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Grid-Scale Electricity Storage Technologies: Global Markets

  • January 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 320 pages

This BCC Research report assesses and describes the current status and assess the potential growth of the worldwide grid scale battery storage (GSBS) technology industry and the market for associated storage technologies. Includes forecast from 2015 to 2025.

Use this report to:

Assess market potential for GSBS technologies over a ten-year period from 2015 through 2025.
Receive information about the regional characteristics of the grid-scale battery storage (GSBS) market.
Analyze existing GSBS technologies and promising emerging battery technologies and applications that are under development.
Gain insight into the regulatory aspects of the GSBS market.

Highlights

The global market for grid-scale battery storage (GSBS) technologies reached $637 million in 2014. This market is projected to reach nearly $4.0 billion in 2025 from $716 million in 2015 at a compound annual growth rate of 18.7% for the period 2015-2025.
Lithium-ion battery storage technology will grow from $257 million in 2015 to nearly $1.9 billion in 2025 at a CAGR of 21.9% for the period 2015-2025.
Flow batteries storage technology will grow from $115 million in 2015 to $773 million in 2025 at a CAGR of 21.0% for the period 2015-2025.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

BCC Research’s goal in conducting this study was to assess and describe the current status and assess the potential growth of the worldwide grid-scale battery storage (GSBS) technology industry and the market for associated storage technologies. More specifically, the study included the following objectives: (1) summarize existing GSBS technologies and promising emerging battery technologies and applications that are under development; (2) evaluate the existing GSBS technology industry, focusing on the manufacturers and providers of major components for viable storage technologies; and (3) assess market potential for GSBS technologies over a five-year period from 2015 through 2020.

REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY

With the exception of the recent period immediately following the global economic turndown, global demand for electricity is expected to continue to increase through at least the next two decades. However, much of the world’s electricity generation industry is in the midst of a turning point. In su port of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction regulations and industry trends, the electricity generation sector is in the process of transitioning generally away from coal- and oil-fired electricity production,

and toward the installation of increasing proportions of renewables. However, many renewable energy resources are intermittent in nature: Solar cells only generate electricity when the sun is shining, and wind turbines only generate power when sufficient wind is blowing. To meet consumer electricity demand, which is often not
aligned with available renewable power production capacity, very large-scale energy storage technologies are needed.

The purpose of this report is to provide a regional assessment of the GSBS market potential, as well as existing and projected future market sizes. This is an important scope because GSBS markets vary substantially based on regional characteristics and on the technology in question. Grid-scale battery technologies have been in existence
for many decades but are only now coming into prominence as a major energy storage technology due to the increasing renewable energy generation sources. GSBS is considered in this report, as battery technologies are coming of age and are capable of storing sufficient energy to be relevant at the utility scale—with hundreds of
megawatts (MWs) of generation capacity. Grid-scale battery technologies come in many different electrochemical formulae combinations. Within this context, this report identifies the basis and installation/market potential for GSBS demand in each global region, within the 2015 to 2025 timeframe.




Table Of Contents

Grid-Scale Electricity Storage Technologies: Global Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT AND METHODOLOGY 3
WORLDWIDE MARKETS 4
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 6
DISCLAIMER 6
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 10
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 12
TABLE 1 LIST OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES (MW) 12
WHAT ARE UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES? 13
BRIEF HISTORY OF BATTERY TECHNOLOGY 14
OVERALL CHALLENGES FOR THE EES INDUSTRY 15
CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTING LARGE-SCALE EES 15
COSTS AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY 16
GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE 16
BENEFITS OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 16
OVERALL BENEFITS OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE 17
RISING ENERGY PRICES INDIRECTLY INCENTIVIZE GRID-SCALE BATTERY
STORAGE 17
FIGURE 1 U.S. RESIDENTIAL RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICE, 1960-2010 (CENTS PER
KILOWATT) 17
INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION
PROJECTS 18
IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY INTEGRATION 18
SMART GRIDS AND DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS 19
HOW EXPANDING ELECTRICITY DEMAND CAN DRIVE DEMAND OF
GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE 19
THE DEVELOPING ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET AS A GROWTH FACTOR 20
THE ROLE OF CHANGING NATIONAL POLICIES TOWARD ENERGY STORAGE 20
THE POTENTIAL OF DEREGULATING THE ELECTRIC UTILITY MARKETS 21
GRID BENEFITS 21
Load Leveling 22
FIGURE 2 STYLIZED REPRESENTATION OF A DAILY LOAD CURVE 23
Capacity Factor/Dispatch for Intermittent Renewables 24
Peaking Power Support 24
OFFSET OF NEEDED PEAKING POWER GENERATION CAPACITY 25
OFFSET OF NEEDED RENEWABLE GENERATION CAPACITY 26
ECONOMIC BENEFITS 26
Energy Arbitrage 27
Investment Deferral 27
RENEWABLE ENERGY DISPATCH AND TIMING BENEFITS (ABILITY TO MEET
RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGETS, ETC.) 27
FIGURE 3 EXAMPLE OF OFFSET RENEWABLE GENERATION: WIND GENERATION
PROFILE FOR CALIFORNIA (MW) 28
DRAWBACKS OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 28
OVERALL CHALLENGES FOR GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE 28
THE LONG-STANDING CONSTRAINT OF HIGH CAPITAL COSTS OF
GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE 28
THE POLICY AND REGULATORY CHALLENGES AHEAD 29
HOW CONSERVATISM IN THE UTILITY INDUSTRY MAY HINDER GROWTH 29
THE NEED FOR LARGE-SCALE DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS 29
COMPETITION FROM OTHER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE
MARKET 30
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 31
ENERGY LOSS DURING STORAGE 31
ECONOMIC RISK 32
DESCRIPTION OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEM
COMPONENTS 32
FIGURE 4 OVERVIEW OF BATTERY ELECTROCHEMISTRIES 32
GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE 33
CONVENTIONAL BATTERIES 34
Lead-Acid Batteries 34
FIGURE 5 LEAD-ACID BATTERY FUNCTION AND COMPONENTS 34
Lead-Acid Battery Composition 35
Lead-Acid Battery Categories 36
Flooded Lead-Acid Batteries 36
Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries 37
Maintenance Requirements for Lead-Acid Batteries 37
Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries 38
Operating Costs of Lead-Acid 38
TABLE 2 LEAD-ACID BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION*,2003 ($) 39
TABLE 3 LEAD-ACID AND ADVANCED LEAD-ACID BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION,
2020 ($) 40
Advantages of Lead-Acid Batteries 40
Disadvantages of Lead-Acid Batteries 40
Lithium-Ion Batteries 41
Lithium-Ion Battery Composition 41
FIGURE 6 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FUNCTION AND COMPONENTS 41
Technical Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Batteries 42
FIGURE 7 MAP OF PLANNED AND EXISTING LITHIUM-ION DEMONSTRATIONS, 2009 43
Advantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries 43
Disadvantages of Lithium-Ion Batteries 44
TABLE 4 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FEATURES 44
TABLE 5 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY COSTS BY BENEFIT, 2010 ($) 45
HIGH TEMPERATURE BATTERIES 45
Sodium-Based Batteries 45
FIGURE 8 SODIUM-SULFUR CELL CONSTRUCTION 45
Sodium-Sulfur Battery Composition 46
Sodium-Sulfur Battery Commercialization 47
Sodium-Sulfur Battery Output Ranges 47
Operating Costs of Sodium-Sulfur 48
Sodium Nickel Chloride (ZEBRA) Batteries 48
Sodium Nickel Chloride Technical Characteristics 49
TABLE 6 SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION ($) 49
TABLE 7 SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERY COSTS BY BENEFIT ($) 50
Advantages of Sodium-Based Batteries 50
FIGURE 9 MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF NAS OVER OTHER BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES 51
Disadvantages of Sodium-Based Batteries 51
FLOW BATTERIES 52
FIGURE 10 FLOW BATTERY SYSTEM 52
Flow Battery Categories 53
FIGURE 11 FLOW BATTERY CELL CONSTRUCTION 53
Hybrid Flow Batteries versus Redox Flow Batteries 53
Redox Flow Batteries 54
Vanadium Redox 54
Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Composition 55
Vanadium Redox Response Time 56
TABLE 8 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VRB SYSTEMS BY APPLICATION 56
Vanadium Redox Batteries Energy and Power Characteristics 56
Vanadium Redox Batteries Installations 57
Operating Costs of Vanadium Redox Batteries 58
FIGURE 12 COMPONENT COSTS OF A VRB AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CAPITAL
COST ($) 58
FIGURE 13 PRESENT CAPITAL COSTS ESTIMATES OF VRB SYSTEMS 58
TABLE 9 VRB CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS ($) 59
TABLE 10 VRB COSTS BY BENEFIT ($) 60
Hybrid Flow Batteries 60
Zinc Redox 60
Zinc-Bromine Flow Battery 61
FIGURE 14 ZINC-BROMINE BATTERY COMPOSITION 61
Operating Range of Zinc-Bromide 62
Zinc-Bromine Flow Battery Installations 62
Operating Costs of Zinc-Bromine Flow Batteries 62
TABLE 11 ZINC-BROMINE BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION, 2003 ($) 63
TABLE 12 ZINC-BROMINE BATTERY COST BY SIZE AND APPLICATION, 2010 ($) 63
Advantages of Flow Batteries 64
Disadvantages of Flow Batteries 64
NICKEL-CADMIUM (NICD) AND OTHER NICKEL ELECTRODE BATTERIES 65
FIGURE 15 NICKEL-CADMIUM CELL COMPOSITION 65
Operating Ranges of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries 66
Nickel-Based Battery Categories 66
TABLE 13 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION, 2003 ($) 67
TABLE 14 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY FEATURES 67
Advantages of Nickel-Based Batteries 68
Disadvantages of Nickel-Based Batteries 68
OTHER BATTERY DESIGNS 69
Metal Air Batteries 69
FIGURE 16 METAL AIR BATTERY COMPOSITION 69
Molten/Liquid Metal Batteries 70
FIGURE 17 GENERAL MOLTEN AIR BATTERY COMPOSITION 70
FIGURE 18 LIQUID METAL BATTERY COMPOSITION 70
Advantages of Metal Air and Metal Liquid batteries 71
Disadvantages of Metal Air and Metal Liquid Batteries 72
A COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES 72
TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF SELECT BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES. (MW, $/KWH, MWH) 72
Traditional Electrochemicals 73
New Electrochemical Approach 74
FIGURE 19 POWER RATING AND DISCHARGE DURATION AT RATED POWER 74
FIGURE 20 A COMPARISON OF TECHNOLOGY MATURITY AND ANTICIPATED R andD
EXPENDITURE 75
Cost Comparison 76
TABLE 16 SUMMARY OF THE MAIN MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY
STORAGE SYSTEMS.(MW, $/KWH, MWH) 76
FIGURE 21 PER UNIT ENERGY AND POWER CAPITAL COSTS BY TECHNOLOGY 77
TABLE 17 PRESENT WORTH COST OF 10-YEAR OPERATION IN YEAR 1, BY
TECHNOLOGY/USE, 2011 ($/KW) 78
FIGURE 22 SERVICES PROVIDED BY ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 78
TABLE 18 UTILITY APPLICATIONS OF GRID STORAGE BATTERY STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES 79
REVIEW OF OTHER RELEVANT UTILITY-SCALE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 79
FIGURE 23 COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES, AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES, SYSTEM
RATINGS 79
FIGURE 24 COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES, AND OTHER EMERGING GRID-SCALE
STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES COSTS 80
PUMPED HYDROLOGIC STORAGE 81
COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE 82
CAES Heat Storage and Advanced Adiabatic CAES 82
OTHER EMERGING GRID-SCALE ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 83
FIGURE 25 MATURITY STAGE OF ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS 83
Ultracapacitors 84
Flywheels 84
CHAPTER 4 APPLICATIONS FOR ADVANCED BATTERIES IN MICROGRID
ENVIRONMENT 86
CUSTOMER OWNED 86
LOAD DEFECTION VERSUS GRID DEFECTION 86
NET METERING EFFECT ON CUSTOMER-OWNED BATTERY STORAGE 87
TESLA INNOVATION COULD HELP SOLAR CUSTOMERS GO OFF THE GRID 87
UTILITY OWNED 88
PROS OF UTILITY-OWNED STORAGE 89
CONS OF UTILITY-OWNED STORAGE 89
EXAMPLE OF UTILITY OWNERSHIP OF DISTRIBUTED STORAGE 90
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERS 91
MILITARY 92
ISLAND SYSTEMS 94
FIGURE 26 ISLAND RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION, IMPACT OF BATTERY
STORAGE 94
CONCLUDING REMARKS 95
CHAPTER 5 REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES FOR GRID-SCALE BATTERY
STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES 97
REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES 97
UNITED STATES REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES 98
FEDERAL 99
U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 99
Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit 99
TABLE 19 RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION TAX CREDIT: IN-SERVICE
DEADLINE, 2014 (¢/KWH) 100
FIGURE 27 IMPACT OF PRODUCTION TAX CREDIT EXPIRATION AND EXTENSION ON
U.S. ANNUAL INSTALLED WIND CAPACITY 100
Qualifying Advanced Energy Manufacturing Investment Tax
Credit 101
Phase III 101
Clean Renewable Energy Bonds 102
Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds 103
U.S. Department of the Treasury 105
Renewable Energy Grants 105
U.S. Department of Energy 105
Green Power Purchasing Goal 105
Loan Guarantee Program 106
Innovative Technology Loan Guarantee Program 106
Temporary Loan Guarantee Program 107
Smart Grid Investment Grant Program 107
Initiative to Expand Hydropower 108
Renewable Electricity Production Incentive 108
U.S. Department of Agriculture 109
USDA Rural Energy for America Program-Grants and Loan
Guarantees 109
Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) 110
SELECT STATE-LEVEL STANDARDS AND INCENTIVES 111
Alaska 112
Renewable Energy Grant Recommendation Program 112
Alternative Energy Conservation Loan Fund 113
Arizona 114
Renewable Energy Business Tax Incentive 114
Property Tax Assessment for Renewable Energy Property 115
Property Tax Assessment for Renewable Energy Equipment 115
Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit (Corporate) 116
TABLE 20 TAX CREDIT FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV) AND SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRIC
SYSTEMS VARIATION OVER 10 YEAR PERIOD (¢/KWH) 116
Renewable Energy Tax Credit for Manufacturers (Corporate) 116
Renewable Energy Standard 117
TABLE 21 ARIZONA RENEWABLE ENERGY AND DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE QUOTAS,
2006-2025 (RETAIL ELECTRICAL LOAD % (% OF RENEWABLE ENERGY QUOTA)) 117
California 118
Renewable Portfolio Standard 118
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP)—Feed-in
Tariff (FiT) Program 121
TABLE 22 BASE PRICE OF ENERGY AND TIME OF DELIVERY MULTIPLIERS ($/KW) 121
Colorado 122
Renewable Energy Property Tax Assessment 122
TABLE 23 COLORADO RENEWABLE ENERGY PROPERTY TAX ASSESSMENT COST
THRESHOLD VALUES, 2009 ($/KW) 122
New Energy Economic Development Grant Program 123
Renewable Energy Standard 123
Requirement for Investor-Owned Utilities 124
TABLE 24 COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS FOR
INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES, 2007-2020 124
Distributed Generation Carve-Out (Investor-Owned Utilities
Only) 124
TABLE 25 COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS FOR
WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION OR RETAIL DG CARVE-OUT, 2011-2020 (%) 124
Requirement for Cooperatives and Municipal Utilities 125
TABLE 26 COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS FOR ELECTRIC
COOPERATIVES AND MUNICIPAL UTILITIES, 2008-2020 (%) 125
Credit Multipliers 125
Renewable Energy Property Tax Assessment 126
Hawaii 127
Farm and Aquaculture Alternative Energy Loan 127
High Technology Business Investment Tax Credit 127
Renewable Energy Project Bond Program 128
Iowa 129
Alternative Energy Law (AEL) 129
Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption 129
Solar Energy Systems Tax Credit (Corporate) 130
Renewable Energy Production Tax Credits (Corporate) 130
Maine 132
Renewable Portfolio Standard 132
TABLE 27 MAINE RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARD CLASS I STANDARD
SCHEDULE, 2008-2017 (%) 133
Maine Wind Energy Goals 133
Maryland 134
Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard 134
TABLE 28 MARYLAND RENEWABLE ENERGY PORTFOLIO STANDARD COMPLIANCE
REQUIREMENTS, 2006-2022 (%) 134
Michigan 137
Renewable Energy Standard 137
TABLE 29 MICHIGAN RENEWABLE ENERGY STANDARD, ANNUAL BENCHMARKS,
2012-2015 (%) 138
New Mexico 140
Interconnection Standards 140
Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit (Corporate) 141
TABLE 30 NEW MEXICO RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION TAX INCENTIVE
($/KWH) 142
New York 142
Renewable, Clean Energy and Energy Efficient Product
Manufacturing Incentive Program 142
Oklahoma 144
Zero-Emission Facilities Production Tax Credit 144
Oregon 145
Business Energy Tax Credit 145
Pennsylvania 147
Department of Community and Economic Development (DCED)
Alternative Clean Energy Program 147
Loans 149
Grants 149
Loan Guarantees 149
South Carolina 150
Distributed Energy Resource Program 150
Texas 151
Austin-Renewables Portfolio Standard 151
Renewable Generation Requirement 152
TABLE 31 TEXAS RENEWABLE GENERATION REQUIREMENT COMPLIANCE
SCHEDULE, 2007-2015 (MW) 152
Department of Rural Affairs-Renewable Energy Demonstration
Pilot Program 154
INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES: EUROPE 155
European Union 155
EU Climate and Energy Package: Renewable Energy Targets 155
An Energy Policy for Europe 156
European Council Action Plan (2007-2009) Energy Policy for
Europe 157
Seventh Framework Program for Research and Technological
Development 157
TABLE 32 ENERGY RESEARCH UNDER FP7 158
Strategic Energy Technology Plan: Toward a Low Carbon Future 158
Directive on the Taxation of Energy Products and Electricity 159
Austria 160
Klima:Aktiv Program 160
Targets for Renewables: 2007-2010 Government Program 160
Okostromverordnung (Feed-In Tariffs) 2010-OSVO 2010 161
Belgium 162
Offshore Domanial Concessions for Wind and Ocean Energy
Production 162
Federal Green Certificate Scheme 162
Flanders: Green Certificate Scheme 162
Wallonia: Green Certificate Scheme: 163
National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) 163
Denmark 164
Energy Research Programme 164
Electricity Supply Act 164
Subsidies for Renewable Electricity Generation 165
Replacement Scheme for Wind Turbines on Land 165
Danish Energy Agreement for 2012-2020 167
Energy-Efficiency Measures 167
Renewable Energy in Industry 167
Promotion of Renewable Energy Act 168
Feed-In Premium Tariffs for Renewable Power 169
France 170
Wind Energy Program 170
Electricity Law 2000 171
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership 171
Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Solar PV 171
Energy Bill 2015 172
Germany 172
Green Power 172
Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz,
EEG) 2004 173
2009 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act 175
2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act-EEG 176
KfW Renewable Energies Program (KfW-Programme Erneuerbare
Energien) 177
Greece 178
Development Incentives for Renewable Energy Sources 178
Generation of Electricity Using Renewable Energy Sources 178
Italy 179
RES Promotion-Decrees Implementing Directive 2001/77/EC 179
RES Promotion-Decree Implementing Directive 2009/28/EC 180
Portugal 180
Wave Energy Pilot Zone 180
Renewable Feed-In Tariffs 181
Microgeneration Law (Application Decree Law 118-A/2010) 181
Spain 182
Offshore Wind Power Regulations 182
Feed-In Tariffs for Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources 182
New Regulatory Framework for Administrative Procedures for
Renewable Energy Facilities 183
Cabinet of Ministers Ruling for Wind and Solar Thermal Electric
Energy Quotas 183
Sustainable Economy Law 184
United Kingdom 184
Renewable Energy Strategy 2009 184
Offshore Wind Capitol Grants Scheme 185
INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES: ASIA-PACIFIC,
LATIN AMERICAN, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 185
Australia 186
Renewable Energy Target 186
Clean Energy Program 186
Renewable Energy Demonstration Program 186
Improving Grid Accessibility 187
Brazil 187
Brazil Inova Energia Program 187
Brazil Net Metering for Distributed Generation 188
Chile 188
Net Metering (Regulation on Distributed Generation) 2014 188
Support for Nonconventional Renewable Energy Development
Program 188
China 189
Preferential Tax Policies for Renewable Energy 189
Medium- and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable
Energy 189
Wind Power Concession Program 190
India 190
Renewable Energy Certificates System 191
Indonesia 191
National Energy Blueprint 191
National Energy Policy (Government Regulation No. 79/2014) 192
Japan 193
Strategic Energy Plan (2014) 193
Basic Energy Plan (2014) 194
New Zealand 195
Marine Energy Deployment Fund 195
Thailand 195
Strategic Plan for Renewable Energy Development 195
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 197
INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION 197
FIGURE 28 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE FOR PROCUREMENT/INSTALLATION OF GSBS
TECHNOLOGIES 198
UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE DEVELOPERS 198
ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONTRACTORS 199
COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND FABRICATORS 199
CONSTRUCTION AND PROCUREMENT CONTRACTORS 200
RAW MATERIALS PRODUCERS 200
FIGURE 29 BATTERY MARKET SUPPLY CHAIN 200
PLANNING OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS 201
GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE APPLICATIONS 201
Frequency-Response Reserve 202
Frequency Replacement Reserve 202
Wholesale Arbitrage 203
FIGURE 30 EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE ARBITRAGE TRADING STRATEGY FOR THE
GERMAN SPOT MARKET 203
PLANNING OF MW-GSBS 203
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 204
FIGURE 31 GSBS COSTS FOR DIFFERENT CAPACITIES 204
SYSTEM INTEGRATION 205
SAFETY 205
SCADA 206
GLOBAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 206
NORTH AMERICA 207
Industry Trends 207
FIGURE 32 U.S. UES STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES IN USE BY MARKET SHARE (GW) 207
TABLE 33 EXISTING AND PLANNED (PROPOSED, UNDER CONSTRUCTION,
CONTRACTED, ANNOUNCED) U.S. ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES, SPLIT BY
CAPACITY, 2015 (MW/%)
208
TABLE 34 EXISTING AND PLANNED (PROPOSED, UNDER CONSTRUCTION,
CONTRACTED, ANNOUNCED) U.S. ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES, SPLIT BY
NUMBER OF PROJECTS, 2015 (MW/%)
209
TABLE 35 ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY CAPACITY (MW) 210
FIGURE 33 ANNUAL SOLAR PV INSTALLATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, BY TYPE
2010-2014 (MW) 211
Major Industry Players 212
TABLE 36 MAJOR NORTH AMERICAN GSBS COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND
ENGINEERS 213
Major North American GSBS Industry Facets 213
EUROPE 214
Industry Trends 214
Major Industry Players 215
TABLE 37 MAJOR EUROPEAN GSBS COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND
ENGINEERS 216
Major European UES Industry Facets 216
ASIA-PACIFIC 216
Industry Trends 216
Major Industry Players 217
TABLE 38 MAJOR ASIAN UES COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERS 218
Major Asian UES Industry Facets 218
REST OF THE WORLD 218
Industry Trends 218
Major Industry Players 219
Major RoW GSBS Industry Facets 219
UES INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS 219
TABLE 39 MAJOR UES INDUSTRY GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS 220
CHAPTER 7 MAJOR TECHNOLOGY MARKETS AND TRENDS IN PRICE AND
PERFORMANCE 222
LEAD-ACID BATTERIES 223
TABLE 40 PROJECTED LEAD-ACID BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES,
THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 223
FIGURE 34 PROJECTED LEAD-ACID BATTERIES MARKET SIZE, 2014-2025 ($
MILLIONS) 223
LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES 224
TABLE 41 PROJECTED LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES,
THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 224
FIGURE 35 PROJECTED LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES MARKET SIZE, 2014-2025 ($
MILLIONS) 225
SODIUM-BASED BATTERIES 226
TABLE 42 PROJECTED SODIUM-BASED BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET
SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 226
FIGURE 36 PROJECTED SODIUM-BASED BATTERIES MARKET SIZE, 2014-2025 ($
MILLIONS) 226
FLOW BATTERIES 228
TABLE 43 PROJECTED FLOW BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES,
THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 228
FIGURE 37 PROJECTED FLOW BATTERIES MARKET SIZE, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 228
OTHER BATTERY DESIGNS 230
TABLE 44 PROJECTED OTHER ELECTROCHEMISTRY BATTERY NEW CAPACITY AND
MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 230
FIGURE 38 PROJECTED OTHER ELECTROCHEMISTRY BATTERY MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 230
CHAPTER 8 MAJOR REGIONAL MARKETS AND TRENDS IN PRICE AND PERFORMANCE 233
REGIONAL MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS 233
GSBS MARKET PREREQUISITES 234
TABLE 45 PREREQUISITES FOR GSBS TRACTION IN REGIONAL MARKETS 234
DEMAND FOR GSBS TECHNOLOGIES 235
INFRASTRUCTURE SUFFICIENCY 235
GLOBAL MARKET CENTERS 235
NORTH AMERICA GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET 236
North America Market Projected Trends 236
TABLE 46 PROJECTED NORTH AMERICAN GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 236
FIGURE 39 PROJECTED NORTH AMERICAN GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET
SIZE, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 236
United States Market Projected Trends 237
FIGURE 40 U.S. BEHIND-THE-METER ENERGY STORAGE DEPLOYMENTS (MW) 237
TABLE 47 MAJOR HISTORIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE PROJECTS IN NORTH
AMERICA (KW) 238
TABLE 48 U.S. PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY AND
MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 240
FIGURE 41 PROJECTED U.S. GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 240
Canada Market Projected Trends 240
TABLE 49 CANADA PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 241
FIGURE 42 CANADA PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 241
Key Drivers for the North American Market 242
Growth Potential for the North American Market 242
EUROPE GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET 243
European Market Projected Trends 244
TABLE 50 PROJECTED EUROPEAN GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 244
FIGURE 43 PROJECTED EUROPEAN GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 245
German Market Projected Trends 246
TABLE 51 GERMAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 248
FIGURE 44 GERMAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 248
Italian Market Projected Trends 248
TABLE 52 ITALIAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 249
FIGURE 45 ITALIAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZES,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 249
Spanish Market Projected Trends 250
TABLE 53 SPANISH PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 251
FIGURE 46 SPANISH PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 252
United Kingdom Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market 252
TABLE 54 UNITED KINGDOM PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 253
FIGURE 47 UNITED KINGDOM PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET
SIZE, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 253
France Grid-scale Battery Storage Market 254
TABLE 55 FRENCH PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 256
FIGURE 48 FRENCH PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 256
Key Drivers for the European Market 256
Growth Potential for the European Market 257
ASIA-PACIFIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET 257
TABLE 56 MAJOR HISTORIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE PROJECTS IN THE
ASIA-PACIFIC REGION (MW) 258
Asian-Pacific Market Projected Trends 259
TABLE 57 PROJECTED ASIA-PACIFIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 259
FIGURE 49 PROJECTED ASIA-PACIFIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 259
China Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market 261
TABLE 58 CHINESE PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 262
FIGURE 50 CHINESE PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 262
Japan Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market 262
TABLE 59 JAPANESE PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 264
FIGURE 51 JAPANESE PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 264
South Korea Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market 265
TABLE 60 SOUTH KOREAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 265
FIGURE 52 SOUTH KOREAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET
SIZE, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 266
Australia Grid-Scale Battery Storage Market 266
TABLE 61 SELECTED AUSTRALIAN ENERGY STORAGE FACILITIES 267
TABLE 62 AUSTRALIAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 268
FIGURE 53 AUSTRALIAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET SIZE,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 268
Key Drivers for the Asian-Pacific Market 268
Growth Potential for the Asian-Pacific Market 269
REST OF THE WORLD GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET 269
TABLE 63 MAJOR HISTORIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE PROJECTS IN THE REST
OF THE WORLD REGION (MW) 270
RoW Market Projected Trends 270
TABLE 64 PROJECTED REST OF THE WORLD GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 271
FIGURE 54 PROJECTED REST OF THE WORLD GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE
MARKET SIZE, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 271
Key Drivers for the RoW Market 272
OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL GSBS TECHNOLOGY MARKET AND REGIONAL
COMPARISON 272
TABLE 65 GLOBAL GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 272
FIGURE 55 GLOBAL GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE MARKET BY REGION,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 273
TABLE 66 PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY NEW
CAPACITY, THROUGH 2025 (MW) 273
FIGURE 56 PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY NEW
CAPACITY, 2015-2025 (MW) 273
CHAPTER 9 COMPANY PROFILES 276
LEADING FIVE GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE COMPANIES 276
GE ENERGY STORAGE 276
BYD CO. LTD. 277
NGK INSULATORS LTD. 278
SAMSUNG SDI CO. LTD. 279
SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES LTD. 280
OTHER LEADING MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLY COMPANIES IN THE
GRID-SCALE BATTERY INDUSTRY 280
A123 SYSTEMS LLC 280
ABB LTD. 281
AES ENERGY STORAGE LLC 282
ALEVO GROUP 283
Alevo US 283
AMBRI INC. 284
Ambri Inc.-Manufacturing 284
AMERICAN VANADIUM 284
AMPRIUS 285
AQUION ENERGY 286
AUTOMOTIVE ENERGY SUPPLY CORPORATION 287
AXION POWER INTERNATIONAL INC. 287
BOSCH GROUP 288
BOSTON-POWER 289
BRIGHTSOURCE ENERGY 290
CODA ENERGY 291
DUKE ENERGY 291
DYNAPOWER ENERGY MANAGEMENT 292
ECOULT 293
ELECTROVAYA 293
ENERVAULT CORP 294
ENSYNC, INC. 295
ENVIA SYSTEMS 296
EOS ENERGY STORAGE 296
FURUKAWA BATTERY 298
GREEN CHARGE NETWORKS 298
GREENSMITH ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 299
HOKKAIDO ELECTRIC POWER CO., INC. 300
HUDSON CLEAN ENERGY PARTNERS 300
IMERGY POWER SYSTEMS 301
JLM ENERGY INC. 302
JOHNSON CONTROLS 302
LG CHEM 303
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES (MHI) 303
NEC ENERGY SOLUTIONS INC. 304
OUTBACK POWER 305
PANASONIC CORP. 306
PELLION TECHNOLOGIES 306
PRIMUS POWER 307
PRUDENT ENERGY 307
Beijing Offices 307
QUANTUMSCAPE CORPORATION 308
RES AMERICAS INC. 308
SandC ELECTRIC COMPANY 310
SAFT GROUPE S.A. 311
SAKTI3 INC. 312
SEEO INC. 313
SHARP 313
SIEMENS ENERGY 314
SK CONTINENTAL E-MOTION 315
SOLAR GRID STORAGE 316
SOLARCITY 317
SPIDER9 INC. 318
STEM INC. 319
SUNVERGE ENERGY 319
TESLA MOTORS INC. 320
TESVOLT GMBH 321
TOSHIBA POWER GENERATION DIVISION 321
VIZN ENERGY 323
XCEL ENERGY INC. 324
XTREME POWER 324
YOUNICOS INC. 325
CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX I 327
CURRENCY CODES 327
ABBREVIATIONS OF UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 327
ACRONYMS 328
CHAPTER 11 APPENDIX II 331
REFERENCES 331

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 10
TABLE 1 LIST OF GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES (MW) 12
TABLE 2 LEAD-ACID BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION*,2003 ($) 39
TABLE 3 LEAD-ACID AND ADVANCED LEAD-ACID BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION,
2020 ($) 40
TABLE 4 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY FEATURES 44
TABLE 5 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY COSTS BY BENEFIT, 2010 ($) 45
TABLE 6 SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION ($) 49
TABLE 7 SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERY COSTS BY BENEFIT ($) 50
TABLE 8 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VRB SYSTEMS BY APPLICATION 56
TABLE 9 VRB CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS ($) 59
TABLE 10 VRB COSTS BY BENEFIT ($) 60
TABLE 11 ZINC-BROMINE BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION, 2003 ($) 63
TABLE 12 ZINC-BROMINE BATTERY COST BY SIZE AND APPLICATION, 2010 ($) 63
TABLE 13 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY COSTS BY APPLICATION, 2003 ($) 67
TABLE 14 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY FEATURES 67
TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF SELECT BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES. (MW, $/KWH, MWH) 72
TABLE 16 SUMMARY OF THE MAIN MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE
SYSTEMS.(MW, $/KWH, MWH) 76
TABLE 17 PRESENT WORTH COST OF 10-YEAR OPERATION IN YEAR 1, BY
TECHNOLOGY/USE, 2011 ($/KW) 78
TABLE 18 UTILITY APPLICATIONS OF GRID STORAGE BATTERY STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES 79
TABLE 19 RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION TAX CREDIT: IN-SERVICE
DEADLINE, 2014 (¢/KWH) 100
TABLE 20 TAX CREDIT FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV) AND SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRIC
SYSTEMS VARIATION OVER 10 YEAR PERIOD (¢/KWH) 116
TABLE 21 ARIZONA RENEWABLE ENERGY AND DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE QUOTAS,
2006-2025 (RETAIL ELECTRICAL LOAD % (% OF RENEWABLE ENERGY QUOTA)) 117
TABLE 22 BASE PRICE OF ENERGY AND TIME OF DELIVERY MULTIPLIERS ($/KW) 121
TABLE 23 COLORADO RENEWABLE ENERGY PROPERTY TAX ASSESSMENT COST
THRESHOLD VALUES, 2009 ($/KW) 122
TABLE 24 COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS FOR
INVESTOR-OWNED UTILITIES, 2007-2020 124
TABLE 25 COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS FOR
WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION OR RETAIL DG CARVE-OUT, 2011-2020 (%) 124
TABLE 26 COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS FOR ELECTRIC
COOPERATIVES AND MUNICIPAL UTILITIES, 2008-2020 (%) 125
TABLE 27 MAINE RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARD CLASS I STANDARD
SCHEDULE, 2008-2017 (%) 133
TABLE 28 MARYLAND RENEWABLE ENERGY PORTFOLIO STANDARD COMPLIANCE
REQUIREMENTS, 2006-2022 (%) 134
TABLE 29 MICHIGAN RENEWABLE ENERGY STANDARD, ANNUAL BENCHMARKS,
2012-2015 (%) 138
TABLE 30 NEW MEXICO RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION TAX INCENTIVE ($/KWH) 142
TABLE 31 TEXAS RENEWABLE GENERATION REQUIREMENT COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE,
2007-2015 (MW) 152
TABLE 32 ENERGY RESEARCH UNDER FP7 158
TABLE 33 EXISTING AND PLANNED (PROPOSED, UNDER CONSTRUCTION,
CONTRACTED, ANNOUNCED) U.S. ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES, SPLIT BY
CAPACITY, 2015 (MW/%)
208
TABLE 34 EXISTING AND PLANNED (PROPOSED, UNDER CONSTRUCTION,
CONTRACTED, ANNOUNCED) U.S. ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES, SPLIT BY
NUMBER OF PROJECTS, 2015 (MW/%)
209
TABLE 35 ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY CAPACITY (MW) 210
TABLE 36 MAJOR NORTH AMERICAN GSBS COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND
ENGINEERS 213
TABLE 37 MAJOR EUROPEAN GSBS COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERS 216
TABLE 38 MAJOR ASIAN UES COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERS 218
TABLE 39 MAJOR UES INDUSTRY GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS 220
TABLE 40 PROJECTED LEAD-ACID BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES,
THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 223
TABLE 41 PROJECTED LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES,
THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 224
TABLE 42 PROJECTED SODIUM-BASED BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET
SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 226
TABLE 43 PROJECTED FLOW BATTERIES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES,
THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 228
TABLE 44 PROJECTED OTHER ELECTROCHEMISTRY BATTERY NEW CAPACITY AND
MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 230
TABLE 45 PREREQUISITES FOR GSBS TRACTION IN REGIONAL MARKETS 234
TABLE 46 PROJECTED NORTH AMERICAN GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 236
TABLE 47 MAJOR HISTORIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE PROJECTS IN NORTH
AMERICA (KW) 238
TABLE 48 U.S. PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY AND
MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 240
TABLE 49 CANADA PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 241
TABLE 50 PROJECTED EUROPEAN GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 244
TABLE 51 GERMAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 248
TABLE 52 ITALIAN PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY AND
MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 249
TABLE 53 SPANISH PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZES, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 251
TABLE 54 UNITED KINGDOM PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW
CAPACITY AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 253
TABLE 55 FRENCH PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY AND
MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 256
TABLE 56 MAJOR HISTORIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE PROJECTS IN THE
ASIA-PACIFIC REGION (MW) 258
TABLE 57 PROJECTED ASIA-PACIFIC GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 259
TABLE 58 CHINESE PROJECTED GRID-SCALE BATTERY STORAGE, NEW CAPACITY
AND MARKET SIZE, THROUGH 2025 (MW/$ MILLIONS) 262

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