOR GRAPHITE CO. 207
TICONA (CELANESE) 208
TORAY INDUSTRIES INC. (ZOLTEK MATERIALS GROUP) 208
Zoltek Materials Group 209
TOYOTA 209
GLOBAL BIPOLAR PLATES AND GDLS FOR PEMFCS STRUCTURE FORECAST 213
TABLE 52 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 213
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT
TYPE, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 213
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON BY
COMPONENT TYPE, 2015 (%) 213
TABLE 53 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 214
CHAPTER 6 CATALYSTS AND INKS 216
BACKGROUND 216
CATALYST DURABILITY 216
CATALYST PARTICLE SIZE AND CARRIER COMPOSITIONS 216
CATALYST-COATED MEMBRANES 217
DuPont Approach 217
GS Carbon Approach 218
FIGURE 14 PREPARATION OF CARBON AEROGEL SUPPORTED PLATINUM 218
Ramot University Approach 219
LOW CATALYST LOADING APPROACHES 219
Ballard Approach 219
COMBINATORIAL CATALYST TECHNIQUES 220
INNOVATIVE CATALYST MATERIALS AND NANOMATERIALS 220
Platinum Alloys 221
DMFC Anode Durability 221
Nanoparticles 222
Kyoto University Approach 222
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Approach 222
UCLA Approach 222
NIST Nano-Raspberry Approach 222
Los Alamos National Laboratory and Brookhaven National
Laboratory Approach 223
Brown University Approach 224
Brookhaven National Laboratory Approaches 224
University of Central Florida Approach 226
Cornell University Approach 226
Georgia Tech and Xiamen University Approach 227
MIT Approach 228
Nanofibers 229
Nanolevel Platinum/Carbon Electrocatalyst for Cathode 230
Delhi Technological University Graphite/PTFE Based Electrode
Approach 231
University of Wisconsin-Madison Nanoparticle Catalyst 231
University of Houston Lattice-Strained Core-Shell Nanoparticle
Catalyst 232
Acta Base Metal Cathode Catalyst 232
Lawrence Berkeley and Argonne National Laboratories Alloy 233
Nanowires 236
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories Approach 236
University of Rochester Sizing Nanowire Approach 236
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloy
Approach 237
University of Texas at Austin Palladium-Based Alloy Catalysts 238
TIAX LLC Nanostructured Thin-Film Catalysts 239
TABLE 54 PROJECTED COST AT HIGH-VOLUME MANUFACTURING (%) 240
TABLE 55 PERFORMANCE AND COST SUMMARY ($) 241
SDK High-Efficiency Catalysts Platinum Substitute for PEMFCs 242
Washington University in St. Louis and Brookhaven National Labs
Bimetallic Fuel Cell Catalyst 243
Brown University Platinum Nanocubes 244
Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells NECLASS Project 244
Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis Approach 245
University of Rochester Black Metal Approach 245
Canadelectrochim Approach 246
Transition Metal Nanosized Catalysts 246
Texas Tech University Platinum Nanodots 247
CATALYST INK COMPOSITIONS 247
APPLIED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL APPROACH 248
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 248
SW RESEARCH AND GORE APPROACH 248
UTC FUEL CELLS APPROACH 248
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY APPROACH 249
ANGSTRON MATERIALS GRAPHENE-BASED APPROACH 249
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY AND THE MCCORMICK SCHOOL OF
ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE GRAPHENE FILMS APPROACH 250
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS APPROACH 251
CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTROCATALYST POWDERS 251
CABOT APPROACH 251
TOYOTA NANOMETER-SIZED PLATINUM PARTICLE OBSERVATION 252
ASYMTEK JET DISPENSING APPROACH 253
CATALYST AND INK COMPANIES 254
ACTA SPA 254
ALFA AESAR-JOHNSON MATTHEY CO. 255
Johnson Matthey Co. 255
Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells 255
ANGLO PLATINUM 257
AQUARIUS PLATINUM PTY LTD. 258
ASYMTEK (NORDSON) 259
IMPALA PLATINUM HOLDING LTD. (IMPLATS) 260
Impala Platinum Holding (Implats) (U.K.) 260
LONMIN PLATINUM, PLC 261
Lonmin South Africa 261
NORILSK NICKEL 262
OM GROUP INC. (OMG) 263
QUANTUMSPHERE INC. 264
STILLWATER 264
TANAKA PRECIOUS METALS 265
GLOBAL PEMFCS CATALYST AND INK STRUCTURE AND FORECAST 266
PLATINUM MARKETS AND CONSUMPTION 266
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM AND
RESERVES (KG) 269
TABLE 57 U.S. PGM SALIENT STATISTICS, 2008-2014 (KG) 269
CATALYST AND INK VALUE 270
TABLE 58 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 270
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 270
TABLE 59 GLOBAL PEMFC INKS AND CATALYSTS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 271
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 273
INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES 273
FIGURE 16 QUALITY CONTROL FLOW SHEET FOR SELECTING A PROPER MEA 274
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 274
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES 275
U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 275
U.S. Department of Energy 275
History of U.S. and State Fuel Cell Subsidies 277
U.S. DOE Direct PEMFC Funding 279
Topic 1: Alternative Electrode Deposition Processes 279
Topic 2: Novel MEA Manufacturing 280
Topic 3: Rapid MEA Conditioning 280
Topic 4: Process Modeling for Fuel Cell Stacks 280
Topic 5: Process and Device for Cost-Effective Testing of Cell
Stacks 281
OTHER U.S. FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 281
Office of Science 281
Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association 282
National Science Foundation 282
Department of Defense 283
State Incentives 283
NEESC Pilot Program to Assist Hydrogen-Fuel Cell and Energy Storage
Entrepreneurs 285
Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-idling 286
GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 286
Canadian Subsidies and Incentives 286
TABLE 60 RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF HYDROGEN SUPPLY/ UTILIZATION
TECHNOLOGY 287
European Subsidies and Incentives 287
Japanese Subsidies and Incentives 288
South Korean Subsidies and Incentives 288
ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS' INVOLVEMENT IN FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT 288
TABLE 61 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEMFCS 289
MEA DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 289
INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES AND PRICES 290
TABLE 62 PGM PRICES BY YEAR, 2008-2014 (DOLLARS PER TR OZ) 291
LIFE-CYCLE COSTS 292
PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS 292
TABLE 63 PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS 293

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 FUEL CELL COMPARISON 10
TABLE 2 PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS 18
TABLE 3 TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS 22
TABLE 4 IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS 23
TABLE 5 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 24
TABLE 6 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 24
TABLE 7 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 27
TABLE 8 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 27
TABLE 9 TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 28
TABLE 10 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC PEMFC VEHICLE SCENARIOS 29
TABLE 11 SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES 31
TABLE 12 OTHER PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 32
TABLE 13 OTHER PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 33
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 33
TABLE 15 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET RECESSION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 36
TABLE 16 HYDROGEN STATION SAFETY CRISIS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 17 FAILED FUEL CELL VEHICLE SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 18 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY BAN ON AIRCRAFT SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 19 CONSENSUS ON GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 20 TWO OR MORE SIMULTANEOUS WARS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 38
TABLE 21 FUEL CELL MEA PERFORMANCE GOALS 43
TABLE 22 IMERYS GRAPHITE PROPERTIES 59
TABLE 23 PANASONIC DMFC SPECIFICATIONS 67
TABLE 24 ESTIMATED MEA COMPANY MARKET SHARES BY YEAR, THROUGH 2015 (%) 71
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MEA MARKET BY COMPONENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 26 MEMBRANE PARAMETER VARIABLES 77
TABLE 27 PEM ELECTROLYTE ISSUES 77
TABLE 28 ADVANTAGES OF A HIGHER TEMPERATURE MEMBRANE FOR A PEMFC 78
TABLE 29 APPROACHES TO FUEL CELL IONOMER SYNTHESIS 82
TABLE 30 MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES 83
TABLE 31 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF NAFION PFSA MEMBRANES 90
TABLE 32 CONDUCTANCE COMPARISONS 91
TABLE 33 VIRGINIA TECH BPS MEMBRANE PROPERTIES COMPARED WITH NAFION
117 102
TABLE 34 COMPANIES PRODUCING ION SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS 117
TABLE 35 ESTIMATED PEMFC FLUOROPOLYMER MEMBRANE COMPANY MARKET
SHARE, 2015 (%) 118
TABLE 36 GLOBAL PEM MATERIALS MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (%) 134
TABLE 37 GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
TABLE 38 GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 136
TABLE 39 ATTRIBUTES NEEDED FOR GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MATERIALS 139
TABLE 40 PROS AND CONS OF GDL MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES 140
TABLE 41 TYPICAL SOLUPOR PROPERTIES 144
TABLE 42 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGRACET GAS DIFFUSION LAYER 146
TABLE 43 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIPOLAR PLATES 150
TABLE 44 MATERIAL TYPES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES 151
TABLE 45 SGL BIPOLAR PLATE TYPICAL PROPERTIES 159
TABLE 46 NATURAL GRAPHITE TYPICAL VALUES 169
TABLE 47 S.E.F.G. (SURFACED ENHANCED FLAKE GRAPHITE) TYPICAL VALUES 169
TABLE 48 HIGH PURITY ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES 169
TABLE 49 STANDARD ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES 170
TABLE 50 CARBON FIBERS TYPICAL VALUES 170
TABLE 51 ELECTROCHEM RESEARCH PROJECTS 176
TABLE 52 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 213
TABLE 53 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 214
TABLE 54 PROJECTED COST AT HIGH-VOLUME MANUFACTURING (%) 240
TABLE 55 PERFORMANCE AND COST SUMMARY ($) 241
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM AND
RESERVES (KG) 269
TABLE 57 U.S. PGM SALIENT STATISTICS, 2008-2014 (KG) 269
TABLE 58 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 270
TABLE 59 GLOBAL PEMFC INKS AND CATALYSTS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 271
TABLE 60 RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF HYDROGEN SUPPLY/ UTILIZATION
TECHNOLOGY 287
TABLE 61 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEMFCS 289
TABLE 62 PGM PRICES BY YEAR, 2008-2014 (DOLLARS PER TR OZ) 291
TABLE 63 PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS 293
FCB035E - Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2010-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS 14
FIGURE 2 DMFC CHEMISTRY 17
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
FIGURE 4 TOTAL GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
FIGURE 5 SIMPLE MEA SCHEMATIC 41
FIGURE 6 MEA CREATION FLOW CHART 44
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MEA MARKET SHARE BY COMPONENT, 2015 (%) 73
FIGURE 8 WATER TRANSPORT IN A PEMFC 80
FIGURE 9 SIMPORE MEMBRANES 94
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE,
2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR
PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2015 (%) 135
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT
TYPE, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 213
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON BY
COMPONENT TYPE, 2015 (%) 213
FIGURE 14 PREPARATION OF CARBON AEROGEL SUPPORTED PLATINUM 218
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, 2010-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 270
FIGURE 16 QUALITY CONTROL FLOW SHEET FOR SELECTING A PROPER MEA 274

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