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Brief

This report researches advanced technologies and markets for wireless and wired communications systems that utilize MIMO – Multiple Input/Multiple Output structures – to enhance their performance.

Users’ demand for more efficient networking brought to life many technological innovations. One of them is MIMO, which became very popular in wireless systems – almost all recent and future 3GPP standards use (or will be using) variations of such a technique. MIMO also can be used in wireline systems.

This report is based on the Practel analysis of MIMO-based communications systems, their technologies and markets specifics. Particular, the following industry standards that utilize MIMO have been considered:

-3GPP LTE
-IEEE 802.11n
-IEEE 802.11ac
-IEEE 802.11ah
-HomePlug AV2
-ITU G.hn.

The goal of this report is to characterize MIMO advantages and specifics for each standard. It also addresses market characteristics of discussed technologies. Report concentrates on corresponding industries players and their products.

MIMO characteristics, structures and types are also addressed and compared.

The report also contains a survey of 802.11ah-related patents.

The report is written for a wide audience of managers and technical staff that involved in the design and implementation of advanced communications systems.

Table Of Contents

MIMO-based Wireless and Wireline Communications Systems: Technologies, Markets and Applications
1.0 Introduction 10
1.1 General 10
1.2 Goal 10
1.3 Structure 11
1.4 Research Methodology 11
1.5 Target Audience 11
2.0 MIMO - Concept, Functions and Types 13
2.2 Concept: MIMO in Wireless Communications 13
2.3 Types of MIMO: Examples 15
2.3.1 CoMP MIMO 15
2.3.2 Massive MIMO 15
2.3.3 MU-MIMO 16
2.3.4 MIMO-OFDM 17
2.3.5 Mobile Networked MIMO 18
2.3.6 MIMO - by Type of Communications Media 18
2.3.7 Summary 18
2.4 MIMO Benefits (Wireless Systems) 19
3.0 MIMO Role - Wireless Systems 20
3.1 MIMO Role in LTE Development 20
3.1.1 Releases - 3GPP 20
3.1.2 LTE Timetable 21
3.1.3 Broadband Wireless Communications-Phases 23
3.1.4 LTE Standardization-Industry Collaboration 24
3.1.5 Industry Initiative 24
3.1.6 Intellectual Property 25
3.1.7 Key Features of LTE 25
3.1.8 Details 27
3.1.8.1 Evolved UMTS Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) 27
3.1.8.2 UE Categories 28
3.1.8.3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC) 29
3.1.9 LTE Advanced 30
3.1.10 SON 31
3.1.11 Voice Support 32
3.1.11.1 VoLTE 32
3.1.12 Market 33
3.1.12.1 Drivers 33
3.1.12.2 Demand: Wireless Broadband 33
3.1.12.3 LTE Market Projections 34
3.1.13 Summary: Major LTE Benefits 36
3.1.14 Industry 37
Agilent (Re-branded as Keysight in 2014) 37
Altair Semiconductor 38
Alcatel-Lucent 39
Aricent 41
AceAxis 42
Cisco 43
Ericsson 44
Fujitsu 45
Huawei 46
Lime Microsystems 48
mimoON (acquired by CommAgility Ltd in 2015) 49
Motorola Solutions 51
Nokia Siemens Networks 52
NXP 53
Qualcomm 55
Samsung 56
Sequans 56
Signalion 57
TI 58
U-blox 59
ZTE 60
3.1.15 Specifics LTE MIMO 61
3.1.15.1 Techniques 61
3.1.15.2 Major Applications 61
3.1.15.3 Modes 61
3.1.15.4 MIMO: LTE Release 8 63
3.1.15.5 MIMO: LTE Release 9 63
3.1.15.6 MIMO: LTE Advanced 63
3.1.15.7 LTE/LTE-A - MIMO Benefits 64
3.1.15.8 Market Projections 65
3.2 MIMO Role in 802.11n Development 66
3.2.1 802.11n Status 67
3.2.2 Environment 67
3.2.3 Draft v. 1.0 67
3.2.4 Draft v. 2.0 68
3.2.5 Further Developments and IEEE Approval 69
3.2.6 IEEE 802.11n and Wi-Fi Alliance 69
3.2.7 802.11n Technology Details 70
3.2.7.1 Major Advances 70
3.2.7.1.1 MIMO 70
3.2.7.1.2 Spatial Division Multiplexing 71
3.2.7.1.3 OFDM 71
3.2.7.1.4 Channel Bonding 71
3.2.7.1.5 Packet Aggregation 71
3.2.7.2 PHY and MAC 72
3.2.7.3 Features: Summary 73
3.2.7.3.1 Specifics 73
3.2.7.3.2 Channel Bandwidth 75
3.2.7.3.3 Backward Compatibility 75
3.2.7.3.4 Adaptation 75
3.2.7.3.5 Security 76
3.2.7.3.6 Enhancements 77
3.2.8 Benefits and Applications 77
3.2.8.1 Benefits 77
3.2.8.2 Applications 78
3.2.9 Market 79
3.2.9.1 Drivers 79
3.2.9.2 Market Forecast 79
3.2.9.2.1 Model 79
3.2.9.2.2 Forecast 80
3.2.10 Industry 83
Aerohive (APs) 83
Aruba (APs) - HP 84
Atheros-Qualcomm (Chipsets, WUSB) 85
Buffalo (Router, AP) 88
Broadcom (Chipsets, WUSB) 89
Cisco (AP) 91
Celeno (Chips) 92
Marvell (Chipsets) 93
Motorola Solution (Tools, AP) 94
Netgear (Router, AP) 95
OvisLink (Router, WUBS) 96
Redpine Signals (Chipsets) 97
Ruckus (AP, Multimedia) 98
Quantenna (chipsets) 99
TP-Link 100
TrendNet (Routers, AP, WUSB) 101
Xirrus 102
ZyXel (AP, Router, WUSB) 103
3.2.11 MIMO and 802.11n 103
3.2.11.1 MIMO Specifics: 802.11n 103
3.2.11.2 High Throughput (HT) Station (STA) 104
3.2.11.3 Features 104
3.2.11.4 Basic Concept 105
3.2.11.5 MIMO Contributions 106
3.3 MIMO Role in 802.11ac Development 108
3.3.1 General - Improving 802.11n Characteristics 108
3.3.2 Approval 108
3.3.3 Major Features: Summary 108
3.3.4 Major Benefits 110
3.3.5 Usage Models 111
3.3.6 Waves 112
3.3.7 Market Projections 113
3.3.8 Industry 115
Aruba - HP 115
Broadcom 115
Buffalo 116
Cisco 118
D-Link 118
Linksys 119
Marvell 120
Meru (now Fortinet) 122
Netgear 123
Qualcomm 123
Quantenna 124
Redpine Signals 126
3.3.9 MIMO and 802.11ac Standard 128
3.3.9.1 Comparison 128
3.3.9.2 Market Projections 129
4.0 MIMO in Wireline Communications 131
4.1 HomePNA and ITU MIMO-based Technologies 131
4.1.1 HomePNA Alliance (now HomeGrid Forum) 131
4.1.1.1. Specifications 131
4.1.1.1.1 General 131
4.1.1.1.2 HomePNA Specification 3.1: Major Features 132
4.1.1.1.3 Fast EoC HomePNA 133
4.1.1.2 Major Benefits 133
4.1.2 ITU G.hn 133
4.1.2.1 General 133
4.1.2.2 G.hn Details 134
4.1.2.2.1 Differences ……134
4.1.2.2.2 Common Features 135
4.1.2.3 Acceptance 135
4.1.2.4 HomePNA and G.hn Documents 135
4.1.2.5 G.hn-mimo - G.9963 136
4.1.2.5.1 Drivers 136
4.1.2.5.2 G.9963 Details 137
4.1.2.5.2.1 General 137
4.1.2.5.2.2 Wireline Specifics -G.hn-mimo 137
4.1.2.5.2.3 Scope 138
4.1.2.5.2.4 Performance 138
4.1.3 Industry 140
Comtrend 140
Marvell 141
Sigma Designs 141
STandT 142
4.2 HomePlugAV2-mimo 143
4.2.1 General 143
4.2.1.1 Certification 144
4.2.2 Major Improvements 144
4.2.3 Specification Details 145
4.2.3.1 MIMO Role 146
4.2.4 Industry 147
Broadcom 147
Extollo 148
Gigafast Ethernet 149
Intersil 149
Lea Networks 150
Sineoji 151
Trendnet 151
TP-Link 152
Qualcomm Atheros 153
Zyxel 153
5.0 Conclusions 155
Appendix I: IEEE802.11ah and MIMO 156
A.1 General 156
A.2 Goal and Schedule 156
A.3 Sub-1 GHz Transmission Specifics 156
A.3.1 Spectrum 156
A.4 Use Cases 157
A.5 PHY 157
A.5.1 Bandwidth 157
A.5.2 Channelization 158
A.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO 159
A.6 MAC Layer 159
Appendix II: G.9963 Brief 160
Appendix III Patents Survey 161
IEEE802.11ah 161

?

Figure 1: 2x2 MIMO 10
Figure 2: Major Antenna Configurations 14
Figure 3: MIMO Concept (2x2) 14
Figure 4: Illustration - Beamforming 15
Figure 5: MU-MIMO - Downlink 17
Figure 6: SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO 17
Figure 7: Evolution Path 22
Figure 8: Towards Wireless Mobile Broadband 22
Figure 9: LTE - IP 27
Figure 10: EPC - Reference Architecture 30
Figure 11: Projections: 4G Global Subscribers Base (Bil.) 34
Figure 12: Projections: LTE Global Subscribers Base (Bil.) 35
Figure 13: TAM: LTE Global Equipment Sale ($B) 36
Figure 14: Spectral Efficiency DL 65
Figure 15: Projections: Global - LTE MIMO Sales ($B) 66
Figure 16: 802.11n MAC 73
Figure 17: 802.11 Protocol Family MAC Frame Structure 75
Figure 18: TAM: Global - Wi-Fi Chipsets ($B) 81
Figure 19: TAM: Global - Wi-Fi Chipsets (Bill. Units) 81
Figure 20: TAM: Global - 802.11n Chipsets ($B) 82
Figure 21: TAM: Global - 802.11n Chipsets (Bil. Units) 82
Figure 22: 802.11n Market Geography 83
Figure 23: Channel Assignment 110
Figure 24: 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping-Global (Mil. Units) 113
Figure 25: 802.11ac Consumers AP Shipping-Global ($B) 114
Figure 26: Estimate: Global Shipping - 802.11ac MU-MIMO Consumers AP ($B) 115
Figure 27: Projections: Global 802.11ac Consumers AP MIMO Sales ($B) 130
Figure 28: PLC-MIMO (2x2) 137
Figure 29: MIMO -Details 138
Figure 30: Maximum Theoretical PHY Rates (home media) based on published figures 139
Figure 31: HomePlug AV2 Features 144
Figure 32: MIMO PLC Channels 147
Figure 34: Frequency Spectrum 158
Figure 35: 802.11ah - Channelization Plan in U.S. 159

Table 1: MIMO Variations 18
Table 2: MIMO Benefits 19
Table 3: 3GPP Releases 21
Table 4: Dates 21
Table 5: Initial LTE Characteristics: Illustration 25
Table 6: LTE Frequency Bands 26
Table 7: Users Equipment Categories (Rel. 8) 29
Table 8: UE Categories (Rel. 10) 29
Table 9: LTE Transmission Modes - MIMO 62
Table 10: Additional Details 63
Table 11: 802.11 Standard Characteristics - Draft 1.0 68
Table 12: 802.11n PHY 72
Table 13: Comparison: 802.11 Family Members Transfer Rates 74
Table 14: 802.11n Enhancements 77
Table 15: 802.11n Advantages 78
Table 16: MIMO PHY Characteristics 106
Table 17: Functionalities - 802.11ac 109
Table 18: Specifics 110
Table 19: Rates 110
Table 20: Usage Models 112
Table 21: 802.11ac Waves 112
Table 22: 802.11n vs. 802.11ac 128
Table 23: ITU and HomePNA Standards 136
Table 24: Comparative Characteristics 139
Table 25: Frequency-Rate Characteristics 140


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