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Brief

The value in machines having wireless communications has long been understood and a large market is predicted for many years. That this has not transpired yet has been because of the difficulty of meeting all the requirements within the constraints of the available radio spectrum.

These constraints changed significantly with the advent of communications technologies specifically developed to serve IoT/M2M.

This report addresses novel communications technologies designed for IoT/M2M. It concentrates on specifics of such communications; and addresses several recent or upcoming standards that are being developed for these purposes.

It is very unlikely that IoT/M2M communications will be based on a single standard. Standards fragmentation that we have today is a reflection of many facets of IoT/M2M nature. In this report, we concentrate only on the most recent and, in our opinion, the most promising technologies to support long-reach IoT/M2M communications. Particular, the following technologies have been addressed:

- Weightless group
- IEEE802.11ah
- LTE Cat - M
- DASH7
- LoRa
- Other.

The report also addresses the related industry, marketplace and applications. The survey of 802.11ah patents is also included.

The report was developed for a wide audience of managerial and technical staff that is working on IoT/M2M communications projects.

Table Of Contents

IoT/M2M - Advances in Communications: Technologies, Markets and Applications
1.0 Introduction 7
1.1 General 7
1.2 Scope 7
1.2.1 Major Goal 8
1.3 Research Methodology 9
1.4 Target Audience 9
2.0 IoT/M2M Communications Specifics 10
2.1 General 10
2.2 Environment 10
2.3 Current Situation 11
2.4 Requirements 11
2.5 Spectrum 12
2.6 Statistics 12
2.7 Summary 14
3.0 Standardization - Open Standards 16
3.1 Weightless Technologies 16
3.1.1 Weightless SIG 16
3.1.1.1 Common Features 17
3.1.1.2 Weightless-W 17
3.1.1.2.1 White Spaces Communications - Principles 17
3.1.1.2.2 Definition 17
3.1.1.2.3 Rational 18
3.1.1.2.4 Ecosystem and Use Cases 18
3.1.1.2.5 Weightless-W Specifics 19
3.1.1.3 Changes 20
3.1.1.4 Weightless-N 21
3.1.1.4.1 General 21
3.1.1.4.2 Open Standard 21
3.1.1.4.3 Nwave 22
3.1.1.4.4 First Deployments 24
3.1.1.5 Weightless-P 25
3.1.1.5.1 General 25
3.1.1.5.2 Details 25
3.1.1.5.3 M2COMM 26
3.1.2 Comparison Weightless Technologies 27
3.2 IEEE 28
3.2.1 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow) 29
3.2.1.1 General 29
3.2.1.2 Goal and Schedule 30
3.2.1.3 Attributes 30
3.2.1.4 Use Cases 31
3.2.1.5 PHY 32
3.2.1.5.1 Bandwidth 32
3.2.1.5.2 Channelization 32
3.2.1.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO 33
3.2.1.6 MAC Layer 33
3.2.1.7 Summary 34
3.3 ETSI 35
3.4 ITU 37
3.5 oneM2M 38
3.6 ISO/IES 38
3.7 LTE Cat-M 39
3.7.1 LTE and IoT Communications 39
3.7.1.1 3GPP Position 39
3.7.1.1.1 LTE Requirements of IoT 39
3.7.1.1.2 3GPP LTE Rel. 12 Enhancement for IoT 39
3.7.1.1.3 3GPP LTE Rel. 13 Enhancement for IoT 40
3.7.1.1.4 Current Situation 40
3.7.2 Summary of LTE/IoT Features 42
3.7.3 Vendors 44
Altair (acquired by Sony in 2016) 44
Mistbase 45
Sequans 46
3.8 DASH7 47
3.8.1 General 47
3.8.2 DASH7 and M2M/IoT 47
3.8.3 ISO/IEC 18000-7:2014 47
3.8.4 DASH7 Alliance 48
3.8.4.1 DASH7 Mode 2 49
3.8.4.1.1 Physical Layer 49
3.8.4.1.2 Data Layer 50
3.8.4.1.3 Network Layer 50
3.8.4.1.4 Upper Layers 51
3.8.4.2 Classes 51
3.8.4.3 Specification 51
3.8.4.3 General Characteristics - Summary 51
3.8.4.4 433 MHz Transmission Specifics 53
3.8.4.5 Green Technology 53
3.8.4.6 Applications 53
3.8.5 Industry 54
Evigia 54
GuardRFID 55
Hi-G-Tek 56
Identec Solutions 56
Savi 57
TI 58
3.9 LoRa 59
3.9.1 Alliance 59
3.9.2 Technology Basics 59
3.9.2.1 Modulation 60
3.9.2.2 Long Range 60
3.9.2.3 Applications 60
3.9.2.4 Architecture 61
3.9.2.5 Classes 62
3.9.2.6 LoRaWAN 63
3.9.2.7 Major Characteristics 64
3.9.2.8 Semtech 65
3.10 Comparison 66
4.0 Market 68
4.1 Data 68
4.2 Estimate 68
5.0 Industry-Innovations 71
Aeris 71
Kore Telematics 72
M2M Spectrum Networks 73
On-Ramp (now Ingenu) 74
SigFox/Telit 75
Telensa/Plextek 76
6.0 Conclusions 79
Attachment I: 802.11ah - related Patents Survey (2015-2016) 80

List of Figures

Figure 1: IoT Environment 11
Figure 2: Projections: IoT/M2M Technologies and Applications Market ($Trillion) 13
Figure 3: Projections: Number of Smart Devices in Households-Global (Bil.) 14
Figure 4: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz) 32
Figure 5: 802.11ah - Channelization Plan in U.S. 33
Figure 6: ETSI Activity - IoT/M2M 36
Figure 7: Use Cases 37
Figure 8: Time Schedule 42
Figure 9: Mode 1 and Mode 2 - Comparison 49
Figure 10: DASH7 Mode 2 - PHY 50
Figure 11: Transmission Ranges 52
Figure 12: Features Comparison 53
Figure 13: LoRa Protocol Architecture 60
Figure 14: Architecture 61
Figure 15: Battery Lifetime 63
Figure 16: M2M Applications 68
Figure 17: Projections: IoT/M2M Traffic Volume (PB/Month) 69
Figure 18: TAM: IoT/M2M Communications ($B) 70

List of Tables
Table 1: Iceni Characteristics 20
Table 2: Weightless Technologies Comparison 28
Table 3: 802.11ah Features Summary 35
Table 4: CAT-0 and CAT-1 Characteristics 41
Table 5: Additional Characteristics 41
Table 6: Modem Complexity 43
Table 7: LoRa Characteristics 63
Table 8: Regional Differences 64
Table 9: Major Technologies Comparison 67

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