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Brief

This report reflects a steady movement of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) towards reaching their goal – minimizing roads accidents and traffic jam. In connection with this goal, the report provides details of the ITS structure and architecture; and emphasizes contributions of wireless technologies designed for IoT/M2M – this type of communications is becoming very important for ITS to enhance their characteristics. In 2015, the IoT has already disrupted the 4G roadmap and it is becoming a prime driver of the 5G specification process.

The following recent (or still in the development) wireless communications standards are addressed:

- LoRa
- LTE-M
- 802.11ah
- EC-GSM
- Weightless Protocols
- DASH7
- Other.

These standards are being developed with considerations of IoT/M2M communications specifics (though they may be useful for other use cases as well).

The report also addresses the current status of IoT/M2M and ITS industries, their markets and surveys vendors’ portfolios.

The significant part of this report addresses the introduction of a driverless car – IoT/M2M communication supports all major functionalities of such a car. Details of a young industry development, its major players, the standardization process, hurdles and enablers are analyzed. The report emphasizes the driverless car benefits – they, as it is envisioned currently, will be realized in the 2035-2040 time frame; with these cars on roads already in 2018-2020. The industry identified driverless cars as most viable form of ITS, dominating the roadways by 2040 and sparking dramatic changes in vehicular travel and the auto industry.

The report also surveys 802.11ah-related patents (2015-2016).

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the advanced ITS development; and for specialists in communications technologies that support such a development; particular IoT/M2M communications.

Table Of Contents

Progress in Intelligent Transportation Systems and IoT/M2M Communications: Markets, Standardization, Technologies
1.0 Introduction 10
1.1 Statistics 10
1.2 Goal 11
1.3 Scope 12
1.4 Research Methodology 12
1.5 Target Audience 13
2.0 ITS: Major Components and Characteristics 14
2.1 General 14
2.2 ITS Introduction: U.S. 14
2.3 Structure 15
2.4 Layers and Components 15
2.5 Key Technologies 17
2.6 Subsystems 17
2.7 ITS Architecture: U.S. 18
2.7.1 General 18
2.7.2 Functionalities 18
2.7.3 Layers 19
2.7.3.1 Details: Communications Layer 21
2.7.3.2 Networks 22
2.7.4 Version 7.0 23
2.8 ITS Standardization: In Progress 23
2.8.1 Overview 24
2.8.2 ETSI - Europe 24
2.8.3 U.S. 25
2.8.3.1 General 25
2.8.3.2 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) 25
2.8.3.2.1 Scope 25
2.8.3.2.2 Family 26
2.8.4 China 27
2.8.5 International 27
2.8.5.1 General 27
2.8.5.2 ITU 27
2.8.6 Summary 28
2.9 ITS Applications 28
2.10 ITS Market Statistics 30
2.10.1 General 30
2.10.2 Assumptions 31
2.10.3 Estimate 31
3.0 IoT/M2M and ITS 34
3.1 Differences: H2H and IoT/M2M Communications 34
3.2 Definition and Process 34
3.2.1 Enablers and Braking Points: 2G-5G 36
3.3 Data 36
3.4 Properties and Architecture 36
3.5 Specifics and Current Status 38
3.5.1 Cellular 39
3.5.2 Short-range 40
3.5.3 Open Standard 40
3.6 Challenges 40
3.7 Multiple Efforts 41
3.8 IoT/M2M Standardization: Organizations and Technologies 41
3.8.1 3GPP and IoT/M2M 41
3.8.1.1 LTE Cat-M 42
3.8.1.1.1 IoT/M2M: Requirements to LTE 43
3.8.1.1.2 3GPP LTE Rel. 12 Enhancement for IoT/M2M 43
3.8.1.1.3 3GPP LTE Rel. 13 Enhancement for IoT/M2M 44
3.8.1.1.4 Current Situation 44
3.8.1.1.5 Summary of LTE/IoT Features 46
3.8.1.1.6 Vendors 47
Altair (acquired by Sony in 2016) 47
Mistbase 49
Sequans 49
3.8.1.2 EC-GSM-IoT 50
3.8.2 OneM2M Alliance 51
3.8.2.1 Varieties 51
3.8.2.2 Service Layer Architecture 52
3.8.2.3 Benefits 53
3.8.3 M2M World Alliance 54
3.8.4 M2M Alliance 54
3.8.5 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) 55
3.8.5.1 OMA Lightweight M2M Protocol 55
3.8.6 ETSI TC 56
3.8.6.1 Documents 56
3.8.6.2 Architecture 57
3.8.6.3 M2M Applications in ITS 58
3.8.7 GSC MSTF 58
3.8.8 ITU 58
3.8.8.1 Work Plan 58
3.8.8.2 ITU Recommendations 59
3.8.9 IPSO Alliance 59
3.8.10 IETF and IP/WSN 60
3.8.10.1 Major Projects 60
3.8.11 TIA 61
3.8.12 Weightless Protocols 61
3.8.12.1 Weightless SIG 61
3.8.12.2 Common Features 62
3.8.12.3 Weightless-W 62
3.8.12.3.1 White Spaces Communications - Principles 63
3.8.12.3.2 Definition 63
3.8.12.3.3 Rational 63
3.8.12.3.4 Ecosystem and Use Cases 64
3.8.12.3.5 Weightless-W Specifics 64
3.8.12.3.6 Changes 66
3.8.12.4 Weightless-N 66
3.8.12.4.1 General 66
3.8.12.4.2 Open Standard 67
3.8.12.4.3 Nwave 67
3.8.12.4.4 First Deployments 69
3.8.12.5 Weightless-P 70
3.8.12.5.1 General 70
3.8.12.5.2 Details 70
3.8.12.5.3 M2COMM 72
3.8.12.6 Weightless Technologies Comparison 72
3.8.13 IEEE 73
3.8.13.1 802.11ah (Wi-Fi HaLow) 74
3.8.13.1.1 General 74
3.8.13.1.2 Goal and Schedule 75
3.8.13.1.3 Attributes 75
3.8.13.1.4 Use Cases 76
3.8.13.1.5 PHY Layer 77
3.8.13.1.5.1 Bandwidth 77
3.8.13.1.5.2 Channelization 77
3.8.13.1.5.3 Transmission Modes and MIMO 78
3.8.13.1.6 MAC Layer 78
3.8.13.1.7 Summary 79
3.8.14 DASH7 80
3.8.14.1 General 81
3.8.14.2 DASH7 and IoT/M2M 81
3.8.14.3 ISO/IEC 18000-7:2014 81
3.8.14.4 DASH7 Alliance 82
3.8.14.4.1 DASH7 Mode 2 82
3.8.14.4.2 Physical Layer 83
3.8.14.4.3 Data Layer 84
3.8.14.4.4 Network Layer 84
3.8.14.4.5 Upper Layers 84
3.8.14.5 Classes 84
3.8.14.6 Specification 85
3.8.14.7 Characteristics - Summary 85
3.8.14.8 433 MHz Transmission Specifics 86
3.8.14.9 Green Technology 87
3.8.14.10 Applications 87
3.8.14.11 Industry 88
Evigia 88
GuardRFID 89
Hi-G-Tek 89
Identec Solutions 90
Savi 91
TI 91
Wizzilab 92
3.8.15 LoRa 93
3.8.15.1 Alliance 93
3.8.15.2 Technology: General 93
3.8.15.3 Modulation 94
3.8.15.4 Long Range 94
3.8.15.5 Applications 95
3.8.15.6 Architecture 95
3.8.15.7 Classes 96
3.8.15.8 LoRaWAN 97
3.8.15.9 Major Characteristics - Summary 98
3.8.15.10 Semtech 98
3.8.15.11 Deployments 100
3.8.16 Comparison 100
4.0 ITS Segment of IoT/M2M 102
4.1 Importance 102
4.2 Classification 102
4.3 IoT/M2M Communications and ITS Major Applications 103
4.3.1 Benefits and Limitations 103
4.3.2 H2H and IoT/M2M Communications 104
4.3.2.1 Sensors 105
5.0 Market: IoT/M2M - ITS 106
5.1 Data 106
5.2 Situation 106
5.3 Structure 107
5.4 Estimate 107
6.0 Driverless Car - 5G Era 111
6.1 General - Definition 111
6.2 Time 111
6.2.1 ADAS 112
6.3 Directions 112
6.3.1 Current Status - Legislation 113
6.3.2 Major Benefits 114
6.3.3 Alternatives 116
6.4 Market Predictions and Price 116
6.4 Phases 117
6.4.1 Characteristics 117
6.5 Industry and RandD 118
6.5.1 Automakers and Suppliers 118
6.5.1.1 Audi 119
6.5.1.2 Ford 119
6.5.1.3 GM 120
6.5.1.4 Magna International 120
6.5.1.5 Nissan 121
6.5.1.6 Daimler/Mercedes 121
6.5.1.7 VW and AdaptIVe Consortium 122
6.5.1.8 Tesla Motors 122
6.5.1.9 Continental Automotive 123
6.5.1.10 Volvo 123
6.5.2 RandD and Competitors 124
6.5.2.1 Google 124
6.5.2.2 Baidu 125
6.5.2.3 DOTs 125
6.5.2.4 Telecom Readiness - 5G 125
6.5.2.4.1 Huawei 126
6.5.2.4.2 Swisscom 126
6.5.3 Sturt-ups 127
6.5.3.1. Cruise Automotive (was founded in 2013 and acquired by GM in 2016) 127
6.5.3.2 Induct Technologies 128
6.5.3.3 MobilEye 128
6.5.4 IoT/M2M Role - Internet of Cars 129
6.6 Standardization 131
6.6.1 NHTSA 131
6.6.1.1 Systems 131
6.6.1.2 Levels 132
6.6.2 SAE International 133
6.6.3 IEEE 135
6.6.4 Summary 136
6.7 Commercialization 136
6.8 Issues 137
7.0 IoT/M2M-ITS Communications Industry 138
ATandT 139
Aeris 140
Airbiquity 141
Arada 142
Autotalks 142
Axeda 143
B3IT 145
Cohda Wireless 146
Continental/HERE 146
Cisco 147
Gemalto 149
IMS 150
InterDigital 151
Jasper Wireless 151
Kore Telematics 152
Libelium 153
Numerex 154
QNX 155
Qualcomm 155
Raco Wireless 156
Sigfox 157
Telit 159
Wireless Logic 160
8.0 Technologies Comparison 161
9.0 Conclusions 162
Attachment I: 802.11ah - related Patents Survey (2015-2016) 163
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List of Figures
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment 15
Figure 2: ITS Architecture - Components 20
Figure 3: Europe - Standardization Organizations 24
Figure 4: U.S.-Standardization Bodies 25
Figure 5: NTCIP Structure 26
Figure 6: ITS International -Standardization Bodies 27
Figure 7: TAM: Global ITS Devices ($B) 31
Figure 8: TAM: ITS WICT- Global ($B) 32
Figure 9: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B) 33
Figure 10: IoT/M2M Communications Process 35
Figure 11: M2M-Simplified Architecture 37
Figure 12: Time Schedule 46
Figure 13: Structure - oneM2M - Service Layer 53
Figure 14: ETSI Activity - M2M 57
Figure 15: Frequency Spectrum (sub-1 GHz) 77
Figure 16: 802.11ah - Channelization Plan in U.S. 78
Figure 17: Mode 1 and Mode 2 - Comparison 83
Figure 18: DASH7 Mode 2 - PHY 83
Figure 19: Transmission Ranges 85
Figure 20: Features Comparison 86
Figure 21: LoRa Protocol Architecture 94
Figure 22: LoRaWAN Architecture 95
Figure 23: Battery Lifetime 97
Figure 24: Classification 102
Figure 25: Projections: IoT/M2M Traffic Volume (PB/Month) 108
Figure 26: TAM: Global IoT/M2M Communications ($B) 109
Figure 27: Estimate: Global Automotive M2M Connections (B) 110
Figure 28: IoT Market Size in ITS ($B) 110
Figure 29: Legislative Work (2016) 113
Figure 30: Levels 133

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Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics 11
Table 2: 3GPP Release 10 - IoT/M2M 42
Table 3: CAT-0 and CAT-1 Characteristics 45
Table 4: Additional Characteristics 45
Table 5: Iceni Characteristics 65
Table 6: Weightless Technologies Comparison 73
Table 7: 802.11ah Features Summary 80
Table 8: LoRa Characteristics 97
Table 9: Regional Differences 98
Table 10: Technologies Comparison 100
Table 11: Components 109
Table 12: Comparison - Levels 135
Table 13: Current View - Schedule 137
Table 14: IoT/M2M-ITS Service Offerings - Major Service Providers 139
Table 15: Technologies Comparison 161

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