Table of Contents
In Latin America, as elsewhere in the world, Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GINs) are the most important parasites for all kinds of livestock and pets. Ticks and several fly species are very harmful for ruminants as well. Fleas and ticks are the most relevant external parasites of dogs and cats. A few important parasite species are endemic in Latin America, e.g. human bot flies (Dermatobia hominis) and screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax). Other parasites that are important elsewhere are not an issue in Latin America, e.g. sheep blowflies, cattle grubs or cattle face flies. Currently, most of these parasites can be reasonable controlled with the available antiparasitics but resistance problems are becoming dramatic in several parasite groups such as GINs (mainly in sheep, goats, cattle and horses), as well as cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) and horn flies (Haematobia irritans) in cattle. Resistance is likely to become a major challenge in the next decades but will also bear opportunities for novel active ingredients with a new mechanism of action.Cattle dominate the livestock market in Latin America.
There are more cattle in Latin America than sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs and cats together. In 2013, Latin America produced almost as much beef as the USA and the EU together. For this reason, cattle products dominate the Latin American animal health market, also in antiparasitics. Brazil dominates Latin America, with more than 50% of the cattle population. The Latin American antiparasitics market was estimated to be close to US$ 900 million in 2014, with cattle making up to 55% of the total value, and pets less than 15%. It is highly fragmented, with hundreds of domestic companies selling thousands of antiparasitic products. And it is a generics market. Out of more than 2,600 antiparasitic products there is currently only one livestock product (Zolvix) containing a patent protected active ingredient (monepantel), and 4 dog products whose active ingredients are still patent protected (afoxolaner, fluralaner, pyriprole, indoxacarb). Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are the dominant chemical class of antiparasitics, with more than 700 different products. There are hundreds of clones of the mythical 1% ivermectin injectable (Ivomec), and dozens of combinations with other antiparasitics or with vitamins, aminoacids, minerals, growth promoters, etc. Some domestic companies offer a full range of MLs for livestock including products with all the available compounds: abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin. Benzimidazoles and Synthetic Pyrethroids are the second and third most used chemical classes of antiparasitics.
Besides the usual global multinationals – Bayer, Elanco, Merial, MSD Animal Health, Virbac, Zoetis – about 25 other domestic companies market their own antiparasitics portfolio of 20 or more different products in Latin America. In fact, the companies with the largest antiparasitics portfolios are domestic companies, not global multinationals, although this does not mean that they achieve higher or even comparable sales. In addition, more than 80 other domestic companies market between 10 and 20 antiparasitic products each. Many of these domestic companies are very creative and have introduced not only generic clones of the classic original products but also numerous innovative formulations with the active ingredients that have lost patent protection in the last decades.
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