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Alternatively Powered Commercial Vehicles: Global Markets

  • March 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 378 pages

This BCC Research report provides an understanding of the numerous alternative fuels for commercial vehicles and the global market for the commercial vehicles that will utilize them. It compares 10 alternative fuels and provides the cost benefit of each one in each of the four main global regions across the full range of oil and diesel prices from 2015 to 2020.

Use this report to:

Gain insight into numerous alternative fuels for commercial vehicles and the global market for the commercial vehicles that will utilize them.
Assess the breakeven oil price points for each fuel for each region at which they produce a favorable payback for commercial vehicles.
Estimate current and future commercial vehicle demand for each alternative fuel, each category of commercial vehicle and each global region from 2014 to 2020.
Identify the key stakeholders in the market, including on-board alternative fuel components and system suppliers, engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), commercial vehicle OEMs, stationary alternative fuel support equipment suppliers, and oil and gas services companies.

Highlights

The global market for alternative powered commercial vehicles totaled $8.1 billion in 2014 and $5.7 billion in 2015. The market should total $13.2 billion by 2020, in the base case of $80-per-barrel oil, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.4% from 2015 to 2020.
The global market for medium- and heavy-duty alternatively fueled commercial vehicles totaled $5.3 billion in 2014. The market should total $12.4 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 18.3% from 2015 to 2020, in the base case of $80-per-barrel oil.
Global incremental up-fit revenue for light-duty vehicles of alternatively fueled commercial vehicles totaled $374.0 million in 2014, and should total $891.0 million by 2020 at a CAGR of 19.0% from 2015 to 2020, considering the base case of $80-per-barrel oil.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this report is to provide an understanding of the numerous alternative fuels for commercial vehicles and the global market for the commercial vehicles that will utilize them, including:

Identifying and describing the alternative fuels for commercial vehicles and their variants.
Estimating the breakeven oil price points for each fuel for each region at which they produce a favorable payback for commercial vehicles.
Estimating current and future commercial vehicle demand for each alternative fuel, each category of commercial vehicle and each global region from 2014 through 2020.
Identifying the key stakeholders in the market, including on-board alternative fuel components and system suppliers, engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), commercial vehicle OEMs, stationary alternative fuel support equipment suppliers, methanol producers, biofuel producers, public natural gas utility companies, storage
and transportation companies, refining and marketing companies, exploration and production companies, integrated oil and gas companies, and oil and gas services companies.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Fuel costs comprise one of the highest marginal costs for commercial vehicle fleets. In this competitive world, there is a constant need to understand the comparative business case cost advantages of the numerous potential alternative fuels in relation to the cost of operating with the traditional diesel fuel. Most syndicated market research reports focus on providing forecasts for vehicle sales or a single alternative fuel based on recent and current comparative fuel pricing. Fuels, however, are commodities that vary widely in price over even a two- to three-year period. Thus, any forecasts of vehicle units and revenues in such syndicated research reports become obsolete as soon as the prices of oil, diesel and the subject alternative single fuel move meaningfully from the prices that were originally forecast.

This report takes a different approach that remains equally valid regardless of where the price of oil, and thus diesel, may go in the future. It provides the full breadth of information that commercial fleets and every stakeholder in the supply chain to them needs to make informed decisions concerning which fuels to pursue. It compares 10 alternative fuels and provides the cost benefit of each one in each of the four main global regions across the full range of oil and diesel prices. Armed with information contained in this report, readers can formulate their own alternative fuel strategies regardless of what the price of oil, and thus the price of diesel fuel, may be in the future.





Table Of Contents

Alternatively Powered Commercial Vehicles: Global Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
SECONDARY SOURCES 4
Academic Research Papers at Universities 4
Industry Analysts 4
Trade Associations 4
Trade Journals and Websites 5
Government Agencies 6
Quasi-Governmental Agencies 6
General Media and Websites 6
METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARKET SIZING AND GROWTH
PROJECTIONS 6
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 7
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 7
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 7
DISCLAIMER 8
ACRONYMS 8
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 10
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR COMMERCIAL
VEHICLES, BY BENCHMARK OIL PRICE POINT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR COMMERCIAL
VEHICLES, BY BENCHMARK OIL PRICE POINT, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 10
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 13
INTRODUCTION 13
HISTORICAL AND CURRENTLY DOMINANT FUELS 15
FUELS AT THE DAWN OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION AGE 15
DOMINANT FUELS 16
Gasoline 16
Background 16
Feedstock 17
FIGURE 1 GASOLINE PRODUCTION PROCESS 17
Efficiency from Well to Vehicle Tank 17
Fuel State 18
Volume 18
Weight 18
FIGURE 2 GASOLINE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 18
Diesel 19
Background 19
Feedstock 20
FIGURE 3 DIESEL PRODUCTION PROCESS 20
Efficiency from Well to Vehicle Tank 20
Fuel State 20
Volume 21
Weight 21
FIGURE 4 DIESEL DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 21
Current Dominant Fuels 22
ALTERNATIVE FUELS 22
ALTERNATIVE FUEL FEEDSTOCKS 26
LIQUIDS 26
Methanol 26
Background 26
Feedstock 27
FIGURE 5 METHANOL PRODUCTION PROCESS 27
Efficiency from Well to Vehicle Tank 28
Fuel State 28
Volume 29
Weight 29
FIGURE 6 METHANOL FUEL DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 29
Fuel Blends, Performance and Tradeoffs 30
TABLE 1 METHANOL FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 31
TABLE 2 METHANOL SUMMARY 31
Ethanol 32
Background 32
Feedstocks 33
FIGURE 7 ETHANOL PRODUCTION PROCESS 33
Fuel State 36
Volume 36
Weight 36
FIGURE 8 ETHANOL FUEL DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 37
Fuel Blends, Performance and Tradeoffs 37
TABLE 3 ETHANOL FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 38
TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF ETHANOL 39
Biodiesel 39
Background 39
Feedstock 40
FIGURE 9 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION PROCESS 40
Efficiency from Crop to Vehicle Tank 41
Fuel State 41
FIGURE 10 COMPARISON BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL DIESEL AND BIODIESEL FUEL
PRODUCTION PROCESSING 42
Volume 42
Weight 43
FIGURE 11 BIODIESEL DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 43
Fuel Blends, Performance and Tradeoffs 43
TABLE 5 BIODIESEL SUMMARY 44
GASSES 44
Compressed Natural Gas 44
Feedstock 45
FIGURE 12 COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION PROCESS 45
Efficiency From Well to Vehicle Tank 46
Fuel State 46
Volume 46
Weight 46
Distribution Network 46
Fuel Blends, Performance and Tradeoffs 46
TABLE 6 COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND
TRADEOFFS 47
TABLE 7 COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS SUMMARY 48
Liquid Natural Gas 48
Feedstock to Fuel 49
FIGURE 13 LIQUID NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION PROCESS 50
Efficiency From Well to Vehicle Tank 50
Fuel State 50
Volume 51
Weight 51
FIGURE 14 LIQUID NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 51
Fuel Blends, Performance and Tradeoffs 52
TABLE 8 LIQUID NATURAL GAS FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 53
TABLE 9 LIQUID NATURAL GAS SUMMARY 53
Liquid Petroleum Gas 54
Feedstock 54
FIGURE 15 LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS PRODUCTION PROCESS 54
Efficiency From Well to Vehicle Tank 55
Fuel State 55
Volume 56
Weight 56
FIGURE 16 LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 56
TABLE 10 LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 57
TABLE 11 LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS SUMMARY 57
Dimethyl Ether 58
Feedstock 59
FIGURE 17 DIMETHYL ETHER PRODUCTION PROCESS 59
Fuel State 60
Volume 60
Weight 61
Distribution Network 61
FIGURE 18 DIMETHYL ETHER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 61
TABLE 12 DIMETHYL ETHER FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 62
TABLE 13 DIMETHYL ETHER SUMMARY 63
Renewable Natural Gas (Bio-Methane) 63
Feedstock 64
Fuel Production Process and Efficiency from Biomass Source to
Vehicle Tank 64
FIGURE 19 BIO-METHANE PRODUCTION PROCESS 64
Fuel State 65
Volume 65
Weight 66
Distribution Network 66
Blends 66
Performance Differences 66
TABLE 14 BIO-METHANE SUMMARY 66
Hydrogen 67
Feedstock 67
FIGURE 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROCESS 67
Efficiency from Well to Vehicle Tank 68
Fuel State 69
Volume 69
Weight 69
FIGURE 21 HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 70
TABLE 15 HYDROGEN FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 70
TABLE 16 HYDROGEN SUMMARY 71
Hythane 71
Feedstock 72
FIGURE 22 HYTHANE PRODUCTION PROCESS 72
Efficiency from Well to Vehicle Tank 73
Fuel State 73
Volume 73
Weight 73
Distribution Network 73
FIGURE 23 HYTHANE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 73
TABLE 17 HYTHANE FUEL BLENDS, PERFORMANCE AND TRADEOFFS 74
TABLE 18 HYTHANE SUMMARY 74
CHAPTER 4 REQUISITE ENABLING SYSTEMS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS 77
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES 77
THREE MAJOR FUEL SYSTEM APPROACHES BY COMBUSTION IGNITION METHOD 77
FUEL ADDITIVES FOR LIQUID ALTERNATIVE FUELS 77
SPARK PLUG OR GLOWPLUG IGNITION 78
PILOT INJECTION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE DIRECT INJECTION 78
DUAL FUEL 78
COMPONENT PORTIONS AMONG ALTERNATIVE FUELS 80
ONBOARD VEHICLE 80
STATIONARY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 80
METHANOL 81
FIGURE 24 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR METHANOL FUEL 81
STATIONARY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 81
ETHANOL 82
FIGURE 25 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR ETHANOL FUEL 82
STATIONARY SUPPORT EQUIPMENT 82
BIODIESEL 82
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS 83
FIGURE 26 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS FUEL 83
FIGURE 27 INCREMENTAL STATIONARY EQUIPMENT FOR SUPPORT OF
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 83
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS 84
FIGURE 28 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FUEL 84
FIGURE 29 INCREMENTAL STATIONARY EQUIPMENT FOR SUPPORT OF LIQUEFIED
NATURAL GAS FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 85
LIQUID PROPANE GAS 86
FIGURE 30 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR LIQUID PROPANE GAS FUEL 86
FIGURE 31 INCREMENTAL STATIONARY EQUIPMENT FOR SUPPORT OF LIQUID
PROPANE GAS-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 87
DIMETHYL EITHER 88
FIGURE 32 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR DIMETHYL EITHER FUEL 88
FIGURE 33 INCREMENTAL STATIONARY EQUIPMENT FOR SUPPORT OF DIMETHYL
EITHER-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 89
COMPRESSED HYDROGEN 90
FIGURE 34 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR COMPRESSED HYDROGEN FUEL 90
FIGURE 35 INCREMENTAL STATIONARY EQUIPMENT FOR SUPPORT OF
COMPRESSED HYDROGEN-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 90
LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN 91
FIGURE 36 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN FUEL 91
FIGURE 37 INCREMENTAL STATIONARY EQUIPMENT FOR SUPPORT OF LIQUEFIED
HYDROGEN-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLES 92
HYTHANE 94
FIGURE 38 INCREMENTAL ON-BOARD COMMERCIAL VEHICLE UP-FIT EQUIPMENT
FOR COMPRESSED HYTHANE FUEL 94
CHAPTER 5 BUSINESS CASE ECONOMICS BY FUEL TYPE AND REGION 96
INTRODUCTION OF THE KEY GRAPH FORMAT DEFINITIONS AND
INTERPRETATION 96
TABLE 19 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER ALTERNATIVELY FUELED
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 96
FIGURE 39 KEY GRAPH AND DEFINITIONS 97
FIGURE 40 KEY GRAPH WITH SCENARIOS 100
TABLE 20 ALTERNATIVE FUEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT
(DGE AND DLE) ($) 101
METHANOL 103
TABLE 21 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER METHANOL-FUELED
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 103
NORTH AMERICA 104
TABLE 22 NORTH AMERICAN METHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 104
FIGURE 41 NORTH AMERICAN METHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 104
Discussion and Implications 105
Conclusions 106
LATIN AMERICA 106
TABLE 23 LATIN AMERICAN METHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 106
FIGURE 42 LATIN AMERICAN METHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 107
Discussion and Implications 107
Conclusions 108
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 108
TABLE 24 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN METHANOL BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 108
FIGURE 43 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN METHANOL BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT 108
Discussion and Implications 109
Conclusions 110
ASIA-PACIFIC 110
TABLE 25 ASIA-PACIFIC METHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT
UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 110
FIGURE 44 ASIA-PACIFIC METHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 110
Discussion and Implications 111
Conclusions 112
ETHANOL 112
TABLE 26 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER ETHANOL FUELED
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 112
NORTH AMERICA 113
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICAN ETHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 113
FIGURE 45 NORTH AMERICAN ETHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 113
Discussion and Implications 114
Conclusions 115
LATIN AMERICA 115
TABLE 28 LATIN AMERICAN ETHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT
UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 115
FIGURE 46 LATIN AMERICAN ETHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 115
Discussion and Implications 116
Conclusions 117
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 117
TABLE 29 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN ETHANOL BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 117
FIGURE 47 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN ETHANOL BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT 117
Discussion and Implications 118
Conclusions 119
ASIA-PACIFIC 119
TABLE 30 ASIA-PACIFIC ETHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT
UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 119
FIGURE 48 ASIA-PACIFIC ETHANOL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT ($) 119
Discussion and Implications 120
Conclusion 120
BIODIESEL 120
TABLE 31 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER BIODIESEL- FUELED
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 121
NORTH AMERICA 121
TABLE 32 NORTH AMERICAN BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 122
FIGURE 49 NORTH AMERICAN BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT ($) 122
Discussion and Implications 123
Conclusions 123
LATIN AMERICA 123
TABLE 33 LATIN AMERICAN BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 124
FIGURE 50 LATIN AMERICAN BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 124
Discussion and Implications 125
Conclusions 125
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 125
TABLE 34 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 126
FIGURE 51 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 126
Discussion and Implications 127
Conclusions 127
ASIA-PACIFIC 127
TABLE 35 ASIA-PACIFIC BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT
UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 128
FIGURE 52 ASIA-PACIFIC BIODIESEL BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT ($) 128
Discussion and Implications 129
Conclusions 129
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS 129
TABLE 36 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER COMPRESSED NATURAL
GAS-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 129
NORTH AMERICA 131
TABLE 37 NORTH AMERICAN SELF-COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) 131
FIGURE 53 NORTH AMERICAN SELF-COMPRESSED COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 131
Discussion and Implications 132
Conclusions 133
LATIN AMERICA 133
TABLE 38 LATIN AMERICAN SELF-COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES
PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 134
FIGURE 54 LATIN AMERICAN SELF-COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 134
Discussion and Implications 135
Conclusions 135
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 136
TABLE 39 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN SELF-COMPRESSED
NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE)
($)
136
FIGURE 55 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN SELF-COMPRESSED
NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 136
Discussion and Implications 137
Conclusions 137
ASIA-PACIFIC 138
TABLE 40 ASIA-PACIFIC SELF-COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 138
FIGURE 56 ASIA-PACIFIC SELF-COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES
PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 138
Discussion and Implications 139
Conclusions 140
NORTH AMERICA 140
TABLE 41 NORTH AMERICA RETAIL COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 140
FIGURE 57 NORTH AMERICAN RETAIL COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 140
Discussion and Implications 141
Conclusions 142
LATIN AMERICA 142
TABLE 42 LATIN AMERICAN RETAIL COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 143
FIGURE 58 LATIN AMERICAN RETAIL COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 143
Discussion and Implications 144
Conclusions 144
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 144
TABLE 43 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN RETAIL COMPRESSED
NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE)
($)
144
FIGURE 59 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN RETAIL COMPRESSED
NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 144
Discussion and Implications 145
Conclusions 146
ASIA-PACIFIC 146
TABLE 44 ASIA-PACIFIC RETAIL COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES
PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 146
FIGURE 60 ASIA-PACIFIC RETAIL COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES
PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 147
Discussion, Implications and Conclusions 147
LIQUID NATURAL GAS 148
TABLE 45 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER LIQUID NATURAL GAS
FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 148
NORTH AMERICA 149
TABLE 46 NORTH AMERICAN LIQUID NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 149
FIGURE 61 NORTH AMERICAN LIQUID NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT 149
Discussion and Implications 150
Conclusions 151
LATIN AMERICA 151
TABLE 47 LATIN AMERICAN LIQUID NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 151
FIGURE 62 LATIN AMERICAN LIQUID NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT 152
Discussion and Implications 152
Conclusions 152
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 153
TABLE 48 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN LIQUID NATURAL GAS
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 153
FIGURE 63 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN LIQUID NATURAL GAS
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 153
Discussion and Implications 154
Conclusions 154
ASIA-PACIFIC 155
TABLE 49 ASIA-PACIFIC LIQUID NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 155
FIGURE 64 ASIA-PACIFIC LIQUID NATURAL GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 156
Discussion and Implications 156
Conclusions 156
LIQUID PROPANE GAS 157
TABLE 50 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER LIQUID PROPANE
GAS-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 157
NORTH AMERICA 157
TABLE 51 NORTH AMERICAN LIQUID PROPANE GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 158
FIGURE 65 NORTH AMERICAN LIQUID PROPANE GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 158
Discussion and Implications 159
Conclusions 159
LATIN AMERICA 159
TABLE 52 LATIN AMERICAN LIQUID PROPANE GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 160
FIGURE 66 LATIN AMERICAN LIQUID PROPANE GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 160
Discussion and Implications 161
Conclusions 161
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 161
TABLE 53 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN LIQUID PROPANE GAS
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 161
FIGURE 67 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN LIQUID PROPANE GAS
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 162
Discussion and Implications 162
Conclusions 162
ASIA-PACIFIC 162
TABLE 54 ASIA-PACIFIC LIQUID PROPANE GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 163
FIGURE 68 ASIA-PACIFIC LIQUID PROPANE GAS BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 163
Discussion and Implications 164
Conclusions 164
DIMETHYL ETHER 164
TABLE 55 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER DIMETHYL
ETHER-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 165
NORTH AMERICA 165
TABLE 56 NORTH AMERICAN DIMETHYL ETHER BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 166
FIGURE 69 NORTH AMERICAN DIMETHYL ETHER BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 166
LATIN AMERICA 167
TABLE 57 LATIN AMERICAN DIMETHYL ETHER BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 167
FIGURE 70 LATIN AMERICAN DIMETHYL ETHER BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 168
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 168
TABLE 58 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN DIMETHYL ETHER
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 169
FIGURE 71 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN DIMETHYL ETHER
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 169
ASIA-PACIFIC 170
TABLE 59 ASIA-PACIFIC DIMETHYL ETHER BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 170
FIGURE 72 ASIA-PACIFIC DIMETHYL ETHER BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 171
Discussion and Implications 171
Conclusions 171
COMPRESSED HYDROGEN 172
TABLE 60 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER COMPRESSED
HYDROGEN-FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE ($) 172
CONCLUSION 173
NORTH AMERICA 173
TABLE 61 NORTH AMERICAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 173
FIGURE 73 NORTH AMERICAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 174
LATIN AMERICA 174
TABLE 62 LATIN AMERICAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 175
FIGURE 74 LATIN AMERICAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 175
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 176
TABLE 63 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 176
FIGURE 75 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 176
ASIA-PACIFIC 177
TABLE 64 ASIA-PACIFIC COMPRESSED HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 178
FIGURE 76 ASIA-PACIFIC COMPRESSED HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER
DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT (%) 178
LIQUID HYDROGEN 179
TABLE 65 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER LIQUID HYDROGEN
FUELED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 179
CONCLUSION 180
NORTH AMERICA 180
TABLE 66 NORTH AMERICAN LIQUID HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 180
FIGURE 77 NORTH AMERICAN LIQUID HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 180
LATIN AMERICA 181
TABLE 67 LATIN AMERICAN LIQUID HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 182
FIGURE 78 LATIN AMERICAN LIQUID HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 182
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 183
TABLE 68 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN LIQUID HYDROGEN
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 183
FIGURE 79 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN LIQUID HYDROGEN
BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 183
ASIA-PACIFIC 184
TABLE 69 ASIA-PACIFIC LIQUID HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 185
FIGURE 80 ASIA-PACIFIC LIQUID HYDROGEN BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
GALLON EQUIVALENT 185
HYTHANE 186
TABLE 70 INCREMENTAL INVESTMENT ASSUMPTIONS PER HYTHANE-FUELED
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 186
CONCLUSION 186
NORTH AMERICA 187
TABLE 71 NORTH AMERICAN HYTHANE BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL
EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 187
FIGURE 81 NORTH AMERICAN HYTHANE BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT ($) 188
LATIN AMERICA 188
TABLE 72 LATIN AMERICAN HYTHANE BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT
UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 189
FIGURE 82 LATIN AMERICAN HYTHANE BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT 189
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 190
TABLE 73 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN HYTHANE BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 190
FIGURE 83 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN HYTHANE BREAKEVEN
PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 191
ASIA-PACIFIC 191
TABLE 74 ASIA-PACIFIC HYTHANE BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL EQUIVALENT
UNIT (DGE AND DLE) ($) 192
FIGURE 84 ASIA-PACIFIC HYTHANE BREAKEVEN PRICES PER DIESEL GALLON
EQUIVALENT ($) 192
SUMMARY OF ALL ALTERNATIVE FUELS BY REGION 193
NORTH AMERICA 193
FIGURE 85 NORTH AMERICAN BREAKEVEN PRICES FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE FUEL
PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 194
LATIN AMERICA 196
FIGURE 86 LATIN AMERICAN BREAKEVEN PRICES FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE FUEL
PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 196
EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 197
FIGURE 87 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN BREAKEVEN PRICES FOR
EACH ALTERNATIVE FUEL PER DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 197
ASIA-PACIFIC 199
FIGURE 88 ASIA-PACIFIC BREAKEVEN PRICES FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE FUEL PER
DIESEL GALLON EQUIVALENT ($) 199
CHAPTER 6 MARKET SIZE HISTORY AND FORECASTS BY VEHICLE CLASS FOR
ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND REGION 202
INTRODUCTION 202
BASE-CASE SCENARIO: LONG-TERM OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL 203
TABLE 75 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
204
TABLE 76 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
205
TABLE 77 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
205
TABLE 78 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
206
TABLE 79 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
206
TABLE 80 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
207
TABLE 81 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
207
TABLE 82 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
208
TABLE 83 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
208
TABLE 84 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
209
TABLE 85 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
209
TABLE 86 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
210
TABLE 87 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER
BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
210
TABLE 88 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER
BARREL, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
211
TABLE 89 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM
AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
211
TABLE 90 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM
AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
212
TABLE 91 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
212
TABLE 92 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
213
TABLE 93 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM
AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
213
TABLE 94 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM
AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
214
TABLE 95 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
214
TABLE 96 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
215
TABLE 97 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
215
TABLE 98 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
216
TABLE 99 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
216
TABLE 100 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
217
TABLE 101 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
217
TABLE 102 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
218
TABLE 103 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
218
TABLE 104 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $80 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
219
HIGH OIL PRICE SCENARIO: LONG-TERM OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL 219
TABLE 105 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES
OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS)
220
TABLE 106 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES
OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
221
TABLE 107 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
221
TABLE 108 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
222
TABLE 109 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
222
TABLE 110 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS UNITS)
223
TABLE 111 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
223
TABLE 112 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
224
TABLE 113 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
224
TABLE 114 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
225
TABLE 115 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
225
TABLE 116 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
226
TABLE 117 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER
BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
226
TABLE 118 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER
BARREL, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
227
TABLE 119 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER
BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
227
TABLE 120 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER
BARREL, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
227
TABLE 121 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
228
TABLE 122 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
229
TABLE 123 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM
AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
229
TABLE 124 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM
AND HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
230
TABLE 125 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
230
TABLE 126 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
231
TABLE 127 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
LIGHT DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
231
TABLE 128 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR
LIGHT DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
232
TABLE 129 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
232
TABLE 130 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
233
TABLE 131 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS)
233
TABLE 132 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT DUTY
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
234
TABLE 133 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS)
234
TABLE 134 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR LIGHT
DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $120 PER BARREL, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
235
LOW OIL PRICE SCENARIO: LONG-TERM OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL 235
TABLE 135 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES
OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS)
236
TABLE 136 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES
OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
237
TABLE 137 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
237
TABLE 138 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
238
TABLE 139 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
238
TABLE 140 LATIN AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
239
TABLE 141 EUROPEAN, MIDDLE EASTERN AND AFRICAN MARKET FOR
ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH
OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
239
TABLE 142 EMEA MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL CLASSES OF
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND UNITS)
240
TABLE 143 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
240
TABLE 144 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR ALL
CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
241
TABLE 145 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
241
TABLE 146 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR MEDIUM AND
HEAVY DUTY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES WITH OIL PRICE AT $40 PER BARREL,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND UNITS)
242
TABLE 147 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL BY TYPE FOR

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