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Global Steel Industry

  • August 2016
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  • Global Industry Analysts
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  • 523 pages

This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Steel in Thousand Metric Tons by the following End-Use Applications: Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal goods, Household Appliances, and Others. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific, Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 through 2022. Also, a six-year historic analysis is provided for these markets. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 147 companies including many key and niche players such as -

Anshan Iron and Steel Group Corporation
ArcelorMittal S.A
Baosteel Co., Ltd.
EVRAZ Group S.A
Gerdau S.A

Table Of Contents

Global Steel Industry


I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY and PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations I-1 Disclaimers.............. I-2 Data Interpretation and Reporting Level I-2 Quantitative Techniques and Analytics I-3 Product Definitions and Scope of Study I-3

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW.............. II-1 Steel Industry — Are the Worst Times Over? II-1 2015 - A Difficult Year for Steel Industry II-2 Overcapacity and Inventory Levels - A Review II-3 Table 1: Global Steel Nominal Capacity, 2009 -2017 (in MMt) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-4

Table 2: Global Capacity Utilization Rate (in %) for Steel Production (Dec 2014 - June 2016) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-5 China Holds the Key.............. II-5 Table 3: Monthly Steel Production in China (Jan 2015 - May 2016).............. II-6 Steel Price Differential—Global Impacts II-7 Table 4: Global Monthly Steel Prices (Feb 2015-April 2016) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8

Table 5: Global Monthly Prices for Hot Rolled Coil, Hot Rolled Plate and Rebar (May 2015-April 2016) (US$/tonne) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-9 Globalization and Rationalization - A Surviving Strategy II-10 Long term Outlook.............. II-11

2. COMPETITION.............. II-12 A Review.............. II-12 Table 6: Top 20 Steel Producing Companies (2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-13 Table 7: Leading Steel Producing Companies (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown by Volume Production (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-14 Restructuring Operations Remain a Key Strategy II-15 Consolidation Picks up Pace..............II-15

3. INDUSTRY TRENDS and ISSUES..............II-17 Ongoing Drive for Lighter Weight Vehicles Drives Demand for High Strength Steel..............II-17 Table 8: Average Automotive Material Mix: 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-18 Emissions Regulations Landscape in Major Countries/Regions II-19 Innovations and Product Differentiation Grow in Focus II-19 High Performance Steel Grades Gain Importance in Machinery II-19 Shale Gas Exploration Triggers Demand for High Strength Pipes II-20 Steel Vs Aluminum: The Material Wars Continue II-21 Demand for Stainless Steel Gains Momentum II-21 Demand for Special Long Steel on the Rise II-22 Table 9: World Specialty Long Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Category (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-23

Table 10: Global Long Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown by Product (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-23 Steel Manufacturers Move Closer to Customers II-23 Rising Demand for Recycled Steel Pushes Demand for Steel Scrap II-24 Stainless Steel Continues to Reign Appliances Market II-24 Carbon Steel Market - A Review II-25 Move towards EAF - An Ongoing Trend II-25 Table 11: Steel Production by Manufacturing Process in Select Countries (2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-26 Steel Industry Persists with its Energy Conservation Drive II-27 Environmentally Friendly Approach Gains Focus II-27

4. STEEL INDUSTRY - KEY FACTS and FIGURES II-28 Steel Production on a Downward Spiral II-28 Table 12: Global Steel Market by Country (2014 and 2015): Breakdown of Crude Steel Production (in Million Tonnes) for China, Japan, India, US, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Brazil, Turkey, Ukraine, Italy, Taiwan, Mexico, Iran, France, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-29

Table 13: Global Steel Market by Region (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Crude Steel Production for NAFTA, Europe, CIS, Asia-Pacific, Central and South America, The Middle East, and Africa (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-29

Table 14: Global Crude Steel Production in Million Tons (2005-2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-30

Table 15: Asia-Pacific Crude Steel Production in Million Tons (2005-2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-30

Table 16: Global Finished Steel Market by Category (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production for Carbon Flat Steel, Carbon Long Steel, Specialty Long Steel, and Stainless Flat Steel (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-31 Steel Trade Overview..............II-31 Table 17: Leading Exporting Countries in the Global Steel Market (2015): Exports (in Million Tons) for China, Japan, EU (28), South Korea, Russia, Germany, Ukraine, Italy, Belgium, Turkey, France, Brazil, Taiwan, Netherlands, and US (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-32

Table 18: Finished Steel Exports (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Exports by Product (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-32

Table 19: Leading Importing Countries in the Global Steel Market (2015): Imports (in Million Tons) for EU (28), US, Germany, South Korea, Italy, Turkey, Viet Nam, Thailand, France, India, China, Mexico, Belgium, Indonesia, and Poland (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-33 Raw Material Prices Impact on Steel Prices II-33 Table 20: Average Price of Iron Ore: 2010-2015 (in US$/tonne) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-35 Table 21: Average Monthly Price of Coking Coal: Jan 2012- June 2016 (in US$/tonne) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-35

5. MARKET ENVIRONMENT AND KEY GROWTH INDICATORS II-36 Global GDP Performance and Market Outlook II-36 Table 22: Real GDP Growth Rates (%) in Major World Economies: 2014-2017E (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-37 Manufacturing Sector to Support Growth II-38 Table 23: Global Manufacturing PMI for the Years 2010 through 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-39

Table 24: Global Purchasing Managers Index (PMI): Quarterly MI Data by Country/region (2015- 2016 2Q) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-40 Construction Market and Prospects II-40 Table 25: Global Construction Market (2015P and 2020P): Percentage Breakdown of Construction Spending by Region (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-42

Table 26: Global Infrastructure Spending Estimates by Sector (2015-2030) (in US$ Trillion) II-43

Table 27: Global Infrastructure Spending Growth (2014-2020) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-44 Population Growth and Urbanization Drive Demand for Steel II-44 Urbanization in Developing Countries to Drive Growth II-45 Table 28: Population, GDP Per-Capita, Urbanization, and Steel Use Per-Capita (2012 and 2020) for Select Regions (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-46 Revival in the Automotive Industry Improve Prospects II-46 Table 29: Global Automobile Production Estimates and Forecasts in Million Units (2009-2020) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-48 Price Volatility in Oil and Gas Sector Impacts Demand II-48 Table 30: Global Oil and Gas EandP Industry Spending (2008-2016) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-49

6. PRODUCT OVERVIEW.............. II-52 Steel Composition.............. II-52 Steel Properties.............. II-53 End-Use Sectors for Steel..............II-53 Steel Classification..............II-54 Table 31: Steel Demand by Steel Type includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-54 Carbon Steels.............. II-54 Table 32: Carbon Steels - Alloying Elements of Steel (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-54 Alloy Steels.............. II-54 Stainless Steels.............. II-55 Austenitic Grade..............II-55 Ferritic Grade.............. II-55 Martensitic Grade.............. II-55 Tool Steels.............. II-55 High-Speed Tool Steels..............II-56 Cold-Work Tool Steels..............II-56 Hot-Work Tool Steels..............II-56 Mold Steels.............. II-56 Shock-Resistant Tool Steels..............II-56 Water-Hardening Tool Steels..............II-56 Special-Purpose Tool Steels..............II-56 Other Steel Types..............II-56 Chromium Steel.............. II-56 Nickel Steel.............. II-57 High Speed Steel..............II-57 Cobalt Steel.............. II-57 Ferro-Tic Carbide.............. II-57 Carbide Tipped.............. II-57 Solid Carbide.............. II-57 Steel Manufacturing Process..............II-57 Steel Making.............. II-58 Basic Oxygen Furnace..............II-59 Classification of BOFs..............II-59 Bottom Blown.............. II-59 Top Blown.............. II-60 Combination Blown..............II-60 Electric Arc Furnace..............II-60 Refining and Casting..............II-61 Ladle Refining.............. II-61 Casting.............. II-62 Forming and Finishing..............II-62 Hot Rolled.............. II-63 Cold Forming - Modifies Properties of Some Steels II-63 Steel Products.............. II-63 Finished Products..............II-64 Table 33: Global Steel Demand (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Consumption by Product Shape (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-64

7. AN OVERVIEW OF MAJOR END-USE SEGMENTS II-65 Construction.............. II-65 Automotive.............. II-66 Shipbuilding.............. II-66 Table 34: Largest Shipbuilding Countries by Completions in Gross Tonnage (2014) (in Million GT) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-66 Machinery.............. II-67 Appliances.............. II-67 Metal Cans.............. II-67 Accessories.............. II-68 Finishes.............. II-68 Furniture.............. II-68

8. STAINLESS STEEL INDUSTRY - A SNAPSHOT II-69 Table 35: World Stainless Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Demand by Region (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-69

Table 36: World Stainless Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Share by End-Market (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-69

Table 37: Global Stainless Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Region (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-70

Table 38: Global Stainless Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Segment (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-70

Table 39: Global Stainless Steel Long Products Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Share by Product Group (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-70

Table 40: Global Stainless Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown by Product (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-71

Table 41: Global Stainless Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Demand by End-Use (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-71 End-Use Applications of Stainless Steel II-71

9. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY..............II-73 ArcelorMittal Introduces New High-Strength Steel for Cars II-73 Gerdau Sells Steel Production Company in Spain to Clerbil SL II-73 JFE Steel, Nucor Sign Agreement to Set Up Joint Venture for Auto Steel Sheet Production..............II-73 POSCO Sets up Automotive Steel Processing Centers in China II-73 Tata Steel UK Sells Long Products Operations in Europe to Greybull Capital LLP (UK)..............II-73 Outokumpu and Böllinghaus Steel Enter into Distribution Agreement for Steel Bars..............II-73 POSCO to Construct Integrated Steel Mill in Iran (IRAN) II-73 Gerdau Signs Agreement with JFE Steel for Production of Heavy Plates.............. II-74 NSSMC to Integrate its Steel Sheets Manufacturing Subsidiaries (THAILAND).............. II-74 Tata Steel Introduces Tata Structura 355 II-74 POSCO Introduces Non-Oriented Electrical Steel, Hyper NO II-74 Gerdau Corsa Opens New Steel mill in Mexico II-74 Essar Steel to Sell Stake in the Steel Company (INDIA) II-74 Tata Steel Teams up with IDC to Widen Reach in Middle East energy Sector.............. II-74 JFE Steel Acquires Stake in Formosa Ha Tinh Steel II-75 Union Partners Inks Agreement with Lee Steel II-75 Ampco-Pittsburgh Acquires Alloys Unlimited and Processing II-75 United States Steel Takes Over AK Steel II-75 Hyundai Steel Combines with Hyundai Hysco II-75 Competition Commission Conditionally Approves Hebei and Duferno Merger.............. II-75 SSAB Divests Remedy Assets..............II-75 Tata Steel Divests Equity Stake in LSSL to E B Creasy and Company Plc.............. II-75 Tata Steel Acquires Two Service Centres from SSAB II-76 Worthington Industries Takes Over Rome Strip II-76 Kingspan Inks Agreement with Ergon Capital Partners II NV and Bremhove NV to Acquire Steel Partners II-76 JFE Steel to Take Over Minority Stake in FHS II-76 POSCO Inks Agreement with Chongqing Iron and Steel Company II-76 New Page Capital Takes Over Engineered Steel Products II-76 Kingspan to Take Over Joris Ide..............II-76 Sutor Enters Non-Binding Letter of Intent with Lgsteel II-76 AK Steel to Introduce Next-Generation Advanced High Strength Steels.............. II-77 Tata Steel Unveils Structural Steel Tube Product II-77 Klesch Group Withdraws Plans to Acquire Tata Steel Unit II-77 ArcelorMittal Merges with ArcelorMittal Frýdek-Místek II-77 Tata Steel to Sell Long Products Division to Klesch II-77 Nucor Acquires Gallatin Steel..............II-77 AK Steel Takes Over Severstal..............II-77 JSW Steel to Acquire Welspun Maxsteel II-77 ASO Siderurgica Acquires Cromsteel Industries II-78 ArcelorMittal Acquires TK Steel USA II-78 JSW Steel to Acquire Odisha Steel Division of Bhushan Steel and Stake in Orissa Spong..............II-78 TimkeenSteel Renews Commercial Agreement with Daido Steel II-78 ArcelorMittal Introduces New Array of Steels II-78 ArcelorMittal Launches HF1050 Advanced High Strength Steel II-78 Tata Steel Launches Improved 4145H Modified Alloy Steel Grade II-78 Nucor to Buy Gallatin Steel..............II-78 MFC Industrial Acquires F.J. Elsner II-79 Klockner Acquires Majority Interest in Riedo Bau+Stahl II-79 ArcelorMittal Announces Plans to Acquire Ilva II-79 TPS Acquisition Takes Over Theis Precision Steel II-79 Vicwest to Take Over Exterior Metal Cladding Business and Steel Deck of Roll Form Group II-79 Northwest Pipe Takes Over Permalok II-79 Majestic Steel USA Takes Over Flatrolled Steel II-79

10. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS II-80 Anshan Iron and Steel Group Corporation (China) II-80 ArcelorMittal S.A. (Luxembourg)..............II-80 Baosteel Co., Ltd (China)..............II-81 EVRAZ Group S.A. (Russia)..............II-81 EVRAZ NTMK (Russia)..............II-82 Gerdau S.A. (Brazil)..............II-82 Hebei Iron and Steel Group Company Limited (China) II-83 JFE Steel Corporation (Japan)..............II-83 Jiangsu Shagang Group (China)..............II-83 Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation (Japan) II-84 Nucor Corporation (USA)..............II-84 POSCO (Korea).............. II-84 Riva Group (Italy)..............II-85 Siderúrgica Venezolana SIVENSA S.A (Venezuela) II-85 Tata Steel Group (India)..............II-85 Tata Steel Europe Ltd. (UK)..............II-86 ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe (Germany) II-87 United States Steel Corporation (US) II-87

11. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE..............II-88 Table 42: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-88

Table 43: World Historic Review for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-89

Table 44: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-90 Steel Market by End-Use Segment..............II-91 Table 45: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel in Construction Sector by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-91

Table 46: World Historic Review for Finished Steel in Construction Sector by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-92

Table 47: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel in Construction Sector by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-93

Table 48: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel in Transportation Sector by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-94

Table 49: World Historic Review for Finished Steel in Transportation Sector by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-95

Table 50: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel in Transportation Sector by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-96

Table 51: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel in Machinery by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-97

Table 52: World Historic Review for Finished Steel in Machinery by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-98

Table 53: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel in Machinery by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-99

Table 54: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel in Metal Goods by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-100

Table 55: World Historic Review for Finished Steel in Metal Goods by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-101

Table 56: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel in Metal Goods by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-102

Table 57: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel in Household Appliances by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-103

Table 58: World Historic Review for Finished Steel in Household Appliances by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-104

Table 59: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel in Household Appliances by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-105

Table 60: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel in Other End-Use Sectors by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-106

Table 61: World Historic Review for Finished Steel in Other End-Use Sectors by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-107

Table 62: World 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel in Other End-Use Sectors by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, China, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan and China), Middle East, Latin America and Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-108

III. MARKET

1. THE UNITED STATES.............. II-1 A.Market Analysis.............. III-1 Outlook.............. III-1 Steel Industry - An Overview III-1 Construction Industry - An Overview III-2 Table 63: US Construction Sector: Annual Construction Spending (in US$ Billion) for Years 2012 through 2018 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-3

Table 64: US Construction Sector (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Annual Construction Spending by Residential and Non-Residential Sectors (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-3

Table 65: Residential Construction in the US (2007-2015): Number of Housing Starts by Type - Single-Family Units and Multi-Family Units (in ‘000) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-4

Table 66: Projected Growth in the US Construction Market by Sector (2015-2022) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-4

Table 67: Number of Housing Starts (Aug 2014 to Aug 2015) (in Thousand units) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-5 Automotive Sector.............. III-5 Table 68: US Vehicle Production (2007-2018) (in Million Units) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-6 Styled Steel Wheels and Steel Cords Make Inroads III-6 Cutback in Shale Activity Impacts Steel Market III-7 Falling Oil Prices and Eand P Spending Impacts Demand III-7 Changing Energy Mix and Demand for Steel LDPs III-8 Demand for Steel Scrap Drops Amid Competition from Imports III-9 Table 69: US Crude Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Production by Type of Process - Electric Furnace and Oxygen Blown Converter (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-10 HRC Pricing Trends..............III-10 Table 70: US HRC Prices (1Q 2015 -3Q2016) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-10 Competition.............. III-10 Import/Export Scenario..............III-11 Table 71: US Finished Steel Imports (2014-2017E) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-11

Table 72: China' Share in US Carbon Flat Roll Steel Imports (Jan 2013-Jan 2016) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-12

Table 73: Import Penetration of Steel Mill Products in the US (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-12

Table 74: US Steel Mill Imports Market (2016Q1): Percentage Breakdown of Volume by Exporting Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-13

Table 75: US Steel Mill Imports Market (2016Q1): Percentage Breakdown of Volume by Category (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-13 Leading Steel Companies File Antidumping and Countervailing Complaints.............. III-13 Recent Industry Activity..............III-14 Key Players.............. III-16 B.Market Analytics..............III-17 Table 76: US Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-17

Table 77: US Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-18

Table 78: US 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-19

2. CANADA.............. III-20 A.Market Analysis.............. III-20 Outlook.............. III-20 Canadian Steel Sector Reels Under Immense Pressure III-20 B.Market Analytics..............III-21 Table 79: Canadian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-21

Table 80: Canadian Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-22

Table 81: Canadian 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-23

3. JAPAN.............. III-24 A.Market Analysis.............. III-24 Outlook.............. III-24 Market Overview.............. III-24 Table 82: Japan Steel Exports (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Volume exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-24 Japanese Steel Sector in the Recent Past: An Overview III-24 Weak Demand Continues to Hamper Market Prospects III-25 Competitive Scenario..............III-25 Leading Players in the Japanese Steel Sector III-25 Market Share Findings..............III-26 Table 83: Leading Players in the Japanese Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production for JFE, Kobe Steel, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal, Nisshin Steel, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-26 Recent Industry Activity..............III-26 Key Players.............. III-26 B.Market Analytics..............III-28 Table 84: Japanese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-28

Table 85: Japanese Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-29

Table 86: Japanese 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-30

4. EUROPE.............. III-31 A.Market Analysis.............. III-31 Outlook.............. III-31 Steel Industry - An Integral Part of European Economy III-31 EU Steel Industry.............. III-31 Table 87: Finished Steel Production in EU by Type (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Production by Type (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-33

Table 88: EU Imports of Flat Products (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Volume Imports by Base Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-33

Table 89: EU Imports of Long Products (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Volume Imports by Base Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-33

Table 90: EU Exports of Flat Products (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Volume Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-34

Table 91: EU Exports of Long Products (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Volume Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-34 Challenges Facing the Market III-35 Competition.............. III-35 Table 92: Leading Players in the European Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production for ArcelorMittal, Riva, Salzgitter, Thyssenkrupp and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-35 B.Market Analytics..............III-36 Table 93: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, Turkey and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-36

Table 94: European Historic Review for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, Turkey and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-37

Table 95: European 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, Turkey and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-38

Table 96: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-39

Table 97: European Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-40

Table 98: European 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-41

4a. FRANCE.............. III-42 A.Market Analysis.............. III-42 Outlook.............. III-42 Recent Industry Activity..............III-42 B.Market Analytics..............III-43 Table 99: French Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-43

Table 100: French Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-44

Table 101: French 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-45

4b. GERMANY.............. III-46 A.Market Analysis.............. III-46 Outlook.............. III-46 Thyssenkrupp Steel Europe Ag - A Leading Player III-46 B.Market Analytics..............III-47 Table 102: German Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-47

Table 103: German Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-48

Table 104: German 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-49

4c. ITALY.............. III-50 A.Market Analysis.............. III-50 Outlook.............. III-50 Recent Industry Activity..............III-50 Riva Group - A Leading Player..............III-50 B.Market Analytics..............III-51 Table 105: Italian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-51

Table 106: Italian Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-52

Table 107: Italian 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-53

4d. THE UNITED KINGDOM..............III-54 A.Market Analysis.............. III-54 Outlook.............. III-54 UK Steel Industry Remains Under Pressure III-54 Table 108: UK Crude Steel Production (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Share by Segment (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-54

Table 109: UK Steel Products Market: Share of Imports as % of Consumption (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-55

Table 110: UK Steel Imports (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Import Volume of Steel Products by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-55 Recent Industry Activity..............III-55 Tata Steel Europe Ltd. - A Leading Player III-56 B.Market Analytics..............III-57 Table 111: UK Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-57

Table 112: UK Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-58

Table 113: UK 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-59

4e. SPAIN.............. III-60 A.Market Analysis.............. III-60 Outlook.............. III-60 Recent Industry Activity..............III-60 B.Market Analytics..............III-61 Table 114: Spanish Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-61

Table 115: Spanish Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-62

Table 116: Spanish 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-63

4f. RUSSIA.............. III-64 A.Market Analysis.............. III-64 Outlook.............. III-64 Steel Production in Russia - An Overview III-64 Table 117: Russian Steel Industry (2010-2015): Exports as % of Production (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-64 Manufacturers Encourage Use of Steel Frames in Buildings III-65 Table 118: Share of Steel Frames in Multi-Storied Buildings in Russia Vs Other Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-65 Steel Pipes - A Major Market III-65 Competition.............. III-66 Table 119: Russian Steel Industry (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Production by Company (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-66 Key Players.............. III-66 B.Market Analytics..............III-68 Table 120: Russian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-68

Table 121: Russian Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-69

Table 122: Russian 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-70

4g. TURKEY.............. III-71 A.Market Analysis.............. III-71 Outlook.............. III-71 Turkey - Emerging Steel Producer in Europe III-71 B.Market Analytics..............III-72 Table 123: Turkey Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-72

Table 124: Turkey Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-73

Table 125: Turkey 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-74

4h. REST OF EUROPE.............. III-75 A.Market Analysis.............. III-75 Outlook.............. III-75 Ukraine - Significance of Steel Production to the Nation III-75 Table 126: Ukrainian Steel Market: Percentage Share Breakdown of Production by Process for the Years 2010 and 2018P (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-75 Recent Industry Activity..............III-76 Key Players.............. III-77 B.Market Analytics..............III-79 Table 127: Rest of Europe Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-79

Table 128: Rest of Europe Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-80

Table 129: Rest of Europe 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-81

5. CHINA.............. III-82 A.Market Analysis.............. III-82 China Redirects Focus on Restructuring its Steel Industry III-82 Table 130: Steel Production in China (2007-1H 2016) (in Million Metric Tons) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-84

Table 131: Chinese Crude Steel Market (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Production by Type (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-84

Table 132: Capacity Utilization for Steel Production in China (2008-2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-85 Consolidation - A Major Part of Restructuring Drive III-85 Table 133: Leading Producers of Steel in China by Production Capacity in 2015 (in Million Tons) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-86 Exports.............. III-87 Table 134: China Steel Exports, 2013-2016 (In Million Metric Tons) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-88 Construction - An Important Market for Steel III-88 Table 135: Residential Construction Sales Growth (in %) in China: 2007-2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-89 Automotive Industry Drives Demand for High-Strength Steel III-89 Growing Demand for Bridge Steel Structure Augurs Well for the Market.............. III-89 Focus Grows on High Grade Steel III-90 Industry Embraces Technological Innovation in Production III-90 Recent Industry Activity..............III-90 Key Players.............. III-91 B.Market Analytics..............III-93 Table 136: Chinese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-93

Table 137: Chinese Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-94

Table 138: Chinese 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-95

6. ASIA-PACIFIC.............. III-96 A.Market Analysis.............. III-96 Outlook.............. III-96 China's Steel Imports Remain Pivotal for South East Asia III-96 B.Market Analytics..............III-97 Table 139: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-97

Table 140: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-98

Table 141: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-99

Table 142: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-100

Table 143: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-101

Table 144: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-102

6a. INDIA.............. III-103 A.Market Analysis.............. III-103 Outlook.............. III-103 Industry Overview.............. III-103 India to Emerge as a Major Power in the Global Steel Sector III-104 Import-Export Scenario..............III-104 New Initiatives to Curb Steel Imports to Help Domestic Steel Sector.............. III-105 Weak Prices Plague Domestic Steel Sector in 2015 III-105 Steel Prices Exhibit Recovery in 2016 III-106 Table 145: Monthly Average Prices (in INR per Tonne) of Hot Rolled Coil, Hot Rolled Plate, Wire Rod, and Rebar from May 2015 through May 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-107 A Peak into Indian Stainless Steel Scenario III-108 Table 146: Indian Stainless Steel Market by Grade Series (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Melt Production for 200 Grade Series, 300 Grade Series, 400 Grade Series, and Duplex Stainless Steel (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-108

Table 147: Indian Stainless Steel Market by Quality (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Melt Production for High Quality, Medium Quality, Low Quality, and Very Low Quality Stainless Steel (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-108 Competition.............. III-109 Table 148: Indian Steel Market (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity by Company (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-109 Recent Industry Activity..............III-109 Key Players.............. III-110 B.Market Analytics..............III-113 Table 149: Indian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-113

Table 150: Indian Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-114

Table 151: Indian 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-115

6b. SOUTH KOREA.............. III-116 A.Market Analysis.............. III-116 Outlook.............. III-116 Market Overview.............. III-116 Table 152: Crude Steel Production in South Korea (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Output by Blast Furnaces and Electric Arc Furnaces (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-117 South Korea Remains a Major Exporter of Steel III-117 Table 153: Steel Exports from South Korea (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Steel Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-117

Table 154: South Korean Steel Exports by Product Category (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Exports for Flat Products, Long Products, Pipe and Tube, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-118 Import Scenario.............. III-118 Table 155: Steel Imports to South Korea (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Steel Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-118 Leading Players in the South Korean Steel Sector III-118 Table 156: Leading Players in the South Korean Steel Sector (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production for Dongkuk Steel, Hyundai Steel, Posco, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-119 Free-trade Agreement between South Korea and Canada to Boost Demand for Steel.............. III-119 Recent Industry Activity..............III-119 Posco - A Key Player..............III-120 B.Market Analytics..............III-121 Table 157: South Korean Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-121

Table 158: South Korean Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-122

Table 159: South Korean 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-123

6c. TAIWAN.............. III-124 A.Market Analysis.............. III-124 Outlook.............. III-124 China Continues to be the Key Source of Steel III-124 China Steel Dominates the Domestic Steel Sector III-124 B.Market Analytics..............III-125 Table 160: Taiwanese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-125

Table 161: Taiwanese Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-126

Table 162: Taiwanese 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-127

6d. REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC..............III-128 A.Market Analysis.............. III-128 Outlook.............. III-128 Focus on Select Markets..............III-128 Australia.............. III-128 Malaysia.............. III-128 Indonesia.............. III-128 Recent Industry Activity..............III-129 B.Market Analytics..............III-130 Table 163: Rest of Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-130

Table 164: Rest of Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-131

Table 165: Rest of Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-132

7. THE MIDDLE EAST.............. III-133 A.Market Analysis.............. III-133 Outlook.............. III-133 Steel Production Cools Amid Plummeting Oil Prices III-133 Table 166: Crude Steel Production in Middle East by Region (2014 and 2015) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-133 Construction Buoys Near-term Steel Demand III-133 Table 167: Construction Activity in GCC (2015 and 2016): Breakdown of Contractor Award Value in US$ Billion by Sector (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-134

Table 168: Construction Activity in GCC (2015 and 2016): Breakdown of Contractor Award Value in US$ Billion by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-135

Table 169: Major Construction Projects in GCC by Value (Jan 2016).............. III-135 Saudi Arab - Falling Investmnents Impact Steel Demand III-135 Table 170: Chinese Finished Steel Imports to Saudi Arabia 2013-2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-136 United Arab Emirates..............III-136 Recent Industry Activity..............III-137 B.Market Analytics..............III-138 Table 171: Middle East Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, and Rest of Middle East Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-138

Table 172: Middle East Historic Review for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, and Rest of Middle East Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-139

Table 173: Middle East 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, and Rest of Middle East Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-140

Table 174: Middle East Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-141

Table 175: Middle East Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-142

Table 176: Middle East 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-143

8. LATIN AMERICA.............. III-144 A.Market Analysis.............. III-144 Outlook.............. III-144 Market Overview.............. III-144 Table 177: Latin American Crude Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-145

Table 178: Leading Steel Companies in Latin America by Production Capacity (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-145 Automotive Production in Latin America III-145 Brazil.............. III-146 Steel Market in Brazil..............III-146 Table 179: Brazilian Steel Market (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Apparent Consumption by Type of Steel (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-146

Table 180: Flat Steel Production in Brazil (2008-2016) (In Million tonnes) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-147

Table 181: Brazilian Crude Steel Market (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Production by Leading Companies (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-147

Table 182: Leading Finished Long Steel Manufacturers in Brazil (2016E) - Percentage Breakdown of Sales by Value (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-148 Mexico.............. III-148 Recent Industry Activity..............III-148 Select Players.............. III-149 B.Market Analytics..............III-151 Table 183: Latin American Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Rest of Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-151

Table 184: Latin American Historic Review for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Rest of Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-152

Table 185: Latin American 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Rest of Latin America Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-153

Table 186: Latin American Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-154

Table 187: Latin American Historic Review for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-155

Table 188: Latin American 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-156

9. AFRICA.............. III-157 A.Market Analysis.............. III-157 Outlook.............. III-157 B.Market Analytics..............III-158 Table 189: African Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Rest of Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-158

Table 190: African Historic Review for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Rest of Africa Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption Figures in Thousand Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-159

Table 191: African 14-Year Perspective for Finished Steel by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, and Rest of Africa Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-160

Table 192: African Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Finished Steel by End-Use Sector - Construction, Transportation, Machinery, Metal Goods, Household Appliances and Others Markets Indep

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