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Thermal and Biological Waste-to-Energy Markets

  • January 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 166 pages

This BCC Research report analyzes the market for technologies and regions, and focuses on regulations and industry structure affecting the market. Includes forecast from 2014 to 2019.

Use this report to:

Learn about the regulations and industry structure affecting the global waste-to-energy market.
Receive information about the opportunities in this market with respect to geography and technologies.
Gain insight in to the concepts and details behind waste-to-energy technologies.

Highlights

The global waste-to-energy market was $25.3 billion in 2013 and $26.7 billion in 2014. This market will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.8% for the period 2014 -2019 to reach $35.5 billion by 2019.
Thermal technology reached $25.4 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $30.2 billion in 2019, growing at a CAGR of 5.2% for the period 2014-2019.
Biological technology reached $2.3 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $3.9 billion in 2019, growing at a CAGR of 10.9% for the period 2014-2019.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report discusses the global thermal and biological waste-to-energy markets in terms of growth, size and opportunities. The report analyzes the market for technologies and regions, and focuses on regulations and industry structure affecting the market.

The report also dedicates significant attention toward the market trends, issues and factors impacting the global thermal and biological waste-to-energy market. It also explains the opportunities with respect to geography and technologies. Lastly, the report profiles the major players and analyzes their core competencies and strategies.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The increasing demand for energy and the depletion of natural sources for energy are encouraging research on alternative sources of energy. Global concern over pollution from non-renewable sources of energy has also increased focus on the waste-to-energy market, as its environmental footprint is much smaller than those that other types of energy create. Governments are taking initiative in terms of funding and research to encourage the production of energy from waste. The waste-to-energy market defined in this report covers only thermal and biological waste, excluding other wastes. We expect that in the next five years the market will have underwent significant growth, as the participation of developing countries will increase because their governments have
become more conscious of environment pollution and the need to find alternate sources of energy.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The report will analyze the global thermal and biological waste-to-energy markets by technology and geography, and will focus on the regulations and government-supported programs impacting this market. Regionally, the focus of study will be the markets of North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the rest of the world (ROW).

Table Of Contents

Thermal and Biological Waste-to-Energy Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 3
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
OVERVIEW 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY,
2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
INTRODUCTION 10
WASTE-TO-ENERGY: THE CONCEPT 11
FIGURE 1 BASIC WTE PATHWAYS 11
MAJOR DRIVERS FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET 12
WASTE-TO-ENERGY BENEFITS 13
TABLE 1 KEY BENEFITS OF WTE PROCESSES 13
CHALLENGES OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY 13
TABLE 2 KEY CHALLENGES TO WTE MARKETS 14
NEGATIVE PUBLIC PERCEPTION 14
OPPOSITION FROM ENVIRONMENT GROUPS 14
LACK OF POLITICAL WILL 15
STRINGENT ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES 15
SOURCES OF ENERGY 15
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY TYPE, 2013 (%) 15
NEED FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY STRATEGIES 16
MARKET DYNAMICS 17
MARKET DRIVERS 18
Increasing Need for Energy Security 18
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY BY SOURCE,
2012-2019 (GW) 19
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL GDP ACTUAL AND PROJECTED GROWTH RATE AND TRENDS BY
ECONOMY, 2010-2025 (%) 20
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY REGION, 2015-2035 (MTOE) 21
Increasing Available Volume of Global Municipal Waste for WTE 22
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL AVAILABLE MUNICIPAL WASTE FOR WTE, 2009-2016 (MILLION
TONS) 22
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL SHARES OF MSW VOLUME GENERATION BY REGION, 2012 (%) 23
Decreasing Land Filling Space 23
FIGURE 8 LANDFILLING TREND IN EUROPE: MSW GENERATED VS. MSW
LANDFILLED, 2013-2016 (MILLION TONS) 24
CHALLENGES OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY 25
Threat from Other Competing Technologies 25
TABLE 3 COMPETING RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES 25
Technological and Economical Hurdles 25
OPPORTUNITIES 26
Emergence of Asia-Pacific as a Major Hub for WTE 26
MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 28
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANY MARKET SHARE, 2013 (%) 28
CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: CURRENT PRACTICES AND REGULATORY
ENVIRONMENT 30
UNITED STATES 30
LANDFILLS 30
INCINERATORS 31
GUIDE FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT 32
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 32
TABLE 4 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE U.S. 32
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability
Act (CERCLA)/(Superfund) 33
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 34
National Environmental Policy Act 34
Medical Waste Tracking Act 34
Electronic Waste Recycling Act 34
EUROPE 35
CURRENT PRACTICES 35
Waste Prevention 35
Recycling and Reuse 35
Improving Final Disposal and Monitoring 36
WASTE LEGISLATION AND POLICIES 36
TABLE 5 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE 36
FIGURE 10 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE 38
Waste Framework Directives (75/442/EEC and 91/689/EEC) 38
Hazardous Waste Directive (91/689/EEC) 38
Directives on Waste Incineration related Air Pollution (89/369/EEC
and 89/429/EEC) 39
Hazardous Waste Incineration Directive (94/67/EEC) 39
Regulation on Waste Shipments (259/93/EEC) 39
Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) 39
Waste Incineration Directive (2000/76/EC) 40
Directive on Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources
(2001/77/EC) 40
Regulation on Persistent Organic Pollutants (850/2004/EC) 40
Framework for Waste Handling (2006/12/EC) 40
Codified Version of IPPC Directive (2008/1/EC) 41
ROLE OF BIOGAS FEED-IN TARIFFS AND RELATED POLICIES IN EUROPE 41
TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVE POLICIES ADOPTED BY VARIOUS
EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 42
WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN EUROPE 44
ASIA 44
CURRENT PRACTICES 44
Recycling/Recovery 45
Composting 45
Incineration 45
Landfilling 45
WASTE LEGISLATION AND POLICIES 46
TABLE 7 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ASEAN
COUNTRIES 46
INDIA 48
Current Practices 48
Waste Legislation and Policies 49
TABLE 8 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 49
Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules 50
Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) and Handling Rules 50
CHINA 51
Current Practices 51
TABLE 9 PROJECTED MUNICIPAL WASTE GENERATION FOR URBAN POPULATION IN
CHINA, 2000-2030 51
Landfills 52
Waste Dumps 52
Waste Incineration 52
Biogas Production from Waste 53
Waste Legislation and Policies 53
TABLE 10 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHINA 53
JAPAN 55
Current Practices 56
Waste Legislation and Policies 56
TABLE 11 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN 57
AUSTRALIA 58
Current Practices 58
TABLE 12 ESTIMATED RATIOS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WASTE IN MSW, AUSTRALIA
(%) 58
FIGURE 11 SOUTH AUSTRALIA WASTE TO RESOURCES HIERARCHY LEVEL 58
New South Wales (NSW) 59
South Australia 59
Victoria 59
Queensland 60
Western Australia 60
Australian Capital Territory 60
Tasmania 60
Northern Territory 60
Waste Legislation and Policies 61
TABLE 13 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
AUSTRALIA 61
SOUTH KOREA 63
CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS OF WTE TECHNOLOGIES 66
INTRODUCTION 66
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 VS.
2019 (%) 66
THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 67
TABLE 14 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 67
FIGURE 13 TYPES OF THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 68
TABLE 15 GLOBAL THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 16 KEY CONVENTIONAL WTE SUPPLIERS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY 71
TABLE 17 KEY ALTERNATIVE THERMAL WTE TECHNOLOGY PROVIDERS WITH
NUMBER OF PLANTS, THROUGHPUT AND TECHNOLOGY CONFIGURATION 72
TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES WITH ALTERNATIVE
WTE TECHNOLOGIES 74
TABLE 19 GLOBAL THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 74
BIOLOGICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 75
TABLE 20 TYPICAL COMPONENTS OF BIOGAS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON BIOGAS
QUALITY 76
TABLE 21 POTENTIAL OF MSW 77
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 77
TABLE 22 COMPARISON OF ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC DEGRADATION PROCESSES 78
FIGURE 14 THE FOUR PHASES OF ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION 78
TABLE 23 DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 79
Configurations Available for Anaerobic Digesters 80
Batch vs. Continuous 80
Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors 80
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket 80
Expanded Granular Sludge Bed 81
Internal Circulation Reactors 81
Mesophilic vs. Thermophilic 81
TABLE 24 COMPARISON OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC
DIGESTION PROCESSES 81
Wet vs. Dry Digestion 82
Single Stage vs. Double Stage 82
TABLE 25 SUMMARY OF THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS
COMMERCIAL AD SYSTEMS 83
BIOGAS TO ENERGY 84
Decontamination of Biogas 84
Liquefaction or Compression of Biogas 85
Liquefaction 85
Compression 85
Conversion of Biogas to Heat and Electric Power: Conventional and
Emerging Technologies 85
TABLE 26 COMPARISON OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS POWER
GENERATORS 86
TABLE 27 VARIOUS FUEL CELL TYPES USED FOR BIOGAS CONVERSION AND THEIR
CURRENT STATUS 86
Feeding Biogas to the Natural Gas Supply 87
BIO-HYDROGEN 88
MECHANICAL BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT 88
TABLE 28 GLOBAL BIOLOGICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 29 METHODS FOR INCREASING BIOGAS YIELDS IN DIGESTERS (%) 90
TABLE 30 GLOBAL BIOLOGICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 91
PHYSICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 91
TABLE 31 GLOBAL PHYSICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 91
GLOBAL PHYSICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET ESTIMATES 92
TABLE 32 GLOBAL PHYSICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 93
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL MARKET DYNAMICS OF WTE INDUSTRY 95
OVERVIEW 95
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2013 VS.
2019 (%) 95
UNITED STATES 96
TABLE 33 U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 34 LIST OF WTE FACILITIES BY STATE 97
FIGURE 16 APPROXIMATE EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASES (TON CO2E/TON
MSW) 100
TABLE 35 U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 100
CANADA 101
TABLE 36 CANADIAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 37 CANADIAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 102
EUROPE 102
TABLE 38 EUROPEAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 102
FIGURE 17 IMPACT BY COUNTRY, 2013 103
WASTE FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE 103
TABLE 39 LEVELS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE 103
FIGURE 18 WASTE GENERATION BY SECTOR IN EU27, 2013 (%) 104
TABLE 40 EUROPEAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 105
ASIA-PACIFIC 105
TABLE 41 ASIA-PACIFIC WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 42 ASIA-PACIFIC WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 107
ROW 108
TABLE 43 ROW WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 44 ROW WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 110
CHAPTER 7 WORLDWIDE INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 112
OVERVIEW 112
ASIA-PACIFIC 112
EUROPE 113
NORTH AMERICA 114
FIGURE 19 DISTRIBUTION OF INVESTMENT IN WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NORTH
AMERICA BY SUBSEGMENT, 2011-2020 (%) 115
FIGURE 20 U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY: COMPANY MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 116
SOUTH AMERICA 117
FIGURE 21 DISTRIBUTION OF NEW INVESTMENT FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
SOUTH AMERICA BY SUBSEGMENT, 2011-2020 (%) 117
REST OF WORLD 118
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 120
AMEC FOSTER WHEELER AG 120
TABLE 45 AMEC FOREST WHEELER'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 120
ANDRITZ AG 121
TABLE 46 ANDRITZ' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 122
TABLE 47 ANDRITZ RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 123
ARROW ECOLOGY 124
TABLE 48 ARROW ECOLOGY'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 124
BABCOCK and WILCOX VOLUND A/S 125
TABLE 49 BABCOCK and WILSON VØLUND'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 125
TABLE 50 BABCOCK and WILSON VØLUND'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN.
2015 126
BIOGAS NORD AG 127
TABLE 51 BIOGAS NORD'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
BIOGEN GREENFINCH 127
TABLE 52 BIOGEN'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
TABLE 53 BIOGEN'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015BIOGEN'S
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 128
BLUEFIRE ETHANOL 129
TABLE 54 BLUEFIRE'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 129
TABLE 55 BLUEFIRE'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 129
BTA INTERNATIONAL GMBH 129
TABLE 56 BTA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 130
CandG ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION HOLDINGS LTD. 130
TABLE 57 C andG'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 130
TABLE 58 C andG'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 131
CHINA EVERBRIGHT INTERNATIONAL LTD. 131
TABLE 59 CHINA EVERBRIGHT'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 132
TABLE 60 CHINA EVERBRIGHT'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 132
CITEC INTERNATIONAL LTD OY 135
TABLE 61 CITEC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 135
TABLE 62 CITEC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 136
CNIM 136
TABLE 63 CNIM'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 137
TABLE 64 CNIM'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 137
COMMUNITY POWER CORP. 137
TABLE 65 CPC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 138
COVANTA ENERGY CORP. 138
TABLE 66 COVANTA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 138
TABLE 67 COVANTA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 2011 TO JAN. 2015 139
EBARA CORP. 139
TABLE 68 EBARA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 140
ECOCORP INC. 140
TABLE 69 ECOCORP'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 140
ENER-G 141
TABLE 70 ENER-G'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 141
TABLE 71 ENER-G'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 141
ENTEC BIOGAS GMBH 142
TABLE 72 ENTEC BIOGAS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 143
TABLE 73 ENTEC BIOGAS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 143
ENTECH RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS 144
TABLE 74 ENTECH'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 144
ENVITEC BIOGAS AG 145
TABLE 75 ENVITEC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 145
TABLE 76 ENVITEC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 145
EVN AG 146
TABLE 77 EVN'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 146
TABLE 78 EVN'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 147
FARMATIC ENGINEERING GMBH 147
TABLE 79 FARMATIC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 147
TABLE 80 FARMATIC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 148
HAASE ENERGIE TECHNIK AG 148
TABLE 81 HASSE ENERGIE'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 149
INTERSTATE WASTE TECHNOLOGIES INC. 149
TABLE 82 IWT'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 150
KEPPEL INTEGRATED ENGINEERING LTD. 150
TABLE 83 KEPPEL SEGHERS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 150
TABLE 84 KEPPEL SEGHERS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 151
KOMPOGAS AXPO AG 152
TABLE 85 KOMPOGAS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 152
MARTIN GMBH 152
TABLE 86 MARTIN'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 153
ORGANIC WASTE SYSTEMS (OWS) 153
TABLE 87 OWS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 153
TABLE 88 OWS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 154
PLASCO ENERGY GROUP 154
TABLE 89 PLASCO'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 154
RAMBOLL 155
TABLE 90 RAMBOLL'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 155
TABLE 91 RAMBOLL'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 156
SCHMACK BIOGAS GMBH 156
TABLE 92 SCHMACK BIOGAS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 157
TABLE 93 SCHMACK BIOGAS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 157
STEINMULLER BABCOCK ENVIRONMENT GMBH 158
TABLE 94 STEINMULLER'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 158
TABLE 95 STEINMULLER'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 158
STRABAG UMWELTANLAGEN GMBH 159
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT 159
TABLE 96 SUEZ' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 159
TABLE 97 SUEZ' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 160
TAKUMA CO. LTD. 160
TABLE 98 TAKUMA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 161
TABLE 99 TAKUMA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 161
TIRU GROUP 161
TABLE 100 TIRU'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 162
TABLE 101 TIRU'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 162
VALORGA INTERNATIONAL SAS. 162
TABLE 102 VALORGA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 163
VEOLIA ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES 163
TABLE 103 VEOLIA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 163
TABLE 104 VEOLIA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 164
WHEELABRATOR TECHNOLOGIES 165
TABLE 105 WHEELABRATOR'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 165
TABLE 106 WHEELABRATOR'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 166
CHAPTER 9 PATENT ANALYSIS 168
LIST OF PATENTS 168
UNITED STATES 168
TABLE 107 U.S. PATENTS, 2011 TO DEC. 2014 168
EUROPE 172
TABLE 108 EUROPE PATENTS, 2011 TO DEC. 2014 172
JAPAN 175
TABLE 109 JAPAN PATENTS, 2011 TO DEC. 2014 175

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 6
TABLE 1 KEY BENEFITS OF WTE PROCESSES 13
TABLE 2 KEY CHALLENGES TO WTE MARKETS 14
TABLE 3 COMPETING RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES 25
TABLE 4 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE U.S. 32
TABLE 5 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE 36
TABLE 6 COMPARISON OF FINANCIAL INCENTIVE POLICIES ADOPTED BY VARIOUS
EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 42
TABLE 7 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ASEAN
COUNTRIES 46
TABLE 8 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 49
TABLE 9 PROJECTED MUNICIPAL WASTE GENERATION FOR URBAN POPULATION IN
CHINA, 2000-2030 51
TABLE 10 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHINA 53
TABLE 11 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN 57
TABLE 12 ESTIMATED RATIOS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WASTE IN MSW, AUSTRALIA
(%) 58
TABLE 13 KEY LEGISLATION AND POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN AUSTRALIA 61
TABLE 14 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 67
TABLE 15 GLOBAL THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 16 KEY CONVENTIONAL WTE SUPPLIERS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY 71
TABLE 17 KEY ALTERNATIVE THERMAL WTE TECHNOLOGY PROVIDERS WITH
NUMBER OF PLANTS, THROUGHPUT AND TECHNOLOGY CONFIGURATION 72
TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES WITH ALTERNATIVE
WTE TECHNOLOGIES 74
TABLE 19 GLOBAL THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 20 TYPICAL COMPONENTS OF BIOGAS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON BIOGAS
QUALITY 76
TABLE 21 POTENTIAL OF MSW 77
TABLE 22 COMPARISON OF ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC DEGRADATION PROCESSES 78
TABLE 23 DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 79
TABLE 24 COMPARISON OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
PROCESSES 81
TABLE 25 SUMMARY OF THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS
COMMERCIAL AD SYSTEMS 83
TABLE 26 COMPARISON OF GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS POWER
GENERATORS 86
TABLE 27 VARIOUS FUEL CELL TYPES USED FOR BIOGAS CONVERSION AND THEIR
CURRENT STATUS 86
TABLE 28 GLOBAL BIOLOGICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 29 METHODS FOR INCREASING BIOGAS YIELDS IN DIGESTERS (%) 90
TABLE 30 GLOBAL BIOLOGICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 91
TABLE 31 GLOBAL PHYSICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 91
TABLE 32 GLOBAL PHYSICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 33 U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 34 LIST OF WTE FACILITIES BY STATE 97
TABLE 35 U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 36 CANADIAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 37 CANADIAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 38 EUROPEAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 39 LEVELS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE 103
TABLE 40 EUROPEAN WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 41 ASIA-PACIFIC WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 42 ASIA-PACIFIC WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 43 ROW WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 44 ROW WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 45 AMEC FOREST WHEELER'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 120
TABLE 46 ANDRITZ' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 122
TABLE 47 ANDRITZ RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 123
TABLE 48 ARROW ECOLOGY'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 124
TABLE 49 BABCOCK and WILSON VØLUND'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 125
TABLE 50 BABCOCK and WILSON VØLUND'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN.
2015 126
TABLE 51 BIOGAS NORD'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
TABLE 52 BIOGEN'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
TABLE 53 BIOGEN'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015BIOGEN'S RECENT
DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 128
TABLE 54 BLUEFIRE'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 129
TABLE 55 BLUEFIRE'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 129
TABLE 56 BTA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 130
TABLE 57 C andG'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 130
TABLE 58 C andG'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 131
TABLE 59 CHINA EVERBRIGHT'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 132
TABLE 60 CHINA EVERBRIGHT'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 132
TABLE 61 CITEC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 135
TABLE 62 CITEC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 136
TABLE 63 CNIM'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 137
TABLE 64 CNIM'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 137
TABLE 65 CPC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 138
TABLE 66 COVANTA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 138
TABLE 67 COVANTA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 2011 TO JAN. 2015 139
TABLE 68 EBARA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 140
TABLE 69 ECOCORP'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 140
TABLE 70 ENER-G'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 141
TABLE 71 ENER-G'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 141
TABLE 72 ENTEC BIOGAS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 143
TABLE 73 ENTEC BIOGAS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 143
TABLE 74 ENTECH'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 144
TABLE 75 ENVITEC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 145
TABLE 76 ENVITEC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 145
TABLE 77 EVN'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 146
TABLE 78 EVN'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 147
TABLE 79 FARMATIC'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 147
TABLE 80 FARMATIC'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 148
TABLE 81 HASSE ENERGIE'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 149
TABLE 82 IWT'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 150
TABLE 83 KEPPEL SEGHERS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 150
TABLE 84 KEPPEL SEGHERS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 151
TABLE 85 KOMPOGAS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 152
TABLE 86 MARTIN'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 153
TABLE 87 OWS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 153
TABLE 88 OWS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 154
TABLE 89 PLASCO'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 154
TABLE 90 RAMBOLL'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 155
TABLE 91 RAMBOLL'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 156
TABLE 92 SCHMACK BIOGAS' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 157
TABLE 93 SCHMACK BIOGAS' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 157
TABLE 94 STEINMULLER'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 158
TABLE 95 STEINMULLER'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 158
TABLE 96 SUEZ' PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 159
TABLE 97 SUEZ' RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 160
TABLE 98 TAKUMA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 161
TABLE 99 TAKUMA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 161
TABLE 100 TIRU'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 162
TABLE 101 TIRU'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 162
TABLE 102 VALORGA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 163
TABLE 103 VEOLIA'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 163
TABLE 104 VEOLIA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 164
TABLE 105 WHEELABRATOR'S PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 165
TABLE 106 WHEELABRATOR'S RECENT DEVELOPMENTS, 2011 TO JAN. 2015 166
TABLE 107 U.S. PATENTS, 2011 TO DEC. 2014 168
TABLE 108 EUROPE PATENTS, 2011 TO DEC. 2014 172
TABLE 109 JAPAN PATENTS, 2011 TO DEC. 2014 175

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY,
2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 BASIC WTE PATHWAYS 11
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY TYPE, 2013 (%) 15
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY BY SOURCE,
2012-2019 (GW) 19
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL GDP ACTUAL AND PROJECTED GROWTH RATE AND TRENDS BY
ECONOMY, 2010-2025 (%) 20
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY REGION, 2015-2035 (MTOE) 21
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL AVAILABLE MUNICIPAL WASTE FOR WTE, 2009-2016 (MILLION
TONS) 22
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL SHARES OF MSW VOLUME GENERATION BY REGION, 2012 (%) 23
FIGURE 8 LANDFILLING TREND IN EUROPE: MSW GENERATED VS. MSW LANDFILLED,
2013-2016 (MILLION TONS) 24
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANY MARKET SHARE, 2013 (%) 28
FIGURE 10 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE 38
FIGURE 11 SOUTH AUSTRALIA WASTE TO RESOURCES HIERARCHY LEVEL 58
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013 VS.
2019 (%) 66
FIGURE 13 TYPES OF THERMAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 68
FIGURE 14 THE FOUR PHASES OF ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION 78
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2013 VS. 2019
(%) 95
FIGURE 16 APPROXIMATE EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASES (TON CO2E/TON MSW) 100
FIGURE 17 IMPACT BY COUNTRY, 2013 103
FIGURE 18 WASTE GENERATION BY SECTOR IN EU27, 2013 (%) 104
FIGURE 19 DISTRIBUTION OF INVESTMENT IN WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NORTH
AMERICA BY SUBSEGMENT, 2011-2020 (%) 115
FIGURE 20 U.S. WASTE-TO-ENERGY: COMPANY MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 116
FIGURE 21 DISTRIBUTION OF NEW INVESTMENT FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
SOUTH AMERICA BY SUBSEGMENT, 2011-2020 (%) 117

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