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Despite the lack of sufficient LTE coverage in parts of the world, mobile operators and vendors have already embarked on R&D initiatives to develop 5G, the next evolution in mobile networks. 5G is expected to provide a single network environment to deliver not only existing mobile broadband and IoT services, but also new innovations such as self-driving cars, cloud robotics, 3D holographic telepresence and remote surgery with haptic feedback.

In fact, many mobile operators are betting on 5G to diversify their revenue streams, as conventional voice and data service ARPUs decline globally. For example, South Korea's KT has established a dedicated business unit for holograms, which it envisions to be a key source of revenue for its future 5G network.

At present, the 3GPP and other SDOs (Standards Development Organizations) are engaged in defining the first phase of 5G specifications. However, pre-standards 5G network rollouts are already underway, most notably in the United States and South Korea, as mobile operators rush to be the first to offer 5G services. SNS Research estimates that by the end of 2017, pre-standards 5G network investments are expected to account for over $250 Million.

Although 2020 has conventionally been regarded as the headline date for 5G commercialization, the very first standardized deployments of the technology are expected to be commercialized as early as 2019 with the 3GPP's initial 5G specifications set to be implementation-ready by March 2018. Between 2019 and 2025, we expect the 5G network infrastructure market to aggressively grow a CAGR of nearly 70%, eventually accounting for $28 Billion in annual spending by the end of 2025. These infrastructure investments will be complemented by annual shipments of up to 520 Million 5G-capable devices.

The “5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2017 – 2030 – Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts” report presents an in-depth assessment of the emerging 5G ecosystem including key market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, usage scenarios, vertical market applications, mobile operator deployment commitments, case studies, spectrum availability/allocation, standardization, research initiatives and vendor strategies. The report also presents forecasts for 5G investments and operator services.

The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report, as well as a 5G deployment tracking database covering over 60 global 5G trials, demos and commercial deployment commitments (as of Q1’2017).

Topics Covered
The report covers the following topics:
- 5G NR (New Radio) and NextGen (Next Generation) system architecture
- Market drivers and barriers to the adoption of 5G networks
- 5G requirements, usage scenarios, vertical markets and applications
- Key enabling technologies including air interface design, higher frequency radio access, advanced antenna systems, flexible duplex schemes, D2D (Device-to-Device) connectivity, dynamic spectrum access, self-backhauling and network slicing
- Complementary concepts including NFV, SDN, hyperscale data centers, Cloud RAN, satellite communications and aerial networking platforms
- Case studies and review of mobile operator 5G commitments
- 5G standardization, development and research initiatives
- Analysis of spectrum availability and allocation strategies for 5G networks
- Competitive assessment of vendor strategies
- Review of investments on R&D and pre-standards 5G networks
- Standardized 5G infrastructure, user equipment and operator service forecasts till 2030

Forecast Segmentation
Market forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:

5G R&D Investments
- New Air Interface & Millimeter Wave Radio Access
- MIMO, Beamforming & Advanced Antenna Technologies
- Spectrum Sharing, Aggregation & Interference Management
- Virtualization & Cloud RAN
- Network Slicing & Other Technologies

Pre-Standards 5G Network Investments
- Pre-Standards Base Stations
- Pre-Standards User Equipment
- Transport Networking & Other Investments

Standardized 5G Infrastructure Investments
- 5G NR (New Radio)
- Distributed Macrocell Base Stations
- Small Cells
- RRHs (Remote Radio Heads)
- C-RAN BBUs (Baseband Units)
- NextGen (Next Generation) Core Network
- Fronthaul & Backhaul Networking

Standardized 5G User Equipment Investments
- Handsets
- Tablets
- Embedded IoT Modules
- USB Dongles
- Routers

5G Operator Services
- Subscriptions
- Service Revenue

Regional Segmentation
- Asia Pacific
- Eastern Europe
- Latin & Central America
- Middle East & Africa
- North America
- Western Europe

Key Questions Answered
The report provides answers to the following key questions:
- How big is the opportunity for 5G network infrastructure, user equipment and operator services?
- What trends, challenges and barriers will influence the development and adoption of 5G?
- How will 5G drive the adoption of AR (Augmented Reality)/VR (Virtual Reality) applications such as 3D holographic telepresence and 360 degree streaming of live events?
- How have advanced antenna and chip technologies made it possible to utilize millimeter wave spectrum for mobile communications in 5G networks?
- How can non-orthogonal multiple access schemes such as RSMA (Resource Spread Multiple Access) enable 5G networks to support higher connection densities for Millions of IoT devices?
- What will be the number of 5G subscriptions in 2019 and at what rate will it grow?
- Which regions and countries will be the first to adopt 5G?
- Which frequency bands are most likely to be utilized by 5G networks?
- Who are the key 5G vendors and what are their strategies?
- Will 5G networks rely on a disaggregated RAN architecture?
- How will 5G impact the fiber industry?
- Will satellite communications and aerial networking platforms play a wider role in 5G networks?

Key Findings
The report has the following key findings:
- The Unites States and South Korea are spearheading early investments in pre-standards 5G trial networks, as mobile operators rush to be the first to offer 5G networks. SNS Research estimates that by the end of 2017, pre-standards 5G network investments are expected to account for over $250 Million.
- Following completion of the 3GPP's first phase of 5G specifications in March 2018, SNS Research expects that early adopters across the globe will simultaneously begin commercializing 5G services in 2019.
- Between 2019 and 2025, we expect the 5G network infrastructure market to aggressively grow a CAGR of nearly 70%, eventually accounting for $28 Billion in annual spending by the end of 2025.
- Although early 5G R&D investments have primarily targeted the radio access segment, network-slicing has recently emerged as necessary "end-to-end" capability to guarantee performance for different 5G applications which may have contrasting requirements.
- In order to support diverse usage scenarios, 5G networks are expected to utilize a variety of frequency bands ranging from established sub-6 GHz cellular bands to millimeter wave spectrum.

Table Of Contents

The 5G Wireless Ecosystem: 2017 - 2030 - Technologies, Applications, Verticals, Strategies and Forecasts
1 Chapter 1: Introduction 24
1.1 Executive Summary 24
1.2 Topics Covered 26
1.3 Forecast Segmentation 27
1.4 Key Questions Answered 29
1.5 Key Findings 30
1.6 Methodology 31
1.7 Target Audience 32
1.8 Companies and Organizations Mentioned 33

2 Chapter 2: The Evolving 5G Ecosystem 38
2.1 What is 5G? 38
2.2 High-Level Architecture of 5G Networks 38
2.2.1 5G NR (New Radio) Access Network 38
2.2.2 NextGen (Next Generation) Core Network 40
2.3 5G Performance Requirements 40
2.3.1 Data Volume 41
2.3.2 Data Rate 41
2.3.3 Bandwidth 41
2.3.4 Spectral Efficiency 42
2.3.5 Response Time and Latency 42
2.3.6 Connection Density 43
2.3.7 Reliability 43
2.3.8 Mobility 43
2.3.9 Availability and Coverage 44
2.3.10 Energy Efficiency 44
2.4 5G Market Drivers 44
2.4.1 Why the Need for a 5G Standard? 44
2.4.2 Improving Spectrum Utilization 45
2.4.3 Advances in Key Enabling Technologies 45
2.4.4 Gigabit Wireless Connectivity: Supporting Future Services 46
2.4.5 Extreme Device Densities with the IoT (Internet of Things) 46
2.4.6 Moving Towards a Flatter Network Architecture 46
2.4.7 Role of Vertical Sectors and the 4th Industrial Revolution 47
2.5 Challenges and Inhibitors to 5G 47
2.5.1 Standardization Challenges: Too Many Stakeholders 47
2.5.2 Spectrum Regulation and Complexities 48
2.5.3 Massive MIMO, Beamforming and Antenna Technology Issues 48
2.5.4 Higher Frequencies Mean New Infrastructure 48
2.5.5 Complex Performance Requirements 49
2.5.6 Energy Efficiency and Technology Scaling 49

3 Chapter 3: 5G Usage Scenarios, Applications and Vertical Markets 50
3.1 Usage Scenarios 50
3.1.1 eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband) 50
3.1.2 URLCC (Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications) 51
3.1.3 mMTC (Massive Machine-Type Communications) 51
3.2 Key Applications and Vertical Markets 52
3.2.1 Consumer and Multi-Sector Applications 52
3.2.1.1 FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) 52
3.2.1.2 TV and Media Delivery 54
3.2.1.3 3D Imaging and Holograms 55
3.2.1.4 Virtual Presence 55
3.2.1.5 AR (Augmented Reality) 56
3.2.1.6 VR (Augmented Reality) 57
3.2.1.7 Real-Time Gaming 57
3.2.1.8 Tactile Internet 58
3.2.1.9 Mobile Cloud Services 59
3.2.1.10 5G Enabled Robotics 59
3.2.1.11 Connected Drones 60
3.2.1.12 Smart and Connected Homes 60
3.2.1.13 Connectivity for Smart Wearables 61
3.2.1.14 Conventional Mobile Broadband and Other Applications 61
3.2.2 Healthcare 62
3.2.2.1 Telemedicine 62
3.2.2.2 Bio-Connectivity: Enabling Telecare 63
3.2.2.3 Remote Surgery and Other Applications 63
3.2.3 Automotive and Transportation 64
3.2.3.1 Connected Cars: Infotainment, Navigation and Other Services 64
3.2.3.2 C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications 65
3.2.3.3 Autonomous Driving 66
3.2.3.4 Intelligent Transportation 67
3.2.3.5 Connectivity for High-Speed Railway, Aerial and Maritime Environments 67
3.2.4 Public Safety and Critical Communications 68
3.2.4.1 MCPTT (Mission-Critical Push-to-Talk) 68
3.2.4.2 Off-Network Secure Communications 68
3.2.4.3 Situational Awareness 69
3.2.4.4 Disaster Relief and Other Applications 69
3.2.5 Industrial Automation 70
3.2.5.1 5G Enabled Smart Factories 70
3.2.5.2 Machine Vision 70
3.2.5.3 Extending the Factory Floor To the Cloud 71
3.2.5.4 Real-Time Assistance and Other Applications 71
3.2.6 Other Vertical Sector Applications 72
3.2.6.1 Agriculture 72
3.2.6.2 Asset Management and Logistics 72
3.2.6.3 Construction 73
3.2.6.4 Education 73
3.2.6.5 Energy, Utilities and Smart Grids 74
3.2.6.6 Fitness and Sports 74
3.2.6.7 Retail, Advertising and Vending 75
3.2.6.8 Smart Cities and Other Sectors 75

4 Chapter 4: Enabling Technologies for 5G 77
4.1 Key Technologies and Concepts 77
4.1.1 Flexible Air Interface Design 77
4.1.1.1 Frame Structure 77
4.1.1.2 Multiple Numerologies 78
4.1.1.3 Other Aspects 79
4.1.2 5G Waveform Candidates 79
4.1.2.1 CP-OFDM (OFDM with Cyclic Prefix) 79
4.1.2.2 CP-OFDM with WOLA (Weighted Overlap and Add) 80
4.1.2.3 FCP-OFDM (Flexible CP-OFDM) 80
4.1.2.4 F-OFDM (Filtered OFDM) 80
4.1.2.5 BF-OFDM (Block Filtered OFDM) 81
4.1.2.6 FBMC (Filter Bank Multi-Carrier)/FB-OFDM (Filter Bank OFDM) 81
4.1.2.7 UFMC (Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier)/UF-OFDM (Universal Filtered OFDM) 82
4.1.2.8 GFDM (Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing) 82
4.1.2.9 SC-FDM (Single Carrier FDM)/DFT-S OFDM (Discrete Fourier Transform-Spread OFDM) 82
4.1.2.10 Zero-Tail SC-FDM/DFT-S OFDM 83
4.1.2.11 SC-FDE (Single-Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization) 83
4.1.2.12 Other Options 83
4.1.3 Modulation Schemes 84
4.1.3.1 Initial Baseline for 5G NR 84
4.1.3.2 Going Beyond 256-QAM: Higher Order Modulations 85
4.1.3.3 Other Advanced Modulation Schemes 85
4.1.4 Multiple Access Schemes 87
4.1.4.1 OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) 87
4.1.4.2 SC-FDMA (Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) 87
4.1.4.3 SDMA (Spatial Division Multiple Access) 87
4.1.4.4 Power Domain NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) 88
4.1.4.5 Code Domain Techniques 88
4.1.4.5.1 MUSA (Multi-User Shared Access) 88
4.1.4.5.2 RSMA (Resource Spread Multiple Access) 89
4.1.4.5.3 LSSA (Low Code Rate and Signature Based Shared Access) 89
4.1.4.5.4 NOCA (Non-Orthogonal Coded Access) 90
4.1.4.5.5 NCMA (Non-Orthogonal Coded Multiple Access) 90
4.1.4.5.6 GOCA (Group Orthogonal Coded Access) 91
4.1.4.6 Hybrid-Domain and Interleaver-Based Techniques 91
4.1.4.6.1 SCMA (Spare Code Multiple Access) 91
4.1.4.6.2 PDMA (Pattern Division Multiple Access) 91
4.1.4.6.3 IDMA (Interleaver Division Multiple Access) 92
4.1.4.6.4 IGMA (Interleave-Grid Multiple Access) 92
4.1.4.6.5 RDMA (Repetition Division Multiple Access) 92
4.1.4.7 Other Methods 93
4.1.5 Channel Coding Schemes 94
4.1.5.1 LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) Coding 94
4.1.5.2 Polar Coding 94
4.1.6 Duplex Schemes 95
4.1.6.1 Dynamic TDD for Higher Frequencies 95
4.1.6.2 FDD and FDP (Flexible Duplexing on Paired Spectrum) 95
4.1.6.3 Full Duplex 96
4.1.7 Centimeter and Millimeter Wave Radio Access 97
4.1.8 Advanced Antenna Technologies 98
4.1.8.1 Massive MIMO and MU-MIMO 98
4.1.8.2 Phased Array Antennas 99
4.1.8.3 Beamforming and Beam Tracking 100
4.1.9 D2D (Device-to-Device) Connectivity and Communication 101
4.1.10 Self-Backhauling and Mesh Networking 102
4.1.11 Spectrum Sharing and Aggregation 103
4.1.11.1 Complex Carrier Aggregation Schemes 103
4.1.11.2 LSA (Licensed Shared Access): Two-Tiered Sharing 103
4.1.11.3 SAS (Spectrum Access System): Three-Tiered Sharing 104
4.1.11.4 LAA (License Assisted Access): Licensed and Unlicensed Spectrum Aggregation 106
4.1.11.5 New Mechanisms for 60 GHz Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing 107
4.1.11.6 MulteFire 107
4.1.11.7 Cognitive Radio and Spectrum Sensing 108
4.1.12 Multi-Site and Multi-RAN Connectivity 108
4.1.12.1 Dual-Connectivity with LTE 108
4.1.12.2 Interoperability with Wi-Fi and Other Networks 108
4.1.12.3 Multi-Site Connectivity and User Centric Cell Access 108
4.1.13 Control and User Plane Separation 109
4.1.14 Network Slicing 110
4.1.14.1 RAN Slicing 111
4.1.14.2 Core Network Slicing 111
4.1.14.3 End-to-End Network Slicing 112
4.1.15 Service Based Architecture 113
4.1.16 Network Security and Privacy Enhancements 114
4.2 Complementary Technologies 115
4.2.1 NFV and SDN 115
4.2.2 Cloud Computing and Hyperscale Data Centers 117
4.2.3 DevOps and Other IT Concepts 117
4.2.4 Big Data and Analytics 118
4.2.5 UDNs (Ultra Dense Networks) and HetNets 118
4.2.6 RAN Centralization and Functional Splitting 119
4.2.6.1 C-RAN (Centralized RAN) 119
4.2.6.2 RAN Functional Split Options 121
4.2.7 Cloud RAN 123
4.2.8 MEC (Multi-Access Edge Computing) 124
4.2.9 Wireline Fiber Infrastructure 125
4.2.9.1 Impact of 5G Rollouts on the Fiber Industry 125
4.2.9.2 Delivering Tbps Data Rates 125
4.2.9.3 Current Investment Trends 125
4.2.9.4 Role of Other Wireline Technologies 126
4.2.10 VLC (Visible Light Communication) and Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) 126
4.2.11 Satellites, Drones and Balloons 127
4.2.11.1 Satellite Integration for 5G Access and Transport Networking 127
4.2.11.2 Low-Earth Orbit Satellites for Gigabit Speeds: Existing Investments 128
4.2.11.3 Drones and Balloons for Coverage Extension 128
4.2.11.4 Interest from Mobile Operators 129

5 Chapter 5: 5G Investments and Future Forecast 130
5.1 How Much is Being Invested in 5G RandD? 130
5.2 RandD Investments by Technology 131
5.2.1 New Air Interface and Millimeter Wave Radio Access 132
5.2.2 MIMO, Beamforming and Advanced Antenna Technologies 133
5.2.3 Spectrum Sharing, Aggregation and Interference Management 134
5.2.4 Virtualization and Cloud RAN 135
5.2.5 Network Slicing and Other Technologies 136
5.3 Pre-Standards 5G Network Investments 137
5.3.1 Segmentation by Submarket 138
5.3.2 Base Stations 139
5.3.3 User Equipment 140
5.3.4 Transport Networking and Other Investments 141
5.4 Global Outlook for Standardized 5G Infrastructure 142
5.4.1 Segmentation by Submarket 143
5.4.2 5G NR 143
5.4.2.1 Distributed Macrocell Base Stations 144
5.4.2.2 Small Cells 145
5.4.2.3 RRHs (Remote Radio Heads) 146
5.4.2.4 C-RAN BBUs (Baseband Units) 147
5.4.3 NextGen Core Network 148
5.4.4 Fronthaul and Backhaul Networking 149
5.4.5 Segmentation by Region 149
5.5 Global Outlook for Standardized 5G User Equipment 150
5.5.1 Segmentation by Form Factor 151
5.5.2 Handsets 152
5.5.3 Tablets 153
5.5.4 Embedded IoT Modules 154
5.5.5 USB Dongles 155
5.5.6 Routers 156
5.5.7 Segmentation by Region 157
5.6 Global Outlook for 5G Operator Services 158
5.6.1 Subscriptions 158
5.6.2 Service Revenue 158
5.6.3 Regional Segmentation 159
5.7 Asia Pacific 160
5.7.1 Infrastructure 160
5.7.2 User Equipment 160
5.7.3 Subscriptions 161
5.7.4 Service Revenue 162
5.8 Eastern Europe 163
5.8.1 Infrastructure 163
5.8.2 User Equipment 163
5.8.3 Subscriptions 164
5.8.4 Service Revenue 165
5.9 Latin and Central America 166
5.9.1 Infrastructure 166
5.9.2 User Equipment 166
5.9.3 Subscriptions 167
5.9.4 Service Revenue 168
5.10 Middle East and Africa 169
5.10.1 Infrastructure 169
5.10.2 User Equipment 169
5.10.3 Subscriptions 170
5.10.4 Service Revenue 171
5.11 North America 172
5.11.1 Infrastructure 172
5.11.2 User Equipment 172
5.11.3 Subscriptions 173
5.11.4 Service Revenue 174
5.12 Western Europe 175
5.12.1 Infrastructure 175
5.12.2 User Equipment 175
5.12.3 Subscriptions 176
5.12.4 Service Revenue 177

6 Chapter 6: Mobile Operator Case Studies and Commitments 178
6.1.1 Mobile Operator Case Studies 178
6.1.1.1 ATandT 178
6.1.1.2 BT Group 182
6.1.1.3 China Mobile 184
6.1.1.4 DT (Deutsche Telekom) 187
6.1.1.5 KT Corporation 191
6.1.1.6 NTT DoCoMo 195
6.1.1.7 SK Telecom 199
6.1.1.8 Telefónica 204
6.1.1.9 Verizon Communications 207
6.1.1.10 Vodafone Group 210
6.2 Review of Mobile Operator 5G Commitments 213
6.2.1 Asia Pacific 213
6.2.1.1 Australia 213
6.2.1.2 China 214
6.2.1.3 Hong Kong 215
6.2.1.4 India 215
6.2.1.5 Japan 215
6.2.1.6 Philippines 217
6.2.1.7 Singapore 217
6.2.1.8 South Korea 218
6.2.1.9 Taiwan 219
6.2.1.10 Thailand 221
6.2.2 Europe 222
6.2.2.1 Belgium 222
6.2.2.2 Finland 222
6.2.2.3 France 222
6.2.2.4 Germany 223
6.2.2.5 Italy 223
6.2.2.6 Netherlands 224
6.2.2.7 Russia 224
6.2.2.8 Sweden 225
6.2.2.9 Switzerland 225
6.2.2.10 Turkey 226
6.2.2.11 United Kingdom 226
6.2.2.12 Other Countries 227
6.2.3 Latin and Central America 228
6.2.3.1 Brazil 228
6.2.3.2 Mexico 229
6.2.4 Middle East and Africa 230
6.2.4.1 Bahrain 230
6.2.4.2 Kuwait 230
6.2.4.3 Other Countries 230
6.2.4.4 Qatar 231
6.2.4.5 Saudi Arabia 231
6.2.4.6 UAE 231
6.2.5 North America 233
6.2.5.1 Canada 233
6.2.5.2 United States 233

7 Chapter 7: Spectrum for 5G Networks 237
7.1 Potential Frequency Bands for 5G 237
7.1.1 Sub-1 GHz Bands 238
7.1.2 1-6 GHz Bands 239
7.1.2.1 3.4 GHz 239
7.1.2.2 3.5 GHz 239
7.1.2.3 4.5 GHz 239
7.1.2.4 5 GHz 240
7.1.3 Bands Above 6 GHz 240
7.1.3.1 15 GHz 240
7.1.3.2 24-30 GHz 240
7.1.3.3 30-60 GHz 241
7.1.3.4 E-Band (60-90 GHz) 241
7.1.3.5 Higher Bands 241
7.2 Status of 5G Spectrum Allocation 242
7.3 Asia Pacific 242
7.3.1 Australia 242
7.3.2 China 242
7.3.3 Japan 243
7.3.4 Singapore 243
7.3.5 South Korea 244
7.3.6 Taiwan 244
7.3.7 Other Countries 244
7.4 Europe 245
7.4.1 European Commission and CEPT Recommendations 245
7.4.2 National Initiatives 246
7.5 Latin and Central America 247
7.5.1 CITEL Recommendations 247
7.5.2 National Initiatives 248
7.6 Middle East and Africa 248
7.6.1 GCC Countries 248
7.6.2 Africa and Other Countries 249
7.7 North America 249
7.7.1 Canada 249
7.7.2 United States 249

8 Chapter 8: 5G Standardization, Development and Research Initiatives 251
8.1 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) 251
8.1.1 Phased Standardization Approach 251
8.1.1.1 Phase 1: Release 15 252
8.1.1.2 Phase 2: Release 16 253
8.1.1.3 Enhancements to Address 5G Objectives in Earlier Releases 253
8.1.2 Key Aspects of 5G Standardization 253
8.1.2.1 5G NR Access Network 253
8.1.2.2 Support for Other Access Networks 254
8.1.2.3 NextGen System Architecture 254
8.1.2.4 Deployment Modes: Non-Standalone vs. Standalone Operation 256
8.2 5G Americas 258
8.2.1 5G Advocacy Efforts 258
8.3 5GAA (5G Automotive Association) 259
8.3.1 Advocacy for 5G and Cellular V2X Technology 259
8.3.2 Other Alliances in the Automotive Sector 259
8.4 Broadband Forum 260
8.4.1 Broadband 20/20 Vision: Convergence of 5G Mobile and Fixed Networks 260
8.5 CableLabs 260
8.5.1 Research on High Capacity Millimeter Wave Small Cells 260
8.5.2 Other Work Relevant to 5G 261
8.6 DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Alliance) 261
8.6.1 Dynamic Spectrum Sharing for 5G 261
8.7 ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) 262
8.7.1 ISGs (Industry Specification Groups) for 5G Enabling Technologies 262
8.7.1.1 mWT ISG (Millimeter Wave Transmission ISG) 262
8.7.1.2 ISG NFV (ISG for Network Functions Virtualization) 262
8.7.1.3 OSG OSM (Open Source Group for Open Source MANO) 263
8.7.1.4 ISG MEC (ISG for Multi Access Edge Computing) 263
8.7.1.5 ISG NGP (ISG for Next Generation Protocols) 263
8.7.1.6 ISG MBC (ISG for Mobile/Broadcast Convergence) 263
8.7.2 Other Work 263
8.8 GSMA 264
8.8.1 5G Program and Spectrum Policy 264
8.9 GTI 265
8.9.1 5G Innovation Program 265
8.10 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 266
8.10.1 IEEE Future Directions 5G Initiative 266
8.10.2 Contribution to 5G Standards Development 266
8.11 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) 267
8.11.1 Contribution to 5G NextGen Core Standards 267
8.11.1.1 5Gangip (5G Aspects of Next Generation Internet Protocols) Special Group 267
8.11.1.2 Proposed NMLRG (Network Machine Learning Research Group) 268
8.11.1.3 Internet-Draft on Network Slicing 268
8.11.1.4 Other Work Relevant to 5G 268
8.12 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) 269
8.12.1 IMT-2020 Family of Standards 269
8.12.2 WP 5D (Working Party 5D) 270
8.12.3 FG IMT-2020 (Focus Group on IMT-2020) 271
8.12.4 Spectrum Allocation 272
8.13 NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance 273
8.13.1 5G Work Program 273
8.13.1.1 Ecosystem Building and Interaction 273
8.13.1.2 Guidance to SDOs and the Wider Industry 273
8.13.1.3 Evaluation of Test and PoC Results 274
8.13.2 New Work-Items 274
8.13.2.1 5G Trial and Testing Initiative 274
8.13.2.2 End-to-End Architecture 274
8.13.2.3 Vehicle-to-X 274
8.14 OCP (Open Compute Project) Foundation 275
8.14.1 Telco Project 275
8.15 ONF (Open Networking Foundation) and ON.Lab (Open Networking Lab) 276
8.15.1 CORD (Central Office Re-Architected as a Datacenter) 276
8.15.2 M-CORD (M-Central Office Re-Architected as a Datacenter) 277
8.16 SIMalliance 278
8.16.1 5GWG (5G Working Group): Recommendations for 5G Security 278
8.17 Small Cell Forum 280
8.17.1 Mapping 5G Requirements for Small Cells 280
8.18 TIP (Telecom Infra Project) 281
8.18.1 OpenCellular Access Platform 281
8.18.2 Open Optical Packet Transport 281
8.18.3 Mobile Core Simplification 282
8.19 TM Forum 282
8.19.1 5G Working Group 282
8.20 Wi-Fi Alliance 282
8.20.1 Positioning WiGig as a 5G Technology 283
8.20.2 Other Work Relevant to 5G 283
8.21 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance) 284
8.21.1 Advocacy Efforts for 5G Convergence with Wi-Fi 284
8.22 WinnForum (Wireless Innovation Forum) 284
8.22.1 Spectrum Sharing Specifications for LTE and 5G Networks 284
8.23 WWRF (World Wireless Research Forum) 285
8.23.1 New WGs (Working Groups) for 5G 285
8.23.1.1 WG High Frequency Technologies 285
8.23.1.2 WG 5G e/m-Health and Wearables 286
8.23.1.3 WG The Connected Car 286
8.23.1.4 WG End-to-End Network Slicing 287
8.24 xRAN Consortium 288
8.24.1 Standardization for Software-Based RAN 288
8.25 Other Collaborative and Standardization Organizations 289
8.26 European Initiatives 290
8.26.1 5G PPP (5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership) 290
8.26.1.1 5G IA (5G Infrastructure Association) 291
8.26.1.2 Key Working Groups 291
8.26.1.3 Major Research Projects 292
8.26.2 European Commission's 5G Roadmap 297
8.26.2.1 Phase 1: The Future of 5G Network Architecture 297
8.26.2.2 Phase 2: Demonstrations and Experiments 297
8.26.2.3 Phase 3: Integration of End-to-End 5G experimental network infrastructure 298
8.26.3 5G Manifesto 299
8.26.4 5G Action Plan 300
8.27 National Initiatives 301
8.27.1 United States 301
8.27.1.1 NSF (National Science Foundation) 301
8.27.1.2 NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 301
8.27.1.3 ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) 302
8.27.1.4 TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) 302
8.27.2 South Korea 303
8.27.2.1 5G Forum 303
8.27.2.2 ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research) 303
8.27.2.3 TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association of Korea) 304
8.27.3 Japan 304
8.27.3.1 ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses) 304
8.27.3.2 TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee) 305
8.27.3.3 5GMF (Fifth Generation Mobile Communications Promotion Forum) 305
8.27.4 China 307
8.27.4.1 IMT-2020 5G Promotion Group 307
8.27.4.2 CCSA (China Communications Standards Association) 308
8.27.4.3 863 Research Program 308
8.27.4.4 FuTURE Mobile Communication Forum 309
8.27.5 Taiwan 309
8.27.5.1 ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute) 309
8.27.5.2 TAICS (Taiwan Association of Information and Communication Standards) 309
8.27.6 Turkey 310
8.27.6.1 ICTA (Information and Communication Technologies Authority) 310
8.27.6.2 5GTR (Turkish 5G Forum) 310
8.27.7 Malaysia 310
8.27.7.1 MTSFB (Malaysian Technical Standards Forum Bhd) 310
8.27.7.2 Malaysia 5G Committee 311
8.27.8 Indonesia 311
8.27.8.1 i5GF (Indonesia 5G Forum) 311
8.27.9 India 311
8.27.9.1 TSDSI (Telecommunications Standards Development Society India) 311
8.27.9.2 GISFI (Global ICT Standardization Forum for India) 311
8.27.10 Russia 312
8.27.10.1 5GRUS 312
8.28 Mobile Operator Led Initiatives and Innovation Labs 313
8.28.1 Pre-Standards Deployment Initiatives 313
8.28.1.1 5G TSA (5G Open Trial Specification Alliance) 313
8.28.1.2 5GTF (5G Technical Forum), Verizon Communications 313
8.28.1.3 5G-SIG (Special Interest Group), KT Corporation 313
8.28.1.4 5G-DF (5G Development Forum), KT Corporation 314
8.28.2 Innovation Labs 314
8.28.2.1 5G Innovation Center, China Mobile 314
8.28.2.2 5G:Haus, DT (Deutsche Telekom) 315
8.28.2.3 5TONIC, Telefónica 315
8.28.2.4 Others 316
8.29 Academic and Research Institute Initiatives 317
8.29.1 5G Lab Germany at TU Dresden 317
8.29.2 5G Playground, Fraunhofer FOKUS 317
8.29.3 5GIC (5G Innovation Center, University of Surrey) 319
8.29.4 5GTNF (5G Test Network Finland), University of Oulu 320
8.29.5 Hiroshima University 320
8.29.6 NYU WIRELESS (New York University) 321
8.29.7 OSA (OpenAirInterface Software Alliance), EURECOM 322
8.29.8 Tokyo Institute of Technology 323
8.29.9 UC Berkeley (University of California, Berkeley) 324
8.29.10 USC (University of Southern California) Viterbi School of Engineering 324
8.29.11 UT Austin (University of Texas at Austin) 325
8.29.12 WINLAB (Wireless Information Network Laboratory), Rutgers University 325

9 Chapter 9: Vendor Demonstrations, Commitments and Strategies 327
9.1 Argela 327
9.1.1 5G Strategy 327
9.1.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 327
9.2 Cisco Systems 328
9.2.1 5G Strategy 328
9.2.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 328
9.3 Cohere Technologies 329
9.3.1 5G Strategy 329
9.3.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 329
9.4 Ericsson 330
9.4.1 5G Strategy 330
9.4.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 330
9.5 Fujitsu 333
9.5.1 5G Strategy 333
9.5.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 333
9.6 Google 335
9.6.1 5G Strategy 335
9.6.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 335
9.7 Huawei 336
9.7.1 5G Strategy 336
9.7.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 336
9.8 Intel Corporation 339
9.8.1 5G Strategy 339
9.8.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 339
9.9 InterDigital 341
9.9.1 5G Strategy 341
9.9.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 341
9.10 Juniper Networks 342
9.10.1 5G Strategy 342
9.10.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 342
9.11 Keysight Technologies 343
9.11.1 5G Strategy 343
9.11.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 343
9.12 Kumu Networks 345
9.12.1 5G Strategy 345
9.12.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 345
9.13 LG Electronics 346
9.13.1 5G Strategy 346
9.13.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 346
9.14 Mitsubishi Electric 347
9.14.1 5G Strategy 347
9.14.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 347
9.15 NEC Corporation 348
9.15.1 5G Strategy 348
9.15.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 348
9.16 NI (National Instruments) 350
9.16.1 5G Strategy 350
9.16.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 350
9.17 Nokia Networks 351
9.17.1 5G Strategy 351
9.17.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 351
9.18 Panasonic Corporation 354
9.18.1 5G Strategy 354
9.18.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 354
9.19 Qorvo 355
9.19.1 5G Strategy 355
9.19.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 355
9.20 Qualcomm 356
9.20.1 5G Strategy 356
9.20.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 356
9.21 Rohde and Schwarz 358
9.21.1 5G Strategy 358
9.21.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 358
9.22 Samsung Electronics 359
9.22.1 5G Strategy 359
9.22.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 359
9.23 SiBEAM 361
9.23.1 5G Strategy 361
9.23.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 361
9.24 ZTE 362
9.24.1 5G Strategy 362
9.24.2 Demonstrations and Trial Commitments 362

List of Figures
Figure 1: 5G Network Architecture and Interaction with Other Networks 39
Figure 2: 5G Performance Requirements 40
Figure 3: 5G FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) Deployment Alternatives 53
Figure 4: Convergence of 5G with Wireline Networks 53
Figure 5: 5G for TV and Media Delivery 54
Figure 6: Example Usage Scenarios for C-V2X (Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything) 65
Figure 7: Example Channel Bandwidths for 5G Networks 78
Figure 8: Impact of Massive MIMO on Cell Coverage and Capacity 98
Figure 9: Sidelink Air Interface for ProSe (Proximity Services) 101
Figure 10: LSA (License Shared Access) Regulatory Architecture 104
Figure 11: Conceptual Architecture for End-to-End Network Slicing in Mobile Networks 110
Figure 12: Service Based Architecture for 5G 113
Figure 13: NFV Concept 115
Figure 14: Transition to UDNs (Ultra-Dense Networks) 119
Figure 15: C-RAN Architecture 120
Figure 16: RAN Functional Split Options 121
Figure 17: Performance Comparison of RAN Functional Split Options 122
Figure 18: Cloud RAN Concept 123
Figure 19: Global 5G RandD Investments: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 130
Figure 20: Global 5G RandD Investments by Technology: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 131
Figure 21: Global 5G RandD Investments on New Air Interface and Millimeter Wave Radio Access: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 132
Figure 22: Global 5G RandD Investments on MIMO, Beamforming and Advanced Antenna Technologies: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 133
Figure 23: Global 5G RandD Investments on Spectrum Sharing, Aggregation and Interference Management: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 134
Figure 24: Global 5G RandD Investments on Virtualization and Cloud RAN: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 135
Figure 25: Global 5G RandD Investments on Network Slicing and Other Technologies: 2016 - 2020 ($ Million) 136
Figure 26: Global Pre-Standards 5G Network Investments: 2016 - 2018 ($ Million) 137
Figure 27: Global Pre-Standards 5G Network Investments by Submarket: 2016 - 2018 ($ Million) 138
Figure 28: Global Pre-Standards 5G Base Station Shipments: 2016 - 2018 (Units) 139
Figure 29: Global Pre-Standards 5G Base Station Shipment Revenue: 2016 - 2018 ($ Million) 139
Figure 30: Global Pre-Standards 5G User Equipment Shipments: 2016 - 2018 (Units) 140
Figure 31: Global Pre-Standards 5G User Equipment Shipment Revenue: 2016 - 2018 ($ Million) 140
Figure 32: Global Transport Networking and Other Investments for Pre-Standards 5G Networks: 2016 - 2018 ($ Million) 141
Figure 33: Global 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 142
Figure 34: Global 5G Infrastructure Investments by Submarket: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 143
Figure 35: Global 5G NR Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 143
Figure 36: Global 5G NR Investments by Submarket: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 144
Figure 37: Global 5G Distributed Macrocell Base Station Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 144
Figure 38: Global 5G Distributed Macrocell Base Station Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 145
Figure 39: Global 5G Small Cell Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 145
Figure 40: Global 5G Small Cell Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 146
Figure 41: Global 5G RRH Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 146
Figure 42: Global 5G RRH Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 147
Figure 43: Global 5G C-RAN BBU Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 147
Figure 44: Global 5G C-RAN BBU Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 148
Figure 45: Global NextGen Core Network Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 148
Figure 46: Global 5G Fronthaul and Backhaul Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 149
Figure 47: 5G Infrastructure Investments by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 149
Figure 48: Global 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 150
Figure 49: Global 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 150
Figure 50: Global 5G Device Unit Shipments by Form Factor: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 151
Figure 51: Global 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue by Form Factor: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 151
Figure 52: Global 5G Handset Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 152
Figure 53: Global 5G Handset Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 152
Figure 54: Global 5G Tablet Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 153
Figure 55: Global 5G Tablet Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 153
Figure 56: Global 5G Embedded IoT Module Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 154
Figure 57: Global 5G Embedded IoT Module Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 154
Figure 58: Global 5G USB Dongle Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 155
Figure 59: Global 5G USB Dongle Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 155
Figure 60: Global 5G Router Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 156
Figure 61: Global 5G Router Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 156
Figure 62: 5G Device Unit Shipments by Region: 2019 - 2030 (Millions of Units) 157
Figure 63: 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 157
Figure 64: Global 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 158
Figure 65: Global 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 158
Figure 66: 5G Subscriptions by Region: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 159
Figure 67: 5G Service Revenue by Region: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 159
Figure 68: Asia Pacific 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 160
Figure 69: Asia Pacific 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 160
Figure 70: Asia Pacific 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 161
Figure 71: Asia Pacific 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 161
Figure 72: Asia Pacific 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 162
Figure 73: Eastern Europe 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 163
Figure 74: Eastern Europe 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 163
Figure 75: Eastern Europe 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 164
Figure 76: Eastern Europe 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 164
Figure 77: Eastern Europe 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 165
Figure 78: Latin and Central America 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 166
Figure 79: Latin and Central America 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 166
Figure 80: Latin and Central America 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 167
Figure 81: Latin and Central America 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 167
Figure 82: Latin and Central America 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 168
Figure 83: Middle East and Africa 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 169
Figure 84: Middle East and Africa 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 169
Figure 85: Middle East and Africa 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 170
Figure 86: Middle East and Africa 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 170
Figure 87: Middle East and Africa 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 171
Figure 88: North America 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 172
Figure 89: North America 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 172
Figure 90: North America 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 173
Figure 91: North America 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 173
Figure 92: North America 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 174
Figure 93: Western Europe 5G Infrastructure Investments: 2019 - 2030 ($ Million) 175
Figure 94: Western Europe 5G Device Unit Shipments: 2019 - 2030 (Thousands of Units) 175
Figure 95: Western Europe 5G Device Unit Shipment Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 176
Figure 96: Western Europe 5G Subscriptions: 2019 - 2030 (Millions) 176
Figure 97: Western Europe 5G Service Revenue: 2019 - 2030 ($ Billion) 177
Figure 98: Configuration and Key Performance Metrics for KT's Pre-Commercial 5G Network 191
Figure 99: NTT DoCoMo's 5G Roadmap 196
Figure 100: SK Telecom's Phased 5G Approach 200
Figure 101: SK Telecom's View on BBU-RRH Functional Split Options for 5G C-RAN 201
Figure 102: Key Characteristics of Verizon's 5G Specifications 209
Figure 103: Distribution of 5G Trials and Demos by Frequency Band: Q1'2017 (%) 237
Figure 104: 3GPP 5G Standardization Roadmap 252
Figure 105: High Level View for NextGen System Architecture 254
Figure 106: Key Features in Phase 1 of 3GPP's NextGen System Architecture 256
Figure 107: Non-Standalone Deployment Mode for 5G Networks 257
Figure 108: Standalone Deployment Mode for 5G Networks 257
Figure 109: Comparison of IMT-2020 and IMT-Advanced Performance Requirements 270
Figure 110: IMT-2020 Development Roadmap 271
Figure 111: M-CORD Focus Areas 277
Figure 112: Common Security Threats in 5G Networks 279
Figure 113: European Commission's 5G Networks and Service Vision 290
Figure 114: European Commission's 5G Roadmap 298
Figure 115: ARIB's Vision of Radio Access Technologies for 5G 305
Figure 116: 5GMF's 5G Implementation Roadmap 306
Figure 117: IMT-2020 5G Promotion Group's 5G Implementation Roadmap 307

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