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  5. > 2013 Instrumentation and Sensors Research Review

2013 Instrumentation and Sensors Research Review

  • December 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 189 pages

FOREWORD

Research Reviews from BCC Research provide market professionals with concise market coverage within a specific research category. These Research Reviews include portions of several market research reports that were published in 2013, and are an efficient way for market professionals to keep up with the general market developments of 2013.
Please note that page references in the text are to pages in the original, complete report, and do not reflect the actual page numbers in this Research Review.

This 2013 Instrumentation and Sensors Research Review includes excerpts from the following reports:
• IAS006E Global Markets and Technologies for Sensors.
• IAS017E Microscopy: The Global Market.
• IAS022D Remote Sensing Technologies and Global Markets.
• IAS028B Portable Analysis Instrumentation.
• IAS029C Terahertz Radiation Systems: Technologies and Global Markets.
• IAS037B Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection Equipment: Major Applications and Global Markets.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

• The global market for sensors reached $68.2 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach $79.5 billion in 2014. The market is expected to rise at a CAGR of 7.9% and reach $116.1 billion by 2019.
• The global market for microscopes and accessories was worth $3.8 billion in 2012. Sales are projected to exceed $4.0 billion in 2013 and approach nearly $5.4 billion by 2018, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6% between 2013 and 2018.
• The global market for remote sensing products is expected to reach $7.6 billion by the end of 2013. This market is further expected to grow to $8.1 billion in 2014 and $12.1 billion in 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.2% over the five-year period from 2014 to 2019.

Table Of Contents

2013 Instrumentation and Sensors Research Review
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ABOUT BCC RESEARCH REVIEWS 2

FOREWORD 2

CHAPTER 2 GLOBAL MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR SENSORS (REPORT IAS006E) 4

INTRODUCTION 4
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 4
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 4
INTENDED AUDIENCE 5
SCOPE AND FORMAT 5
METHODOLOGY 5
INFORMATION SOURCES 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 6
SUMMARY 6
TABLE 1 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SENSORS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SENSORS BY TYPE, 2012-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
DEFINITION OF THE INDUSTRY 8
INDUSTRY CONCEPTS 9
IMPORTANCE OF THE SENSOR INDUSTRY 9
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SENSORS 9
LIFE CYCLE STAGES OF SENSORS 10
TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE 10
LIFE CYCLE COST 10
HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY 11
HISTORY OF MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 11
HISTORY OF STRAIN GAUGES 12
HISTORY OF LOAD CELL SENSORS 13
HISTORY OF ACCELEROMETERS 13
HISTORY OF MEMS SENSORS 14
HISTORY OF BIOSENSORS 15
GOVERNMENT REGULATION 15
REGULATION OF SENSORS IN AUTOMOBILES 15
TREAD Act 16
EU TPMS Legislation 16
Automobile Industry Standards 16
U.S. Standards 16
U.S. Standards on Crash Avoidance 17
U.S. Standards on Crash Worthiness 17
REGULATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 18

CHAPTER 3 MICROSCOPY: THE GLOBAL MARKET (REPORT IAS017E) 20

INTRODUCTION 20
STUDY BACKGROUND 20
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 20
INTENDED AUDIENCE 20
SCOPE AND FORMAT 21
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 21
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 21
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 22
SUMMARY 22
TABLE 2 MARKET FOR MICROSCOPES, ACCESSORIES AND SUPPLIES, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 22
FIGURE 2 MARKET FOR MICROSCOPES, ACCESSORIES AND SUPPLIES, 2012-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 23
MICROSCOPY OVERVIEW 24
DEFINITIONS 24
Charged Particle 24
Compound Microscope 24
Confocal Microscope 24
Depth of Field 24
Dispersion 24
Eyepiece 25
Inverted Microscope 25
Immersion Media 25
Lens 25
FIGURE 3 MAGNIFYING LENS PRINCIPLES 25
Magnification 26
Nanoscale 26
Near Field 26
Numerical Aperture (NA) 26
Objective 26
Phase Shift 26
FIGURE 4 LIGHT WAVE PHASES 27
Polarization 27
FIGURE 5 POLARIZATION 28
Reflected Light Microscopes 28
Reflecting Microscopes 28
Refraction 28
FIGURE 6 REFRACTION 28
Resolution 29
Scanning Probe 30
Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) 30
Stereoscopic 30
Tunneling Current 30
Wavelength 31
FIGURE 7 LIGHT WAVE 31
FIGURE 8 WAVELENGTHS USED IN OPTICAL MICROSCOPY (NM) 31
BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROSCOPY 32
TYPES OF MICROSCOPES 34
OPTICAL MICROSCOPES 34
Description and Applications 34
TABLE 3 TYPES AND MAIN APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPES 34
Upright (Compound) Microscopes 35
Binocular Stereomicroscopes 35
Polarizing Microscopes 35
Metallographic Microscopes 36
Reflecting Microscopes 36
FIGURE 9 REFLECTING MICROSCOPE 36
Phase Contrast Microscopes 37
FIGURE 10 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF A PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPE 38
Fluorescence Microscope 38
FIGURE 11 FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY PRINCIPLES 39
FIGURE 12 FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPE LAYOUT 39
Confocal Microscopes 40
FIGURE 13 PRINCIPLES OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY 41
Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopes (SNOM) 43
FIGURE 14 SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPE PRINCIPLES 44
Inverted Microscopes 44
Other Types of Optical Microscope 45
Advanced Confocal Microscopy 45
Phase-Sensitive Scatter-Field Optical Imaging 45
Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) 46
Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (STED) 46
Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) 46
Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) Microscopy 47
Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy 47
Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy 47
Simultaneous Light Scattering Microscopy (LSM) 47
4Pi Microscopy 47
Microsphere Nanoscope 48
Metamaterial-Lens Microscopes 48
Patent Analysis 49
Technologies 49
FIGURE 15 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, AS OF JUNE
15, 2013 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 49
TABLE 4 U.S. OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS AS OF JUNE 15, 2013 (NUMBER OF
PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY) 50
Trends Over Time 50
FIGURE 16 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 50
TABLE 5 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 51
Patent Holders 51
FIGURE 17 MAJOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS (%) 51
TABLE 6 MAJOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS (NUMBER/%) 52
FIGURE 18 MAJOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
(PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL PATENTS) 52
TABLE 7 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (NUMBER
OF PATENTS) 54
Manufacturers 54
TABLE 8 OPTICAL MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS 54
CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPES 55
Description and Applications 55
TABLE 9 TYPES AND PRIMARY APPLICATIONS OF CHARGED PARTICLE
MICROSCOPES 56
Transmission Electron Microscopes 56
FIGURE 19 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 57
Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) 59
FIGURE 20 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 60
FIGURE 21 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE - SAMPLE INTERACTION 60
Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) 61
Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FESEMs) 62
Field Ion Microscopes (FIM) 62
Other Types of Electron Microscopes 63
Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) 63
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopes (STEMs) 63
High-Voltage Electron Microscopes 63
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Microscopes 64
Reflection Electron Microscope (REM) 64
Low-Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) 65
Photoelectron Emission Microscope (PEEM) 65
Patent Analysis 65
Technologies 66
FIGURE 22 U.S. CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH JUNE 15, 2013 (PERCENT OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED) 66
TABLE 10 U.S. CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS, THROUGH JUNE 15,
2013 (NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF U.S. PATENTS) 66
FIGURE 23 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE
OF TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 67
TABLE 11 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE
OF TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 68
Patent Holders 68
FIGURE 24 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPE PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH JUNE
15, 2013 (% OF TOTAL PATENTS ISSUED) 68
TABLE 12 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH JUNE 15,
2013 (NUMBER OF PATENTS ISSUED) 69
FIGURE 25 MAJOR CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 69
TABLE 13 MAJOR CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS, BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 70
Manufacturers 70
TABLE 14 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS 71
SCANNING-PROBE MICROSCOPES 71
Description and Applications 71
FIGURE 26 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE 71
TABLE 15 TYPES AND PRIMARY APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPES 73
Scanning Tunneling Microscopes (STM) 73
Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) 74
FIGURE 27 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE PROBE 74
Other Types of Scanning Probe Microscopes 76
Magnetic Force Microscopes (MFMs) 76
Electric Force Microscopes (EFMs) 76
Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) 77
Patent Analysis 77
Technologies 78
FIGURE 28 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
AS OF JUNE 15, 2013 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 78
TABLE 16 U.S. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS (NUMBER/%) 78
Trends Over Time 78
FIGURE 29 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE
OF TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY) 79
TABLE 17 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 79
Patent Holders 79
FIGURE 30 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH
(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL U.S. PATENTS ISSUED) 80
TABLE 18 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS (NUMBER/%) 80
FIGURE 31 MAJOR SPM PATENT HOLDERS, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (PERCENTAGE
OF TOTAL PATENTS) 81
TABLE 19 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS, BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 81
Manufacturers 82
TABLE 20 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS 82
ACCESSORIES AND SUPPLIES 83
Description and Applications 83
TABLE 21 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORIES AND THEIR MAIN FUNCTIONS 83
Photomicroscopy Equipment 83
Illumination Systems 84
Microscope Stages and Accessories 84
Eyepieces 85
Objectives 85
Scanning Probes 85
Consumables 86
Patent Analysis 86
Accessory Types 86
FIGURE 32 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS ISSUED) 87
TABLE 22 U.S. MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY PATENTS (NUMBER/%) 87
Patent Holders 88
FIGURE 33 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH JUNE 15, 2013
(PERCENT OF PATENTS ISSUED) 88
TABLE 23 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY PATENT HOLDERS AND APPLICANTS,
THROUGH JUNE 15, 2013 (%) 88
Manufacturers 88
TABLE 24 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY MANUFACTURERS 89
END USERS 89
TABLE 25 MICROSCOPE END-USER INDUSTRIES 90
SEMICONDUCTORS 90
Optical Microscopes 90
Charged Particle Microscopes 91
Scanning Probe Microscopes 92
PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV) 92
LIFE SCIENCES 92
TABLE 26 GLOBAL LIFE SCIENCES SALES, 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 92
Optical Microscopes 93
Charged Particle Microscopes 94
MATERIALS SCIENCE 94
FIGURE 34 MATERIALS SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS MAJOR MARKET SEGMENTS, 2012
(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL SALES) 95
Optical Microscopes 95
Charged Particle Microscopes 96
Scanning Probe Microscopes 97
NANOTECHNOLOGY 97
Charged Particle Microscopes 97
Scanning Probe Microscopes 98
OTHER END USERS 98
Education 98
Optical Microscopes 98
Other Types of Microscopes 98
Environmental Science 98
Optical Microscopes 99
Charged Particle Microscopes 99
Forensics 99
Optical Microscopes 99
Charged Particle Microscopes 100
Food Processing 100
Optical Microscopes 100
Charged Particle Microscopes 100

CHAPTER 4 REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS (REPORT IAS022D) 102

INTRODUCTION 102
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 103
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 104
INTENDED AUDIENCE 105
SCOPE OF REPORT 105
METHODOLOGY 105
INFORMATION SOURCES 106
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 106
RELATED BCC RESEARCH WORK CREDENTIALS 106
SUMMARY 107
TABLE 27 VALUE OF REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS BY PLATFORM, THROUGH 2019
($ BILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 35 VALUE OF REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS BY PLATFORM, 2013-2019 ($
BILLIONS) 107
OVERVIEW 108
NATIONAL MARKET FORECAST TO 2019 109
TABLE 28 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 109
GOVERNMENTS DRIVE SUPPLY AND DEMAND 110
TABLE 29 U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCY INVOLVEMENT IN COMMERCIAL REMOTE
SENSING PRODUCTS 111
AN EVOLVING U.S. NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL STRATEGY 112
THE GPS-GIS CONVERGENCE 113
GPS 113
NAVSTAR 114
TABLE 30 NAVSTAR SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 114
Galileo 115
TABLE 31 GALILEO SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 115
GLONASS 115
TABLE 32 GLONASS SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 116
Compass/Beidou 117
TABLE 33 COMPASS/BEIDOU SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 117
TABLE 34 COMPASS BEIDOU 2 SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 117
Indian and Japanese Constellations 117
GIS 118

CHAPTER 5 PORTABLE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION (REPORT IAS028B) 120

INTRODUCTION 120
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 120
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 120
INTENDED AUDIENCE 121
SCOPE AND FORMAT 121
METHODOLOGY 121
INFORMATION SOURCES 123
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 124
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 124
SUMMARY 125
TABLE 35 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PORTABLE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION ($
MILLIONS) 126
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PORTABLE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION ($
MILLIONS) 126
OVERVIEW OF THE PORTABLE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION MARKET 127
INSTRUMENT DEFINITIONS 127
TABLE 36 THE 17 PAIS FORECAST IN THIS STUDY (BY COMMON NAME AND 2007
HARMONIZED TARIFF SCHEDULE CODE) 127
DEFINING PORTABILITY 128
TABLE 37 PAPERS PUBLISHED ON PORTABLE INSTRUMENTS, 1945-2012 128
TECHNOLOGY DRIVERS 129
NATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 136

CHAPTER 6 TERAHERTZ RADIATION SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS (REPORT IAS029C) 138

INTRODUCTION 138
STUDY BACKGROUND 138
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 138
INTENDED AUDIENCE 138
SCOPE AND FORMAT 139
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 139
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 140
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 141
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 141
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS,
BY TYPE OF SYSTEM, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 141
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS,
BY TYPE OF SYSTEM, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS,
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 143
FIGURE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS,
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 143
OVERVIEW 143
DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION 143
PROPERTIES 144
Line of Sight Travel 144
Limited Range 144
Safety 145
Ability to Penetrate Nonconducting Materials 146
Improved Image Resolution/Contrast 146
Absorption by Water and Other Materials 146
Interactions with Metal 147
Spectral Sensitivity 147
HISTORY 147
THZ ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 149
THZ SOURCES 149
Laser Sources 149
Optically Pumped THz Lasers 149
Ti:Sapphire Femtosecond Laser 150
Quantum Cascade Lasers 150
Free-Electron Lasers 151
Electronic Sources 151
Backward-Wave Oscillators 152
Direct Multiplied Sources 152
Photomixing 152
Hybrid Sources 153
THZ DETECTORS 153
Direct Detectors 153
Bolometers 153
Golay Cells 154
Pyroelectric Detectors 154
Semiconductor Detectors 154
Heterodyne Receivers 155
Schottky Mixers 155
Superconductor-Isolator-Superconductor Mixers 155
Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers 156
Other Technologies 156
Semiconductor Nanowire-Based Detectors 156
THZ WAVEGUIDES 156
Metal Wire Waveguide 157
Other Types of THz Waveguide 157
THZ SWITCHES, REGULATORS, LENSES AND OTHER DEVICES 157
Optically Switched Metamaterial THz Switch 158
Organic Molecule Switching 158
Voltage Controlled Metamaterial THz Modulator 158
Ballistic Deflection THz Transistor 158
THz Lenses, Filters and Windows 159
THz Isolator 159
Nanotube-Based THz Isolator 159
Metal-Insulator Electronics 159
NEW MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES 160
Nanomaterials 160
Superconductors 160
Metamaterials 161
FIGURE 39 SPLIT RING RESONATOR 162
Graphene 162
Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) 164
TYPES OF THZ SYSTEMS 164
IMAGING SYSTEMS 165
SPECTROSCOPES 165
SENSORS 165
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES 166
COMPUTERS 166
THERAPEUTIC DEVICES 166
POTENTIAL THZ END USES AND APPLICATIONS 167
TABLE 40 POTENTIAL END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF THZ RADIATION 167
OVERALL MARKET SIZE AND SEGMENTATION 167
MARKET SIZE 167
FIGURE 40 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS, 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 167
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 168
TABLE 41 MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 168
FIGURE 41 THZ MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2012-2023 (% OF
TOTAL SALES) 169

CHAPTER 7 ULTRAVIOLET (UV) DISINFECTION EQUIPMENT: MAJOR APPLICATIONS AND GLOBAL MARKETS (REPORT IAS037B) 172

INTRODUCTION 172
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 172
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 172
INTENDED AUDIENCE 172
SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT 173
METHODOLOGY 173
INFORMATION SOURCES 173
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 174
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 174
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 174
TABLE 42 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR UV DISINFECTION EQUIPMENT BY END
USE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 177
FIGURE 42 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR UV DISINFECTION EQUIPMENT BY END
USE, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 177
OVERVIEW 178
TABLE 43 CATEGORIES OF UV LIGHT 179
TABLE 44 A BRIEF TIMELINE OF UV TECHNOLOGY 179
APPLICATIONS FOR UV 180
TABLE 45 APPLICATIONS FOR UV 180
FACTORS DRIVING GROWTH OF THE UV EQUIPMENT MARKET 181
UV EQUIPMENT 182
UV LAMPS 182
TABLE 46 UV LAMP TYPES 182
Mercury Vapor Lamps 182
Low-Pressure Mercury UV Lamps 183
Low-Pressure, High-Output Lamps 184
Medium-Pressure Mercury UV Lamps 184
TABLE 47 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MERCURY UV LAMPS 185
Metal Halide Lamps 185
Xenon Lamps 185
Excimer Lamps 185
LEDs 186
LAMP BALLASTS 186
TABLE 48 COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRONIC BALLASTS 187
LAMP SLEEVES 187
CLEANING SYSTEMS 188
SENSORS 189
UVT ANALYZERS 189
OTHER 189
REACTORS 190
Lamp Configuration 190
Water Flow 190
HOW UV WORKS 191
DOSAGE 192
TABLE 49 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS BACTERIA
(MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 192
TABLE 50 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS MOLD
SPORES (MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 193
TABLE 51 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS
PROTOZOA AND ALGAE (MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 194
TABLE 52 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS VIRUSES
(MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 194
TABLE 53 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS YEASTS
(MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 194
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR UV UNITS 195
LAMP CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT 195
PERFORMANCE MONITORING 195



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SENSORS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 2 MARKET FOR MICROSCOPES, ACCESSORIES AND SUPPLIES, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 22
TABLE 3 TYPES AND MAIN APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPES 34
TABLE 4 U.S. OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS AS OF JUNE 15, 2013 (NUMBER OF
PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY) 50
TABLE 5 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 51
TABLE 6 MAJOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS (NUMBER/%) 52
TABLE 7 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (NUMBER
OF PATENTS) 54
TABLE 8 OPTICAL MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS 54
TABLE 9 TYPES AND PRIMARY APPLICATIONS OF CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPES 56
TABLE 10 U.S. CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS, THROUGH JUNE 15,
2013 (NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF U.S. PATENTS) 66
TABLE 11 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE
OF TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 68
TABLE 12 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH JUNE 15,
2013 (NUMBER OF PATENTS ISSUED) 69
TABLE 13 MAJOR CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS, BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 70
TABLE 14 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS 71
TABLE 15 TYPES AND PRIMARY APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPES 73
TABLE 16 U.S. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS (NUMBER/%) 78
TABLE 17 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 79
TABLE 18 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS (NUMBER/%) 80
TABLE 19 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
(NUMBER OF PATENTS) 81
TABLE 20 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS 82
TABLE 21 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORIES AND THEIR MAIN FUNCTIONS 83
TABLE 22 U.S. MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY PATENTS (NUMBER/%) 87
TABLE 23 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY PATENT HOLDERS AND APPLICANTS, THROUGH
JUNE 15, 2013 (%) 88
TABLE 24 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY MANUFACTURERS 89
TABLE 25 MICROSCOPE END-USER INDUSTRIES 90
TABLE 26 GLOBAL LIFE SCIENCES SALES, 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 92
TABLE 27 VALUE OF REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS BY PLATFORM, THROUGH 2019 ($
BILLIONS) 107
TABLE 28 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 29 U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCY INVOLVEMENT IN COMMERCIAL REMOTE
SENSING PRODUCTS 111
TABLE 30 NAVSTAR SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 114
TABLE 31 GALILEO SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 115
TABLE 32 GLONASS SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 116
TABLE 33 COMPASS/BEIDOU SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 117
TABLE 34 COMPASS BEIDOU 2 SATELLITES (DATE LAUNCHED) 117
TABLE 35 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PORTABLE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION ($
MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 36 THE 17 PAIS FORECAST IN THIS STUDY (BY COMMON NAME AND 2007
HARMONIZED TARIFF SCHEDULE CODE) 127
TABLE 37 PAPERS PUBLISHED ON PORTABLE INSTRUMENTS, 1945-2012 128
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS, BY
TYPE OF SYSTEM, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS, BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 40 POTENTIAL END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF THZ RADIATION 167
TABLE 41 MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 168
TABLE 42 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR UV DISINFECTION EQUIPMENT BY END
USE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 177
TABLE 43 CATEGORIES OF UV LIGHT 179
TABLE 44 A BRIEF TIMELINE OF UV TECHNOLOGY 179
TABLE 45 APPLICATIONS FOR UV 180
TABLE 46 UV LAMP TYPES 182
TABLE 47 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MERCURY UV LAMPS 185
TABLE 48 COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRONIC BALLASTS 187
TABLE 49 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS BACTERIA
(MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 192
TABLE 50 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS MOLD
SPORES (MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 193
TABLE 51 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS PROTOZOA
AND ALGAE (MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 194
TABLE 52 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS VIRUSES
(MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 194
TABLE 53 UV DOSAGE REQUIRED FOR 99.9% DISINFECTION OF VARIOUS YEASTS
(MICROWATTS-S/CM2 AT 254 NM) 194



LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SENSORS BY TYPE, 2012-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 2 MARKET FOR MICROSCOPES, ACCESSORIES AND SUPPLIES, 2012-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 23
FIGURE 3 MAGNIFYING LENS PRINCIPLES 25
FIGURE 4 LIGHT WAVE PHASES 27
FIGURE 5 POLARIZATION 28
FIGURE 6 REFRACTION 28
FIGURE 7 LIGHT WAVE 31
FIGURE 8 WAVELENGTHS USED IN OPTICAL MICROSCOPY (NM) 31
FIGURE 9 REFLECTING MICROSCOPE 36
FIGURE 10 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF A PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPE 38
FIGURE 11 FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY PRINCIPLES 39
FIGURE 12 FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPE LAYOUT 39
FIGURE 13 PRINCIPLES OF CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY 41
FIGURE 14 SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPE PRINCIPLES 44
FIGURE 15 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, AS OF JUNE
15, 2013 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 49
FIGURE 16 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 50
FIGURE 17 MAJOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS (%) 51
FIGURE 18 MAJOR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
(PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL PATENTS) 52
FIGURE 19 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 57
FIGURE 20 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 60
FIGURE 21 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE - SAMPLE INTERACTION 60
FIGURE 22 U.S. CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH JUNE 15, 2013 (PERCENT OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED) 66
FIGURE 23 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE
OF TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 67
FIGURE 24 CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPE PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH JUNE 15,
2013 (% OF TOTAL PATENTS ISSUED) 68
FIGURE 25 MAJOR CHARGED PARTICLE MICROSCOPY PATENT HOLDERS BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 69
FIGURE 26 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE 71
FIGURE 27 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE PROBE 74
FIGURE 28 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, AS
OF JUNE 15, 2013 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS) 78
FIGURE 29 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY BY TYPE OF
TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2012 (NUMBER OF PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY) 79
FIGURE 30 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH
(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL U.S. PATENTS ISSUED) 80
FIGURE 31 MAJOR SPM PATENT HOLDERS, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE (PERCENTAGE OF
TOTAL PATENTS) 81
FIGURE 32 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PATENTS ISSUED) 87
FIGURE 33 MICROSCOPE ACCESSORY PATENT HOLDERS, THROUGH JUNE 15, 2013
(PERCENT OF PATENTS ISSUED) 88
FIGURE 34 MATERIALS SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS MAJOR MARKET SEGMENTS, 2012
(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL SALES) 95
FIGURE 35 VALUE OF REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS BY PLATFORM, 2013-2019 ($
BILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PORTABLE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION ($
MILLIONS) 126
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS,
BY TYPE OF SYSTEM, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 142
FIGURE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TERAHERTZ RADIATION DEVICES AND SYSTEMS,
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 143
FIGURE 39 SPLIT RING RESONATOR 162
FIGURE 40 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR THZ SYSTEMS, 2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 167
FIGURE 41 THZ MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2012-2023 (% OF TOTAL
SALES) 169
FIGURE 42 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR UV DISINFECTION EQUIPMENT BY END
USE, 2000-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 177

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