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This BCC Research report describes the key enabling technologies for the hydrogen economy, the challenges that must be overcome before they can be commercialized, the projected cost to implement them over the near to mid-term (i.e., through 2015) and the resulting market opportunities.

Use this report to:

Identify developments that will influence commercial prospects and demand for hydrogen technologies.
Focus on the business opportunities associated with the development and commercialization of various hydrogen technologies.
Learn about the pressurized hydrogen cylinders used to store and ship hydrogen to users whose requirements are not large enough to justify bulk shipments.

Highlights

Global investments in building the hydrogen economy cost more than $3.4 billion in 2014, and they are expected to approach $4.8 billion in 2015 and $21.8 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 35.5% from 2015 to 2020.
Technologies for converting hydrogen to energy, particularly fuel cells, but also hydrogen internal-combustion engines and turbines in the out years, account for the bulk of the market:
79.2% in 2014, increasing to 84% in 2020.
Hydrogen production technologies are expected to lose market share from 9% in 2014 to 8.4% in 2020.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND

This is an update of 2010 BCC Research report on the global hydrogen economy. Therehave been significant developments since the last report was published, most notably
with respect to the likelihood of large-scale commercialization of fuel cell vehicles during the study period, which has significant applications for the size and structure of
the market for hydrogen technologies.

The transition to a hydrogen economy will require large investments in capital equipment and durable goods at every stage of the hydrogen chain, from production of
hydrogen through its distribution and storage to its conversion of to useful work or energy. These investments are economic challenges to the extent that they require the mobilization of sufficient financial resources, as well as business opportunities for providers of related goods and services.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The overall goal of this report is to comprehensively describe the key enabling technologies for the hydrogen economy, the challenges that must be overcome before
they can be commercialized, the projected cost to implement them over the near to mid-term (i.e., through 2015) and the resulting market opportunities.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The report covers the global market for technologies used in the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen; its conversion to other forms of energy or direct
consumption as a fuel; and miscellaneous other types of hydrogen-related technology, such as hydrogen sensors.

The study format includes:

Executive summary.
Key enabling technologies for the hydrogen economy, as well as their commercial or
developmental status.
Developments that will influence commercial prospects and demand for hydrogen
technologies.
Hydrogen technology market projections through 2015.
Key patents.
Government programs and policies in support of the hydrogen economy.
Technology vendor profiles.

Table Of Contents

Building the Global Hydrogen Economy: Technologies and Opportunities

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL HYDROGEN PLANT AND EQUIPMENT INVESTMENTS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE SHARE TRENDS FOR HYDROGEN PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT,
2014 AND 2020 (% TOTAL INVESTMENTS) 6
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 9
HYDROGEN ECONOMY 9
DEFINITIONS 9
HYDROGEN CHARACTERISTICS 9
GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION 9
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION SHARE, 2014 (%) 10
TABLE 1 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS) 10
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION TRENDS, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS) 10
RATIONALE FOR A HYDROGEN ECONOMY 11
Economic 11
Environmental 12
Energy Security 12
Economic Development 13
Other Socio-Economic Impacts 13
TECHNOLOGIES 13
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 13
HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 14
HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGIES 15
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 15
DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES 15
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 16
MARKET SUMMARY 16
TABLE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 16
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY SHARES, 2014-2020 (%) 17
CHAPTER 4 GOVERNMENT-SUPPORTED HYDROGEN INITIATIVES 19
U.S. 19
FEDERAL INITIATIVES 19
Department of Energy 19
FIGURE 4 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING,
FISCAL YEARS, 2004-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 5 HYDROGEN BUDGET OF U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY, FISCAL YEAR 2014 (% OF
HYDROGEN BUDGET)
20
Other U.S. Government Programs and Initiatives 21
STATE INITIATIVES 21
California 22
New York 23
Other States 24
REGIONAL INITIATIVES 24
Clean Energy States Alliance 24
EUROPEAN UNION 25
EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAMS 25
European Union Framework Program 25
FIGURE 6 EUROPEAN UNION FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN JOINT UNDERTAKING
OPERATION BUDGET, 2008-2013 (MILLION EUROS) 25
FIGURE 7 JOINT UNDERTAKING HYDROGEN INVESTMENTS BY AREA, 2008-2013 (%
OF TOTAL HYDROGEN INVESTMENTS) 26
Carbon Dioxide Emission Restrictions 27
EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES 27
Germany 27
France 28
Italy 29
Denmark 29
JAPAN 30
CHINA 30
INDIA 30
OTHER COUNTRIES 31
AUSTRALIA 31
CANADA 31
ICELAND 32
SOUTH KOREA 33
RUSSIA 33
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PROGRAMS 33
U.S.-E.U. COLLABORATION 33
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY 34
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY HYDROGEN COORDINATION GROUP 35
CHAPTER 5 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 37
SUMMARY 37
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES 37
THERMAL PROCESSES 37
TABLE 3 THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 37
Steam Reforming of Natural Gas 38
Partial Oxidation 39
Autothermal Reforming 39
Coal Gasification 40
FutureGen 41
Carbon Black and Hydrogen Process 41
Biomass Gasification 42
Gasification with Oxygen 43
HydroMax Process 43
Startech Process 43
Pyrolysis 44
National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Eprida Process 44
Reforming of Renewable Liquid Fuels 44
ECD Ovonics 45
HTC Purenergy 45
Innovatek 45
High-Temperature Water Splitting 46
Sulfur-Iodide Cycle 46
ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES 46
TABLE 4 ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN 47
Conventional Electrolysis 47
High-Temperature Electrolysis 47
Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells 48
Energy Sources 48
Nuclear Reactors 48
Solar Concentrators 49
Technological Challenges 49
Other Electrolytic Technologies for Hydrogen Production 50
Hybrid Thermochemical and Electrolytic Processes 50
Hybrid Sulfur Process 50
SRI Process 50
PHOTOLYTIC PROCESSES 50
TABLE 5 PHOTOLYTIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN 50
Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting 51
Photobiological Water Splitting 52
OTHER TYPES OF PROCESS 53
Dark Fermentation 53
PATENT ANALYSIS 54
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 54
FIGURE 8 U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATENTS ISSUED BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
1975-AUGUST 1, 2015 (%) 54
PATENT TRENDS OVER TIME 55
TABLE 6 U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATENTS ISSUED, 2008-AUGUST 1, 2015
(PATENTS) 56
MAJOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS 56
FIGURE 9 MAJOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
ISSUED, 1975-AUGUST 1, 2015 (%) 56
MARKETS 58
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EQUIPMENT USED TO GENERATE HYDROGEN FOR
DIRECT ENERGY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 58
LARGE AND CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PLANTS 58
TABLE 8 PROJECTED EXPENDITURES ON CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROGEN
GENERATORS ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE AND CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN POWER
PLANTS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
60
DECENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 60
External Fuel Cell Reformers 60
TABLE 9 GLOBAL FUEL CELL REFORMER MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 61
Hydrogen Stations 61
CHAPTER 6 HYDROGEN STORAGE 63
SUMMARY 63
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES 63
TABLE 10 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TARGETS FOR ON-BOARD HYDROGEN
STORAGE SYSTEMS, 2020 63
TABLE 11 HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 64
DIRECT STORAGE OF HYDROGEN 64
Gaseous Storage 65
Current Gaseous Hydrogen Storage Technology 65
Geologic Bulk Storage Systems 65
Liquid Storage 65
BMW Dual Fuel Thermo-Tank 66
Future Developments 66
HYDROCARBONS 66
Technologies 66
Onboard Reforming of Hydrocarbons 67
Approaches to Onboard Reforming 67
External Reforming 67
Internal Reforming 67
Advantages and Disadvantages of On-Board Reforming 68
Commercial Status of Onboard Reforming 68
IdaTech 68
Innovatek 69
Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cells 69
Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell Types 69
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 69
Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells 70
Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel
Cells 70
Commercial Status of Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cells 71
AMMONIA STORAGE 71
Ammonia-Borane Storage 71
Ammonia-Sea Salt Storage 72
METAL HYDRIDES 72
General Principles 72
Metal Hydride Types 73
Advantages and Disadvantages for Hydrogen Storage 73
Commercial Status 74
ZEOLITES 74
General Principles 74
Zeolite Types 74
ZK-5 74
CD-Exchanged Rho Zeolite 75
Magnesium-Optimized Zeolites for Hydrogen Storage 75
Other Zeolites 75
OTHER NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS 75
Carbon Nanotubes and Buckyballs 76
Metal-Organic Frameworks 77
OTHER STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 77
Phosphonium Borate 77
Polymers 77
Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity 78
Conformal Polymeric Foams 78
Ethylene 78
Hollow Glass Microspheres 79
PATENT ANALYSIS 79
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 79
FIGURE 10 U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
AUGUST 1, 2015 (% PATENTS ISSUED) 79
PATENT TRENDS OVER TIME 80
TABLE 12 U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS ISSUED PER YEAR, 2008 - AUGUST 1,
2015 (PATENTS) 80
FIGURE 11 ANNUAL U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS ISSUED TRENDS, 2008 -
AUGUST 1, 2015 (PATENTS) 80
MAJOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS 81
FIGURE 12 MAJOR HYDROGEN STORAGE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
ISSUED, 1975 - AUGUST 1, 2015 (%) 81
MARKETS 83
SUMMARY 83
TABLE 13 GLOBAL HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGY* MARKET, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 83
PRESSURIZED STORAGE CYLINDERS 83
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PRESSURIZED CYLINDERS USED TO STORE HYDROGEN MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 84
HYDROGEN FUEL TANKS 84
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYDROGEN FUEL TANKS USED IN MOBILE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020* ($ MILLIONS) 85
CHAPTER 7 BULK HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION 87
SUMMARY 87
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES 87
TANK TRUCKS, RAILCARS AND BARGES 87
TUBE TRAILERS 88
PIPELINES 88
New Hydrogen Pipeline Materials 88
Mixed Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipelines 89
Commingled Hydrogen and Natural Gas 90
Alternating Hydrogen and Natural Gas 90
Other Technical Issues 90
Effect of Hydrogen Exposure on Pipeline Materials 90
Hydrogen Permeation and Leaks 91
Compression Technology 91
Single-Screw Hydrogen Compressor 92
Hydride Based Hydrogen Compressor 92
Advanced Centrifugal Compressor 92
Electrochemical Compressor 92
Advanced Materials for Compressors 92
Alternatives to Transmission of Gaseous Hydrogen 93
HYDROGEN STATIONS 93
Hydrogen Filling Stations 93
Mobile Hydrogen Refuelers 94
Hydrogen Home Stations 94
PATENT ANALYSIS 94
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 95
FIGURE 13 U.S. HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY
PATENTS ISSUED, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%) 95
PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE 95
FIGURE 14 U.S. HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY
PATENTS ISSUED BY ASSIGNEE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%) 95
MARKETS 96
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY
MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TRANSMISSION 97
FIGURE 15 HYDROGEN FUEL SOURCES FOR EXISTING AND PLANNED HYDROGEN
FILLING STATIONS, 2014 (PERCENTAGE OF EXISTING AND CURRENTLY PLANNED
HYDROGEN STATIONS)
97
Liquid Hydrogen Tankers 98
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUID HYDROGEN TANKER TRUCK MARKET, THROUGH 2020
(UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 99
Tube Trailers 99
TABLE 18 GLOBAL COMPRESSED HYDROGEN TUBE TRAILER MARKET, THROUGH
2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 99
Pipelines 100
HYDROGEN STATIONS 100
TABLE 19 GLOBAL HYDROGEN STATION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$
MILLIONS) 100
Hydrogen Filling Stations 100
TABLE 20 GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN NEW HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS,
THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 101
Hydrogen Home Stations 101
TABLE 21 GLOBAL HYDROGEN HOME STATION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$
MILLIONS) 102
CHAPTER 8 ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION 104
SUMMARY 104
PRINCIPAL TECHNOLOGIES 104
FIGURE 16 FUEL CELL PRINCIPLES 104
MAIN TECHNOLOGIES 105
TABLE 22 MAJOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 105
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 105
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 106
Alkaline Fuel Cells 106
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 107
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 108
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 109
PATENT ANALYSIS 109
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 109
FIGURE 17 U.S. FUEL CELL PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST
2015 (%) 109
PATENT TRENDS OVER TIME 110
TABLE 23 U.S. FUEL CELL PATENTS ISSUED PER YEAR, 2008-2015 (NUMBER OF
PATENTS) 111
FIGURE 18 ANNUAL U.S. FUEL CELL ISSUED PATENT TRENDS, 2008-2015 (NUMBER
OF PATENTS) 111
MAJOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS 111
FIGURE 19 MAJOR FUEL CELL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS ISSUED,
THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (PERCENTAGE OF U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS) 111
MARKETS 113
TABLE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY APPLICATION TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALE TRENDS BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2014-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2014-2020
(% TOTAL SALES) 114
CHAPTER 9 DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION 116
SUMMARY 116
TECHNOLOGIES 116
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 116
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines 116
BMW Dual-Fuel Technology 116
Ford and Mazda Technology 117
Hybrid Hydrogen-Electric Propulsion Systems 117
Hydrogen-Boosted Gasoline Engines 118
TURBINES 119
PATENTS 119
MARKETS 120
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 120
HYDROGEN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 120
HYDROGEN TURBINES 120
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE HYDROGEN TURBINES USED TO GENERATE
ELECTRICITY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 121
CHAPTER 10 OTHER HYDROGEN-RELATED TECHNOLOGIES 123
HYDROGEN SENSORS 123
TECHNOLOGIES 123
MEMS Hydrogen Sensors 123
Hydrogen Nanosensors 124
Nanoscale Palladium Thin-Film Sensors 124
Carbon Nanotube-Based Hydrogen Sensors 125
Titania Nanotube-Based Hydrogen Sensors 125
Nanowire-Based Hydrogen Sensors 125
PATENTS 126
FIGURE 22 U.S. HYDROGEN SENSOR PATENT HOLDERS, DECEMBER 2009 -
AUGUST 2015 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 126
MARKETS 127
TABLE 27 GLOBAL HYDROGEN SENSOR MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127
CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES 129
ACTA SPA 129
ADVANCED MATERIALS CORP. 129
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC. 129
ALCHEMIX CORP 130
AMMINEX A/S 130
AVALENCE LLC 131
BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 131
BAYERISCHE MOTOREN WERKE AG 131
CERAMATEC 132
DIVERSIFIED ENERGY CORP 132
DUPONT 133
EPRIDA TECHNOLOGIES 133
ERGENICS 134
ETUDES CHEMIQUES ET PHYSIQUES SARL 134
FOSTER WHEELER CORP. 134
FUEL CELL ENERGY INC. 135
GENERAL ATOMICS 135
H2GEN INNOVATIONS INC. 135
H2SCAN 136
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S 136
HCE LLC 136
HTC PURENERGY 137
HY9 CORP. 138
HYDROGENICS CORP. 138
INERGY AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS 139
INNOVATEK INC. 139
LINDE AG 139
LUXFER GROUP LTD. 140
MAGNA STEYR AG and CO. KG 140
MAKEL ENGINEERING INC. 141
MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS RESEARCH INC. 141
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH INC. 142
MERITOR INC. 142
MO-SCI CORP. 142
NANOMIX INC. 143
PLUG POWER LLC 143
PROTON ONSITE 143
QUANTUM FUEL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE INC. 144
SECAT INC. 144
SOTACARBO S.P.A. 144
TECHNIP SA 144
UHDE GMBH 145
WELDSHIP CORP. 145
XEBEC INC. 145
ZTEK COR 146

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL HYDROGEN PLANT AND EQUIPMENT INVESTMENTS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 6
TABLE 1 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS) 10
TABLE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 16
TABLE 3 THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 37
TABLE 4 ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN 47
TABLE 5 PHOTOLYTIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN 50
TABLE 6 U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATENTS ISSUED, 2008-AUGUST 1, 2015
(PATENTS) 56
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EQUIPMENT USED TO GENERATE HYDROGEN FOR
DIRECT ENERGY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 58
TABLE 8 PROJECTED EXPENDITURES ON CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROGEN
GENERATORS ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE AND CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN POWER
PLANTS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 9 GLOBAL FUEL CELL REFORMER MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 10 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TARGETS FOR ON-BOARD HYDROGEN
STORAGE SYSTEMS, 2020 63
TABLE 11 HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 64
TABLE 12 U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS ISSUED PER YEAR, 2008 - AUGUST 1,
2015 (PATENTS) 80
TABLE 13 GLOBAL HYDROGEN STORAGE TECHNOLOGY* MARKET, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PRESSURIZED CYLINDERS USED TO STORE HYDROGEN MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HYDROGEN FUEL TANKS USED IN MOBILE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2020* ($ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 16 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY
MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 17 GLOBAL LIQUID HYDROGEN TANKER TRUCK MARKET, THROUGH 2020
(UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 18 GLOBAL COMPRESSED HYDROGEN TUBE TRAILER MARKET, THROUGH
2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 19 GLOBAL HYDROGEN STATION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$
MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 20 GLOBAL INVESTMENTS IN NEW HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, THROUGH
2020 (UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 21 GLOBAL HYDROGEN HOME STATION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (UNITS/$
MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 22 MAJOR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 105
TABLE 23 U.S. FUEL CELL PATENTS ISSUED PER YEAR, 2008-2015 (NUMBER OF
PATENTS) 111
TABLE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY APPLICATION TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DIRECT HYDROGEN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LARGE HYDROGEN TURBINES USED TO GENERATE
ELECTRICITY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 27 GLOBAL HYDROGEN SENSOR MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE SHARE TRENDS FOR HYDROGEN PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT, 2014
AND 2020 (% TOTAL INVESTMENTS) 6
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION SHARE, 2014 (%) 10
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION TRENDS, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS) 10
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY SHARES, 2014-2020 (%) 17
FIGURE 4 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL FUNDING,
FISCAL YEARS, 2004-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 5 HYDROGEN BUDGET OF U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY, FISCAL YEAR 2014 (% OF
HYDROGEN BUDGET) 20
FIGURE 6 EUROPEAN UNION FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN JOINT UNDERTAKING
OPERATION BUDGET, 2008-2013 (MILLION EUROS) 25
FIGURE 7 JOINT UNDERTAKING HYDROGEN INVESTMENTS BY AREA, 2008-2013 (%
OF TOTAL HYDROGEN INVESTMENTS) 26
FIGURE 8 U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATENTS ISSUED BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
1975-AUGUST 1, 2015 (%) 54
FIGURE 9 MAJOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
ISSUED, 1975-AUGUST 1, 2015 (%) 56
FIGURE 10 U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
AUGUST 1, 2015 (% PATENTS ISSUED) 79
FIGURE 11 ANNUAL U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS ISSUED TRENDS, 2008 -
AUGUST 1, 2015 (PATENTS) 80
FIGURE 12 MAJOR HYDROGEN STORAGE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS
ISSUED, 1975 - AUGUST 1, 2015 (%) 81
FIGURE 13 U.S. HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY
PATENTS ISSUED, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%) 95
FIGURE 14 U.S. HYDROGEN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNOLOGY
PATENTS ISSUED BY ASSIGNEE, THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (%) 95
FIGURE 15 HYDROGEN FUEL SOURCES FOR EXISTING AND PLANNED HYDROGEN
FILLING STATIONS, 2014 (PERCENTAGE OF EXISTING AND CURRENTLY PLANNED
HYDROGEN STATIONS) 97
FIGURE 16 FUEL CELL PRINCIPLES 104
FIGURE 17 U.S. FUEL CELL PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH AUGUST
2015 (%) 109
FIGURE 18 ANNUAL U.S. FUEL CELL ISSUED PATENT TRENDS, 2008-2015 (NUMBER
OF PATENTS) 111
FIGURE 19 MAJOR FUEL CELL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS ISSUED,
THROUGH AUGUST 2015 (PERCENTAGE OF U.S. HYDROGEN STORAGE PATENTS) 111
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALE TRENDS BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2014-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2014-2020
(% TOTAL SALES) 114
FIGURE 22 U.S. HYDROGEN SENSOR PATENT HOLDERS, DECEMBER 2009 - AUGUST
2015 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 126

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