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Summary

In Latin America, as elsewhere in the world, Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GINs) are the most important parasites for all kinds of livestock and pets. Ticks and several fly species are very harmful for ruminants as well. Fleas and ticks are the most relevant external parasites of dogs and cats. A few important parasite species are endemic in Latin America, e.g. human bot flies (Dermatobia hominis) and screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax). Other parasites that are important elsewhere are not an issue in Latin America, e.g. sheep blowflies, cattle grubs or cattle face flies. Currently, most of these parasites can be reasonable controlled with the available antiparasitics but resistance problems are becoming dramatic in several parasite groups such as GINs (mainly in sheep, goats, cattle and horses), as well as cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) and horn flies (Haematobia irritans) in cattle. Resistance is likely to become a major challenge in the next decades but will also bear opportunities for novel active ingredients with a new mechanism of action.Cattle dominate the livestock market in Latin America.

There are more cattle in Latin America than sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs and cats together. In 2013, Latin America produced almost as much beef as the USA and the EU together. For this reason, cattle products dominate the Latin American animal health market, also in antiparasitics. Brazil dominates Latin America, with more than 50% of the cattle population. The Latin American antiparasitics market was estimated to be close to US$ 900 million in 2014, with cattle making up to 55% of the total value, and pets less than 15%. It is highly fragmented, with hundreds of domestic companies selling thousands of antiparasitic products. And it is a generics market. Out of more than 2,600 antiparasitic products there is currently only one livestock product (Zolvix) containing a patent protected active ingredient (monepantel), and 4 dog products whose active ingredients are still patent protected (afoxolaner, fluralaner, pyriprole, indoxacarb). Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are the dominant chemical class of antiparasitics, with more than 700 different products. There are hundreds of clones of the mythical 1% ivermectin injectable (Ivomec), and dozens of combinations with other antiparasitics or with vitamins, aminoacids, minerals, growth promoters, etc. Some domestic companies offer a full range of MLs for livestock including products with all the available compounds: abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin. Benzimidazoles and Synthetic Pyrethroids are the second and third most used chemical classes of antiparasitics.

Besides the usual global multinationals – Bayer, Elanco, Merial, MSD Animal Health, Virbac, Zoetis – about 25 other domestic companies market their own antiparasitics portfolio of 20 or more different products in Latin America. In fact, the companies with the largest antiparasitics portfolios are domestic companies, not global multinationals, although this does not mean that they achieve higher or even comparable sales. In addition, more than 80 other domestic companies market between 10 and 20 antiparasitic products each. Many of these domestic companies are very creative and have introduced not only generic clones of the classic original products but also numerous innovative formulations with the active ingredients that have lost patent protection in the last decades.

Table Of Contents

Animal Pharm Veterinary Parasites and Antiparasitics in Latin America 2016
Disclaimer 5
Executive Summary 6
Introduction 7
Chapter I: Major Parasitic Problems 11
Parasitic Problems of Livestock and Horses 12
Ticks 12
Horn Flies 15
Stable Flies 16
Houseflies 16
Screwworms 17
Human Bot Flies 18
Nasal Bot Flies 19
Horse Bot Flies 19
Lice 20
Mites 21
Other External Parasites 22
Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GIN) 23
GINs in Ruminants 24
GINs in Horses 26
GINs in Swine and Poultry 27
Other Parasitic Roundworms 28
Flukes (Trematodes) 29
Tapeworms (Cestodes) 31
Protozoans 33
Parasitic Problems of Dogs and Cats 35
Fleas 36
Ticks 39
Mites 41
Lice 42
Other External Parasites 43
Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GIN) 44
Heartworms 46
Other Parasitic Roundworms 47
Tapeworms 48
Protozoans 49

Chapter 2: Antiparasitics 52
Generics 54
Delivery forms 55
Chemical Classes and Active Ingredients 56
Macrocyclic lactones (ML), endectocides 58
Benzimidazoles (BZM) 60
Imidazothiazoles (Levamisole, LVM) 61
Tetrahydropyrimidines 62
Salicylanilides 62
Isoquinolines (Praziquantel) 63
Other anthelmintic compounds 63
Organophosphates (OPs) 64
Carbamates 65
Amidines (Amitraz) 65
Synthetic Pyrethroids (SPs) 67
Development Inhibitors (DIs) 68
Neonicotinoids 69
Phenylpyrazoles 70
Other ectoparasiticidal compounds 71
Chapter 3: Animal Health Companies 72
Agrovetmarket 73
Bayer Animal Health 76
Bimeda Animal Health 78
Biogenesis Bagó 79
Laboratorios Calier 82
Calox Veterinaria 83
Ceva Sante Animale 85
Cibeles 86
Laboratorios Dispert 88
Laboratorio Drag Pharma 89
Elanco 91
Laboratorios Galmedic 92
Laboratorio König 95
LABA 96
Lapisa 97
Merial 99
Laboratorios Microsules 100
MSD Animal Health 103
Noxon 105
Ourofino 106
Over Medicina Veterinaria 107
Laboratorios Pharmavet 109
Rosenbusch 111
Laboratorios Servinsumos 112
Vetanco 113
Vicar Farmaceutica 114
Virbac 116
Wellco 117
Zoetis 119
Zoovet Productos Veterinarios 120
Other domestic companies 122
About the Author 123

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