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This BCC research report incorporates an in-depth analysis of the global SCM market including market estimations and trends through 2020. It analyzes the market dynamics of SCMs across the North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and RoW regions.

Use this report to:
- Analyze the global supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) market by applications and types.
- Gain insight into recent technological developments and the product portfolios of the major players.
- Identify market trends, issues and factors impacting the global SCM market.
- Evaluate market revenues of the global SCM market by region in terms of values and volume.

Highlights
- The global supplementary cementitious material (SCM) market was valued at $74.8 billion in 2014 and over $79.2 billion in 2015. The market should reach $103.2 billion by 2020, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.4% from 2015 to 2020.
- The fly ash market reached over $75.0 billion in 2015, and should reach over $98.0 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.5% from 2015 to 2020.
- The global SCM market for slag cement reached over $4.0 billion in 2015 and should reach nearly $5.0 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 4.1% from 2015 to 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the primary material for building of roads, bridges, dams, highways and other infrastructure. Concrete, however, has several drawbacks such as short life and heat emission, and therefore causes harm to the environment. However, incorporation of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in concrete improves its microstructure and increases resistance to environment hazards. The most-used SCMs are fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag and silica fumes. After addition of SCMs, concrete exhibits lower permeability, increased durability and more resistance to sulfates and seawater. There is greater chemical stability, and therefore concrete has now become high-performance concrete; this has helped to costs, as the structures made from this concrete have a longer life. At current growth rates, consumption of concrete will soon be more than consumption of food. The performance of SCMs is related to what proportion they are used and the performance characteristic required in the concrete. Producers are focused on cost reduction and benefits of obtaining cements and concretes with a higher resistance, as addition of SCMs increases the strength of cement.

STUDY AND OBJECTIVE
- Define the global SCM market.
- Analyze the market by applications and types.
- Estimate market revenues of the global SCM market by region in terms of values and volume.
- Identify market trends, issues and factors impacting the global SCM market.
- Study various applications.
- Discuss opportunities with respect to regions and applications.
- Profile major players and discuss their products.

GLOBAL SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS MARKET DESCRIPTION
SCMs are formed as a by-product of other manufacturing processes. Fly ash, silica fumes and slag cement are the most commonly used products. SCMs are added to concrete mixtures and other building products to enhance the properties of the base material. Fly ash was the largest product segment within the global SCM market in 2014, and the trend is anticipated to remain the same over the forecast period. Slag cement was the second-largest product segment, followed by silica fumes. The outlook for silica fumes is expected to be positive over the forecast period because of the likely increase in silicon output. This report is divided into four main regions: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the rest of the world (RoW). Asia-Pacific is the largest market for SCMs. The demand for SCMs in Asia-Pacific, particularly in China and India, is tremendous.

The main application areas of SCMs are cement and concrete. The current trend is to use various SCMs according to their inherent chemical properties and to the eventual purpose of the resulting concrete. SCM-reinforced concrete and cement are used primarily in infrastructure, and therefore the SCM market is impacted by the macroeconomic development of a country.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT
This research report incorporates an in-depth analysis of the global SCM market including market estimations and trends through 2020. This report analyzes the market dynamics of SCMs across the North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and RoW regions. Major players, competitive intelligence, market dynamics and geographic opportunities are discussed in detail in the report. The report also discusses recent developments
and the product portfolios of the major players. Patent analysis provides trends over the past two to three years in the U.S., Europe and Japan.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
- SCM manufacturers and new entrants.
- Suppliers of raw materials.
- Research institutes, associations and academics.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
BCC Research implements both primary and secondary research for market estimates and forecasts. Secondary research forms the initial phase of the study, including extensive data mining, referring to verified data sources such as independent studies, government and regulatory published material, technical journals, trade magazines and paid data sources, which form the basis of our estimates. For forecasting, the following parameters were considered:

- Market drivers and restraints, along with current and expected impact.
- Technological scenario and expected developments.
- End-use industry trends and dynamics.
- Trends in consumer behavior.

Weights were assigned to these parameters, and we have quantified their market impact using average analysis, to derive an expected market growth rate. All estimates and forecasts were verified through primary research with stakeholders that typically include:

- Market-leading companies.
- Raw material manufacturers.
- Domain experts.

The key objectives of primary research are as follows:
- To validate data in terms of accuracy and acceptability.
- To gain an insight into the current market and future expectations.

We have used a bottom-up approach for market sizing, analyzing key regional markets, dynamics and trends for various end uses. The global market is estimated by integrating regional markets. When reporting market values or production capacities in kilotons, note that this unit is equal to 1,000 metric tons. All revenue values are reported in current U.S. dollars at the time of this research was conducted, unadjusted for inflation.

Table Of Contents

Supplementary Cementitious Materials: Global Markets and New Technologies
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY AND OBJECTIVE 2
GLOBAL SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS MARKET DESCRIPTION 2
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, 2014-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 MARKET OVERVIEW 11
MARKET ANALYSIS 11
MARKET SHARE OF KEY SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS 11
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME SHARE BY PRODUCT, 2014 (%) 11
TABLE 1 GLOBAL FLY ASH PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION, 2008 (MILLION TONS/%) 12
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME SHARE BY PRODUCT, 2020 (%) 13
MARKET APPLICATIONS 15
FLY ASH 15
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL FLY ASH APPLICATIONS, 2013 (%) 16
SLAG CEMENT 16
SILICA FUMES 17
NATURAL POZZOLANS 18
Glass Pozzolans 18
MARKET STRATEGIES 18
MINEX 18
TABLE 2 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF MINEX 19
TABLE 3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINEX 19
TABLE 4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINEX 19
MINSPAR 20
TABLE 5 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINSPAR (%) 20
TABLE 6 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINSPAR 21
TABLE 7 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF MINSPAR 21
MARKET DYNAMICS 22
DRIVERS 22
Increasing Road Construction Activities 22
TABLE 8 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CONCRETE ROADS AND ASPHALT
ROADS 22
TABLE 9 ROAD LENGTH BY COUNTRY (KILOMETERS) 23
Expanding Building Sector 24
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL BUILDING STOCK, 2013-2020 (BILLION SQUARE METERS) 24
RESTRAINTS 25
SCM Production Heavily Dependent on Other Manufacturing
Industries 25
FIGURE 5 PROJECTED GLOBAL COAL POWER GENERATION INSTALLATION
CAPACITY, 2005-2035 (GW) 25
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL BLAST-FURNACE IRON PRODUCTION, 2007-2013 (MILLION TONS) 26
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL FERROSILICON CONSUMPTION, 2007-2012 (MILLION TONS) 27
OPPORTUNITIES 28
Increasing Awareness Regarding Green Concrete 28
TABLE 10 LIST OF INCENTIVES IN NORTH AMERICA 29
FIGURE 8 GREEN ACTIVITY IN THE U.S., 2011-2018 (%) 29
FIGURE 9 U.S. GREEN BUILDING MARKET, 2010-2015 ($ BILLIONS) 30
SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS - A PERSPECTIVE 31
Introduction to SCMs 31
Types of SCMs 32
Fly Ash 32
Slag Cement 32
Silica Fumes 33
Natural Pozzolans 33
Application Areas of SCMs 34
Properties of SCMs 35
Fly Ash 35
TABLE 11 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH BASED ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT
OF THE COAL BURNED (%) 35
TABLE 12 PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH 35
TABLE 13 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH (%) 36
TABLE 14 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES (%) 36
TABLE 15 COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
CLASS F AND CLASS C FLY ASH 36
Slag Cement 36
TABLE 16 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SLAG CEMENT 37
Silica Fumes 37
TABLE 17 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICA FUMES 37
TABLE 18 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT SILICA FUMES SAMPLES (%) 37
Natural Pozzolans 38
Price Trend Analysis 39
Fly Ash 39
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL FLY ASH PRICE TREND ANALYSIS BY REGION, 2012-2020
($/TON) 39
Slag Cement 40
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT PRICE TREND ANALYSIS BY REGION, 2012-2020
($/TON) 40
Silica Fumes 41
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES PRICE TREND ANALYSIS BY REGION, 2012-2020
($/TON) 41
Natural Pozzolans 41
TABLE 19 PRICE RANGE OF NATURAL POZZOLAN, 2014-2015 ($) 42
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS 42
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE PRODUCTION BY SECTOR, 2013 (%) 43
FIGURE 14 SCM REPLACEMENT PERCENT REQUIRED IN CONCRETE FOR ZERO
INCREASE IN CO2 PRODUCTION PER REGION, 1995-2010 (%) 44
Fly Ash 44
TABLE 20 ENERGY SAVINGS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BUILDING MATERIALS
THROUGH USE OF FLY ASH 45
Slag Cement 45
FIGURE 15 CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS (POUND/CUBIC YARD CONCRETE) 45
Silica Fumes 46
Natural Pozzolans 46
REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATIONS 47
U.S. 47
TABLE 21 RECOMMENDED SPECIFICATIONS FOR CEMENT AND CONCRETE
CONTAINING RECOVERED MATERIALS 50
Europe 50
TABLE 22 REGULATIONS IN THE E.U. FOR GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 52
TABLE 23 IDENTIFIED USES FOR GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 53
TABLE 24 CLASSIFICATION AND LABELING: SELF-CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO
DIRECTIVE 67/548/EEC CRITERIA 53
Self-Classification According to the CLP Regulation 54
TABLE 25 PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE CLP REGULATION 54
Exposure Assessment 55
Belgium 55
PRODUCTION ROUTES 55
Fly Ash 55
FIGURE 16 FLY ASH PRODUCTION PROCESS 56
Slag Cement 56
FIGURE 17 GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG PRODUCTION PROCESS 57
Silica Fumes 57
FIGURE 18 SILICA FUMES PRODUCTION PROCESS 58
Natural Pozzolans 58
TECHNOLOGY 58
FIGURE 19 FLY ASH SEGMENTATION 58
Slag Cement 59
Silica Fumes 59
BENEFITS OF SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS 59
Fly Ash 59
Case Study 1 60
TABLE 26 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH (%) 60
TABLE 27 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CEMENT (%) 60
Chrysotile asbestos fibers: IV, V and IV groups in the ratio of
1:1:1. 60
Results: 60
TABLE 28 LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SHEET IN PROPORTION TO THE
QUANTITY OF FLY ASH 61
TABLE 29 TEST RESULTS OF THE PRODUCT AT 10, 30, 60 AND 90 DAYS AFTER
CURING 61
TABLE 30 PROPERTIES OF CALCIUM-ENRICHED FLY ASH IN FIBER CEMENT SHEETS 62
Conclusions: 62
TABLE 31 EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 63
Slag Cement (GGBS) 64
Compressive and Flexural Strength 65
FIGURE 20 EFFECT OF SLAG CEMENT ON 7-DAY AND 28-DAY COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH (PSI PER SQUARE INCH) 65
FIGURE 21 EFFECT OF SLAG CEMENT ON 7-DAY AND 28-DAY FLEXURAL STRENGTH 66
TABLE 32 BENEFITS OF IMPROVED STRENGTH 66
Reducing Permeability 67
FIGURE 22 EFFECT OF SLAG CEMENT ON CONCRETE CHLORIDE ION
PENETRABILITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM C-1202 (CHARGE PASSED,
COULOMBS)
67
Mitigating Sulfate Attack 67
FIGURE 23 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS PORTLAND-SLAG CEMENT COMBINATIONS
TESTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM C-1012 (% EXPANSION) 68
Mitigating Alkali-Silica Reaction 68
FIGURE 24 IMPACT OF SLAG ON TWO-YEAR EXPANSION OF CONCRETE IN
ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM C-1293 69
Reducing Thermal Stress in Mass Concrete 69
Shrinkage in Concrete 70
Silica Fumes 70
Effect of Silica Fumes on Fresh Concrete 70
FIGURE 25 EFFECT OF SILICA FUMES ON FRESH CONCRETE 71
Increased Cohesion 71
Reduction in Bleeding 71
Effect of Silica Fumes on Hardened Concrete 72
FIGURE 26 EFFECT OF SILICA FUMES ON HARDENED CONCRETE 72
Enhanced Mechanical Properties 73
Reduced Permeability 73
Chloride Damage to Reinforcing Steel 73
Natural Pozzolans 74
Types of Pozzolans 74
TABLE 33 TYPICAL CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME NATURAL
POZZOLANS 74
Applications of Natural Pozzolans 75
Market Outlook 75
REGIONAL OVERVIEW 75
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, 2014 (%) 75
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, 2020 (%) 76
CHAPTER 4 SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS BY TYPE 79
FLY ASH 79
TABLE 34 GLOBAL FLY ASH MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 35 GLOBAL FLY ASH MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 79
TABLE 36 GLOBAL FLY ASH MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 80
SLAG CEMENT 80
TABLE 37 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 38 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 81
TABLE 39 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 82
SILICA FUMES 82
TABLE 40 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 41 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 83
TABLE 42 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 83
NATURAL POZZOLANS 84
TABLE 43 GLOBAL NATURAL POZZOLANS MARKET, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS/$MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 44 GLOBAL NATURAL POZZOLANS MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 (KILOTONS) 84
TABLE 45 GLOBAL NATURAL POZZOLANS MARKET REVENUE BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 85
CHAPTER 5 SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS BY REGION 87
NORTH AMERICA 87
TABLE 46 NORTH AMERICA SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 87
FIGURE 29 U.S. AND MEXICO CEMENT CONSUMPTION, 2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 87
TABLE 47 NORTH AMERICA SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 88
TABLE 48 NORTH AMERICA SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 88
U.S. 89
TABLE 49 U.S. SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 50 U.S. SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 89
TABLE 51 U.S. SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 90
EUROPE 90
TABLE 52 EUROPE SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 90
FIGURE 30 EUROPE CEMENT CONSUMPTION BY KEY COUNTRIES, 2006-2012
(MILLION TONS) 91
TABLE 53 EUROPE SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 92
TABLE 54 EUROPE SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 92
GERMANY 92
TABLE 55 GERMANY SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 56 GERMANY SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 93
TABLE 57 GERMANY SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 94
U.K. 94
TABLE 58 U.K. SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 59 U.K. SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 95
TABLE 60 U.K. SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 95
ASIA-PACIFIC 95
TABLE 61 ASIA-PACIFIC SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 95
FIGURE 31 CHINA AND INDIA CEMENT CONSUMPTION, 2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 96
FIGURE 32 REST OF ASIA CEMENT CONSUMPTION, 2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 97
TABLE 62 ASIA-PACIFIC SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 98
TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 98
CHINA 98
TABLE 64 CHINA SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 65 CHINA SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 99
TABLE 66 CHINA SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 100
INDIA 100
TABLE 67 INDIA SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 68 INDIA SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 100
TABLE 69 INDIA SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
ROW 101
TABLE 70 ROW SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 33 EGYPT, BRAZIL AND SAUDI ARABIA CONCRETE CONSUMPTION,
2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 102
TABLE 71 ROW SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 103
TABLE 72 ROW SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 103
CHAPTER 6 COMPANY PROFILES 105
ACC 105
OVERVIEW 105
TABLE 73 ACC PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 105
ADELAIDE BRIGHTON 105
OVERVIEW 106
TABLE 74 ADELAIDE BRIGHTON PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 106
ADVANCED CEMENT TECHNOLOGIES 106
OVERVIEW 106
TABLE 75 ADVANCED CEMENT TECHNOLOGIES PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 106
ASH GROVE CEMENT COMPANY 107
OVERVIEW 107
TABLE 76 ASH GROVE CEMENT COMPANY PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 107
BEEMSTERBOER SLAG CORP. 108
OVERVIEW 108
TABLE 77 BEEMSTERBOER SLAG CORP. PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 108
BINANI INDUSTRIES 108
OVERVIEW 108
TABLE 78 BINANI PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 109
BHARATHI CEMENT 109
OVERVIEW 109
TABLE 79 BHARATHI CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 109
BORAL INDUSTRIES INC. 110
OVERVIEW 110
TABLE 80 BORAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 110
TABLE 81 BORAL RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 110
CEMEX USA 111
OVERVIEW 111
TABLE 82 CEMEX PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 111
CR MINERALS 111
OVERVIEW 111
TABLE 83 CR MINERAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 112
DAIICHI CEMENT CO LTD (D C CO LTD) 112
OVERVIEW 112
TABLE 84 DAIICHI CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 112
DIRK INDIA PRIVATE LTD. 113
OVERVIEW 113
TABLE 85 DIRK INDIA PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 113
ELKEM AS SILICON MATERIALS 113
OVERVIEW 113
TABLE 86 ELKEM AS SILICON MATERIALS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 114
FESIL RANA METALL AS 114
OVERVIEW 114
TABLE 87 FESIL RANA METALL AS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 114
FLYASH AUSTRALIA 115
OVERVIEW 115
TABLE 88 FLYASH AUSTRALIA PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 115
GLOBE SPECIALTY METALS INC. 115
OVERVIEW 115
TABLE 89 GLOBE SPECIALTY METALS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 116
HANSON U.K. 116
OVERVIEW 116
TABLE 90 HANSON U.K. PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 116
HOLCIM GROUP SERVICES LTD/HOLCIM TECHNOLOGY LTD. 117
OVERVIEW 117
TABLE 91 HOLCIM PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 117
INDIA CEMENT 117
OVERVIEW 117
TABLE 92 INDIA CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 118
ITALCEMENTI GROUP 118
OVERVIEW 118
TABLE 93 ITALCEMENTI PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 119
JSW CEMENT 119
OVERVIEW 119
TABLE 94 JSW CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 119
LEHIGH CEMENT COMPANY 120
OVERVIEW 120
TABLE 95 LEHIGH CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 120
LUOYANG JIHE MICRO-SILICA FUME CO. LTD. 120
OVERVIEW 120
TABLE 96 LUOYANG JIHE MICRO-SILICA FUME PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 121
MINERAL RESOURCE TECHNOLOGIES 121
OVERVIEW 121
TABLE 97 MINERAL RESOURCE TECHNOLOGIES PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 121
NEPTUNE INDUSTRIES 122
OVERVIEW 122
TABLE 98 NEPTUNE PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 122
NGHI SON CEMENT CORPORATION (NSCC) 122
OVERVIEW 122
TABLE 99 NGHI SON CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 123
NIPPON STEEL BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT CO LTD 123
OVERVIEW 123
TABLE 100 NIPPON STEEL BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 123
NORCHEM SILICA FUME PRODUCTS 124
OVERVIEW 124
TABLE 101 NORCHEM SILICA FUME PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 124
OLDCASTLE INC. 124
OVERVIEW 124
TABLE 102 OLDCASTLE PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 125
PPC ZIMBABWE 125
OVERVIEW 125
TABLE 103 PCC ZIMBABWE PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 125
RW SILICIUM GMBH 126
OVERVIEW 126
TABLE 104 RW SILICIUM PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 126
SCB INTERNATIONAL 126
OVERVIEW 126
TABLE 105 SCB INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
SHREE CEMENT 127
OVERVIEW 127
TABLE 106 SHREE CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
SIMCOA OPERATIONS PTY. LTD 128
OVERVIEW 128
TABLE 107 SIMCOA OPERATIONS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 128
STEIN INC. 128
OVERVIEW 128
TABLE 108 STEIN PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 129
TITAN AMERICA 129
OVERVIEW 129
TABLE 109 TITAN AMERICA PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 129
ULTRATECH CEMENT 129
OVERVIEW 130
TABLE 110 ULTRATECH PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 130
UNIMIN CORPORATION 130
OVERVIEW 130
TABLE 111 UNIMIN PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 131
TABLE 112 UNIMIN RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 132
URBAN MINING NORTHEAST, LLC 132
OVERVIEW 132
TABLE 113 URBAN MINING NORTHEAST PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 132
VHSC CEMENT 132
OVERVIEW 133
TABLE 114 VHSC CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 133
VITRO MINERALS 133
OVERVIEW 133
TABLE 115 VITRO MINERALS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 134
WAGNERS 134
OVERVIEW 134
TABLE 116 WAGNERS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 135
WUHAN NEWREACH CHEMICAL COMPANY LTD 135
OVERVIEW 135
TABLE 117 WUHAN NEWREACH CHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 135
CHAPTER 7 PATENT ANALYSIS 137
LIST OF PATENTS 137
TABLE 118 U.S. PATENTS, 2000-JUNE 2015 137
TABLE 119 EUROPE PATENTS, 1990-2014 147
TABLE 120 JAPAN PATENT, 2004 150

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 GLOBAL FLY ASH PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION, 2008 (MILLION TONS/%) 12
TABLE 2 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF MINEX 19
TABLE 3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINEX 19
TABLE 4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINEX 19
TABLE 5 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINSPAR (%) 20
TABLE 6 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINSPAR 21
TABLE 7 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF MINSPAR 21
TABLE 8 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CONCRETE ROADS AND ASPHALT
ROADS 22
TABLE 9 ROAD LENGTH BY COUNTRY (KILOMETERS) 23
TABLE 10 LIST OF INCENTIVES IN NORTH AMERICA 29
TABLE 11 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH BASED ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT
OF THE COAL BURNED (%) 35
TABLE 12 PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH 35
TABLE 13 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH (%) 36
TABLE 14 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES (%) 36
TABLE 15 COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CLASS
F AND CLASS C FLY ASH 36
TABLE 16 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SLAG CEMENT 37
TABLE 17 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICA FUMES 37
TABLE 18 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT SILICA FUMES SAMPLES (%) 37
TABLE 19 PRICE RANGE OF NATURAL POZZOLAN, 2014-2015 ($) 42
TABLE 20 ENERGY SAVINGS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF BUILDING MATERIALS
THROUGH USE OF FLY ASH 45
TABLE 21 RECOMMENDED SPECIFICATIONS FOR CEMENT AND CONCRETE
CONTAINING RECOVERED MATERIALS 50
TABLE 22 REGULATIONS IN THE E.U. FOR GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 52
TABLE 23 IDENTIFIED USES FOR GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 53
TABLE 24 CLASSIFICATION AND LABELING: SELF-CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO
DIRECTIVE 67/548/EEC CRITERIA 53
TABLE 25 PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE CLP REGULATION 54
TABLE 26 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH (%) 60
TABLE 27 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CEMENT (%) 60
TABLE 28 LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SHEET IN PROPORTION TO THE
QUANTITY OF FLY ASH 61
TABLE 29 TEST RESULTS OF THE PRODUCT AT 10, 30, 60 AND 90 DAYS AFTER
CURING 61
TABLE 30 PROPERTIES OF CALCIUM-ENRICHED FLY ASH IN FIBER CEMENT SHEETS 62
TABLE 31 EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 63
TABLE 32 BENEFITS OF IMPROVED STRENGTH 66
TABLE 33 TYPICAL CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME NATURAL
POZZOLANS 74
TABLE 34 GLOBAL FLY ASH MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 35 GLOBAL FLY ASH MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 79
TABLE 36 GLOBAL FLY ASH MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 37 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 38 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 81
TABLE 39 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 40 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 41 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 83
TABLE 42 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 43 GLOBAL NATURAL POZZOLANS MARKET, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS/$MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 44 GLOBAL NATURAL POZZOLANS MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 (KILOTONS) 84
TABLE 45 GLOBAL NATURAL POZZOLANS MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 46 NORTH AMERICA SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 47 NORTH AMERICA SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 88
TABLE 48 NORTH AMERICA SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 49 U.S. SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 50 U.S. SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 89
TABLE 51 U.S. SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 52 EUROPE SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 53 EUROPE SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 92
TABLE 54 EUROPE SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 55 GERMANY SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 56 GERMANY SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 93
TABLE 57 GERMANY SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 58 U.K. SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 59 U.K. SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 95
TABLE 60 U.K. SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 61 ASIA-PACIFIC SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 62 ASIA-PACIFIC SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020
(KILOTONS) 98
TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 64 CHINA SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 65 CHINA SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 99
TABLE 66 CHINA SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 67 INDIA SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 68 INDIA SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 100
TABLE 69 INDIA SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 70 ROW SCM MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS/$ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 71 ROW SCM MARKET VOLUME BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 (KILOTONS) 103
TABLE 72 ROW SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 73 ACC PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 105
TABLE 74 ADELAIDE BRIGHTON PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 106
TABLE 75 ADVANCED CEMENT TECHNOLOGIES PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 106
TABLE 76 ASH GROVE CEMENT COMPANY PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 107
TABLE 77 BEEMSTERBOER SLAG CORP. PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 108
TABLE 78 BINANI PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 109
TABLE 79 BHARATHI CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 109
TABLE 80 BORAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 110
TABLE 81 BORAL RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 110
TABLE 82 CEMEX PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 111
TABLE 83 CR MINERAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 112
TABLE 84 DAIICHI CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 112
TABLE 85 DIRK INDIA PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 113
TABLE 86 ELKEM AS SILICON MATERIALS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 114
TABLE 87 FESIL RANA METALL AS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 114
TABLE 88 FLYASH AUSTRALIA PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 115
TABLE 89 GLOBE SPECIALTY METALS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 116
TABLE 90 HANSON U.K. PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 116
TABLE 91 HOLCIM PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 117
TABLE 92 INDIA CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 118
TABLE 93 ITALCEMENTI PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 119
TABLE 94 JSW CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 119
TABLE 95 LEHIGH CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 120
TABLE 96 LUOYANG JIHE MICRO-SILICA FUME PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 121
TABLE 97 MINERAL RESOURCE TECHNOLOGIES PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 121
TABLE 98 NEPTUNE PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 122
TABLE 99 NGHI SON CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 123
TABLE 100 NIPPON STEEL BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 123
TABLE 101 NORCHEM SILICA FUME PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 124
TABLE 102 OLDCASTLE PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 125
TABLE 103 PCC ZIMBABWE PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 125
TABLE 104 RW SILICIUM PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 126
TABLE 105 SCB INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
TABLE 106 SHREE CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 127
TABLE 107 SIMCOA OPERATIONS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 128
TABLE 108 STEIN PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 129
TABLE 109 TITAN AMERICA PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 129
TABLE 110 ULTRATECH PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 130
TABLE 111 UNIMIN PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 131
TABLE 112 UNIMIN RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 132
TABLE 113 URBAN MINING NORTHEAST PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 132
TABLE 114 VHSC CEMENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 133
TABLE 115 VITRO MINERALS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 134
TABLE 116 WAGNERS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 135
TABLE 117 WUHAN NEWREACH CHEMICAL PRODUCT PORTFOLIO 135
TABLE 118 U.S. PATENTS, 2000-JUNE 2015 137
TABLE 119 EUROPE PATENTS, 1990-2014 147

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL SCM MARKET REVENUE BY PRODUCT, 2014-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME SHARE BY PRODUCT, 2014 (%) 11
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME SHARE BY PRODUCT, 2020 (%) 13
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL FLY ASH APPLICATIONS, 2013 (%) 16
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL BUILDING STOCK, 2013-2020 (BILLION SQUARE METERS) 24
FIGURE 5 PROJECTED GLOBAL COAL POWER GENERATION INSTALLATION CAPACITY,
2005-2035 (GW) 25
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL BLAST-FURNACE IRON PRODUCTION, 2007-2013 (MILLION TONS) 26
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL FERROSILICON CONSUMPTION, 2007-2012 (MILLION TONS) 27
FIGURE 8 GREEN ACTIVITY IN THE U.S., 2011-2018 (%) 29
FIGURE 9 U.S. GREEN BUILDING MARKET, 2010-2015 ($ BILLIONS) 30
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL FLY ASH PRICE TREND ANALYSIS BY REGION, 2012-2020 ($/TON) 39
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SLAG CEMENT PRICE TREND ANALYSIS BY REGION, 2012-2020
($/TON) 40
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL SILICA FUMES PRICE TREND ANALYSIS BY REGION, 2012-2020
($/TON) 41
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE PRODUCTION BY SECTOR, 2013 (%) 43
FIGURE 14 SCM REPLACEMENT PERCENT REQUIRED IN CONCRETE FOR ZERO
INCREASE IN CO2 PRODUCTION PER REGION, 1995-2010 (%) 44
FIGURE 15 CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS (POUND/CUBIC YARD CONCRETE) 45
FIGURE 16 FLY ASH PRODUCTION PROCESS 56
FIGURE 17 GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAG PRODUCTION PROCESS 57
FIGURE 18 SILICA FUMES PRODUCTION PROCESS 58
FIGURE 19 FLY ASH SEGMENTATION 58
FIGURE 20 EFFECT OF SLAG CEMENT ON 7-DAY AND 28-DAY COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH (PSI PER SQUARE INCH) 65
FIGURE 21 EFFECT OF SLAG CEMENT ON 7-DAY AND 28-DAY FLEXURAL STRENGTH 66
FIGURE 22 EFFECT OF SLAG CEMENT ON CONCRETE CHLORIDE ION PENETRABILITY
IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM C-1202 (CHARGE PASSED, COULOMBS) 67
FIGURE 23 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS PORTLAND-SLAG CEMENT COMBINATIONS
TESTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM C-1012 (% EXPANSION) 68
FIGURE 24 IMPACT OF SLAG ON TWO-YEAR EXPANSION OF CONCRETE IN
ACCORDANCE WITH ASTM C-1293 69
FIGURE 25 EFFECT OF SILICA FUMES ON FRESH CONCRETE 71
FIGURE 26 EFFECT OF SILICA FUMES ON HARDENED CONCRETE 72
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, 2014 (%) 75
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL SCM MARKET VOLUME BY REGION, 2020 (%) 76
FIGURE 29 U.S. AND MEXICO CEMENT CONSUMPTION, 2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 87
FIGURE 30 EUROPE CEMENT CONSUMPTION BY KEY COUNTRIES, 2006-2012
(MILLION TONS) 91
FIGURE 31 CHINA AND INDIA CEMENT CONSUMPTION, 2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 96
FIGURE 32 REST OF ASIA CEMENT CONSUMPTION, 2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 97
FIGURE 33 EGYPT, BRAZIL AND SAUDI ARABIA CONCRETE CONSUMPTION,
2006-2012 (MILLION TONS) 102

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