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Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Global Markets

  • November 2016
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  • BCC Research
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  • 429 pages

This WWT report by BCC Research examines wastewater treatment technologies and presents forecast through 2021 for products used to construct and maintain WWT systems.


Use this report to:
- Evaluate the demand for 15 generic types of products commonly used by owners and operators of water and wastewater treatment facilities in 136 countries.
- Forecast data for products such as pipes and fittings; pumps; valves and controls; activated sludge, anaerobic digestion; nutrient removal; sedimentation; advanced treatment equipment etc.
- Statistically analyze water use data collected from 1965 to 2016 to identify leading indicators of demand for 15 types of products required to construct and maintain WWT facilities.


Highlights
- The global market for water and wastewater technology should reach $92 billion by 2021 from $72 billion in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.0%, from 2016 to 2021.
- The delivery equipment market for water and wastewater technology should reach $32 billion by 2021 from $25 billion in 2016 at a CAGR of 5.1%, from 2016 to 2021.
- The instrumentation market for water and wastewater technology should reach $12 billion by 2021 from $9 billion in 2016 at a CAGR of 5.9%, from 2016 to 2021.

Newspaper headlines and television documentaries warn us that humanity is rapidly approaching a global water crisis with the potential to leave millions dead from thirst, starvation and wars over freshwater resources. Archeologists confirm this pessimism, pointing to the numerous communities that vanished when their seemingly infinite water resources disappeared. Fortunately, there is more to the story. Cities lost to water shortages are far more the exception than the rule. London, Paris, Rome, New York - indeed all of the world’s major cities - had at some point in their histories faced crises caused by an insufficient water supply or sanitation system. Each survived and continued to prosper by applying relatively simple water and wastewater treatment (WWT) technology.


Today the integration of WWT systems into the fabric of urban infrastructures is barely noticed, at least until a pipe breaks, flooding a street. It is on those rare occasions that the discovery of a section of century-old pipe reminds U.S. that the overall structure of the water and sanitation industry remains unchanged. With the exception of electric motors and digital displays, a modern water distribution system would probably be familiar to the designers of Rome’s famed aqueducts.




STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
In this study, BCC Research examines the present status of WWT systems in 136 countries for which comparable water resource data and water use data were available in the first half of 2016. For each of those countries we provide a general assessment of indicators of water availability and quality and present a 2016 through 2021 forecast for 15 generic products used to construct and maintain WWT systems.



REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY
Since BCC Research last explored the WWT market in 2013, the scientific, financial and social dynamics of the industry have profoundly changed in ways that make it necessary to re-examine its future.
From a scientific perspective, 2016 marked the release of massive new open-source datasets that made it possible to uniformly assess unmet global needs for essential water and sanitation services. Among other things, those datasets revealed that the developing world was failing to keep pace with the need for WWT infrastructure, setting the stage for future public health disasters as populations in poor rural areas continued their decade-long migration toward the economic opportunities that exist in cities.


The economic change was the unexpected shift in the potential availability of funding for infrastructure. Historically, the interest paid for the construction bonds that finance public utilities had remained too low to attract investors beyond the limited circle of those seeking a belt-and-suspenders level of security. That financial dynamic changed after the great recession of 2008, when central banks essentially flooded their nation’s economies with cheap money in an attempt to maintain low unemployment. By early 2016, central bank policies had led to a profound decline in the interest rates on government bonds, in some cases dipping to negative rates where banks charged investors to hold their money. In that unfamiliar financial environment, even the low returns from utilities became attractive.


The social change, not surprisingly, can be traced to the rise of social media as a means of bypassing the traditional gatekeepers of news. In the pre-Twitter past, the mainstream media’s coverage of public health public was largely driven by news releases issued by governmental organizations. Social media upset that pattern.
Through tweets and Facebook postings, the public was made aware of the high personal cost of inattention to the degraded condition of the invisible infrastructure upon which it relied. By the summer of 2016, a tipping point appeared near, following the revelation of long undisclosed discoveries of brain-damaging high levels of lead in water distribution systems in communities from struggling Flint, Mich., to prosperous Portland, Ore. Images of sewage-filled waters near the Rio 2016 Olympic water event venues and the discovery that the child-deforming Zika virus had reached the U.S. reinforced the growing perception that clean water and sanitation required serious attention by national political leaders.


For those familiar with the transformation of the Earth Day movement into a thriving environmental industry, the signs of sweeping change and the economic opportunity that followed in its wake had become evident.


SCOPE OF REPORT
This study evaluated the demand for 15 generic types of products commonly used by owners and operators of water and wastewater treatment facilities in 136 countries. It provides forecast data for those products, for which BCC Research projects demand will exceed $1 million annually in 2016. Products covered include pipes and fittings; pumps; valves and controls; activated sludge; anaerobic digestion; nutrient removal; sedimentation; advanced treatment equipment; primary, secondary and tertiary treatment equipment; activated carbon; aluminum sulfate; calcium hydroxide; and specialty chemicals.




METHODOLOGY
Data was evaluated on water availability, water use and the use of treatment capabilities collected by national governments and compiled by organizations such as the World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Joint Monitoring Project (JMP), World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. Water use data collected as early as 1965 and as recently as 2015 was then statistically analyzed to identify leading indicators of demand for 15 types of products required to construct and maintain WWT facilities.
Using WB estimates for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), WHO estimates for population growth and FAO crop preference and production data, BCC Research projected volumetric national water demand from 2016 to 2021. Data comparable to that appearing in the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) Use Table, excluding value-added components, was then used to determine product apportionment by industry. JMP data quantifying access to safe drinking water was then used to determine unmet capital equipment needs.

New capital equipment construction requirements for wastewater systems were based upon a reference case in which pollution abatement was achieved by using technical means and without the receiving water serving as a mixing zone, with the goal of achieving “fishable, swimmable” waters by 2050. Capital needs were then apportioned over the 35-year period between 2015 and 2050, taking population growth into account. From that model, we extracted product requirements from 2016 to 2021, then adjusted those values for local price variations by applying a country-specific purchasing power parity adjustment coefficient. Entries in which product demand was less than $1 million in 2021 were then discarded and the remaining values along with the 2015 baseline were then organized as tables that include five-year 2016–2021 CAGR values.

ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT
This study has been organized into eight chapters containing more than 300 tables, followed by an appendix containing a glossary of industry terminology.
- Chapter One: Introduction.
- Chapter Two: Summary.
- Chapter Three: Overview of Water Resources with Billion Dollar Plus Summary Forecasts.
- Chapter Four: Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies.
- Chapter Five: Global Market Drivers, with Product-Group-Level Forecast.
- Chapter Six: National Market Drivers, with Product-Level Forecasts.
- Chapter Seven: Significant Water and Wastewater Patents.
- Chapter Eight: Descriptions of Key Members of the WWT Community.
- Appendix: Commonly Used EPA WWT Terminology.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This study will be of interest to those who require a greater deal of operational-level detail about the business opportunities in the WWT industry than is typically contained in global forecasts. In addition to providing useful information for senior executives within industries that manufacture WWT products, it will also improve the understanding of the “business side” of the WWT enterprise for officers in regulatory agencies and industry trade associations, traditional and special interest investors, and those involved with philanthropic organizations.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary sources were used in preparing this study. BCC Research surveyed several hundred organizations to obtain data for this study. Included were major manufacturers of equipment and related products. Data were compiled from current financial and trade organizations as well as from government sources. In addition to those sources already mentioned, statistical information was compiled from pubic data sources published by the U.S. State Department, the UNICEF’s international household survey initiative, WHO’s World Health Survey, the IMF, the Agency for International Development, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the UN Aquastat and JSTOR data collection programs.

ANALYST’S CREDENTIALS
James Wilson is a noted technology analyst and author of more than 300 articles and several books dealing with the environment, science, medicine, technology and business. His previous BCC Research studies include reports on remote sensing, medical device coatings, medical sensors, mobile telematics, robotics and intelligent wireless microsystems. A former editor of the Princeton Business Journal and a senior science and technology editor for Hearst Magazines, he is a past member of the National Association of Science Writers and the American Medical Writers Association. He has served on the adjunct faculty of Temple University and on the staffs of Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences. At the Academy, Wilson was involved in organizing three national water conferences; served on the organizing committee of the National Water Alliance; authored and co-authored several studies on metals and nutrients in the aquatic environment; and wrote Ground Water: A Non-Technical Guide, ANSP Press (ISBN: 9780910006064), the first popular book dealing with ground water resources.

Table Of Contents

Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Global Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
TABLE A COUNTRIES FOR WHICH FORECASTS APPEAR IN THE REPORT (N=136) 3
TABLE B PRODUCTS FOR WHICH FORECASTS APPEAR IN THE REPORT, BY
CATEGORY 4
METHODOLOGY 5
ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT 5
INTENDED AUDIENCE 6
INFORMATION SOURCES 6
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 7
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 7
DISCLAIMER 7
CHAPTER 2
SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, 2015 AND 2021 ($ BILLIONS) 9
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF WATER RESOURCES AND BILLION DOLLAR PLUS
SUMMARY FORECASTS 12
GLOBAL WATER RESOURCES 12
FRESHWATER RESOURCES 13
TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER (MILLION CUBIC
METERS/%) 13
TABLE 2 FRESHWATER DISTRIBUTION, BY LOCATION (MILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 14
THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 14
WATER QUALITY 15
DETERMINING WATER QUALITY 16
CHEMICAL AGENTS 16
TABLE 3 WHO GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS, EXCLUDING CARCINOGENS (MG/L) 17
CHEMICALS WITH PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES 18
TABLE 4 WHO PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS DUE TO LIMITED
INFORMATION ON HEALTH EFFECTS (MG/L) 19
TABLE 5 WHO PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS DUE TO
POST-TREATMENT DETECTABILITY (MG/L) 20
TABLE 6 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS WHERE DISINFECTION IS
LIKELY TO RESULT IN THE GUIDELINE VALUE BEING EXCEEDED (MG/L) 20
TABLE 7 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS WHERE CALCULATED
GUIDELINE VALUE IS BELOW THE ACHIEVABLE QUANTIFICATION LEVEL (MG/L) 21
TABLE 8 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS WHERE ACHIEVING
HEALTH-BASED GUIDELINE VALUE MAY AFFECT THE APPEARANCE, TASTE OR
ODOR OF THE WATER (MG/L)
21
CARCINOGENS 21
TABLE 9 CHEMICALS CLASSIFIED AS CARCINOGENS BY WHO (MG/L) 22
CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD TOXIC CHEMICALS 22
TABLE 10 EU REACH SUBSTANCES OF VERY HIGH CONCERN 23
PATHOGENS 24
TABLE 11 TYPES OF PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 24
TABLE 12 BACTERIAL PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 25
TABLE 13 PROTOZOAN PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 25
TABLE 14 HELMINTH PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 26
TABLE 15 VIRAL PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 26
RADIOACTIVITY 26
OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL WWT MARKET 26
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 27
TABLE 17 NATIONAL MARKETS MORE THAN $1 BILLION BY SIZE, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 28
TABLE 18 NATIONAL MARKETS MORE THAN $1 BILLION BY GROWTH RATE,
THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 29
CHAPTER 4 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 31
PRIMARY TREATMENT 32
SECONDARY TREATMENT 33
TERTIARY TREATMENT 35
CHAPTER 5 END-USER DEMAND DRIVERS AND PRODUCT-GROUP FORECAST 38
AGRICULTURAL USES 38
TABLE 19 SNAPSHOT OF AGRICULTURAL MARKET DRIVERS BY COUNTRY*, 2015 (%) 39
TABLE 20 DIRECT USE OF AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE WATER BY VOLUME, BY
COUNTRY (BILLION CUBIC METERS PER YEAR) 43
TABLE 21 DAMAGE CAUSED BY IRRIGATION, BY COUNTRY (1,000 HECTARES) 44
DOMESTIC WATER AND SANITATION 47
TABLE 22 SNAPSHOT OF RURAL DOMESTIC MARKET DRIVERS BY COUNTRY, 2015 49
TABLE 23 SNAPSHOT OF URBAN DOMESTIC MARKET DRIVERS BY COUNTRY, 2015 55
TABLE 24 DIRECT USE OF TREATED MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER BY COUNTRY, BY
VOLUME (BILLION CUBIC METERS PER YEAR) 60
INDUSTRIAL USE 61
TABLE 25 SNAPSHOT OF INDUSTRIAL MARKET DRIVERS BY COUNTRY, 2015 62
NON-TECHNICAL WATER USE CONSIDERATIONS 66
TRANSBOUNDARY WATER FLOWS 66
STRESSES ARISING FROM TRANSIENT NATURAL CONDITIONS 66
TABLE 26 POPULATION AT RISK FROM DROUGHTS, FLOODS OR EXTREME
TEMPERATURES, BY COUNTRY (% OF POPULATION) 67
GLOBAL FORECAST BY COUNTRY AND PRODUCT GROUP 68
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
COUNTRY AND PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 68
CHAPTER 6 COUNTRY-SPECIFIC DRIVERS AND PRODUCT-LEVEL FORECASTS 88
AFGHANISTAN 89
TABLE 28 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN AFGHANISTAN 89
TABLE 29 AFGHANISTAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 90
ALBANIA 91
TABLE 30 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ALBANIA 91
TABLE 31 ALBANIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 92
ALGERIA 93
TABLE 32 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ALGERIA 93
TABLE 33 ALGERIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 94
ANGOLA 95
TABLE 34 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ANGOLA 95
TABLE 35 ANGOLA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 96
ARGENTINA 96
TABLE 36 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ARGENTINA 97
TABLE 37 ARGENTINA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 98
ARMENIA 98
TABLE 38 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ARMENIA 99
TABLE 39 ARMENIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 100
AUSTRALIA 100
TABLE 40 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN AUSTRALIA 101
TABLE 41 AUSTRALIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 102
AUSTRIA 102
TABLE 42 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN AUSTRIA 103
TABLE 43 AUSTRIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 104
AZERBAIJAN 104
TABLE 44 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN AZERBAIJAN 105
TABLE 45 AZERBAIJAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 106
BAHRAIN 106
TABLE 46 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BAHRAIN 107
TABLE 47 BAHRAIN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 107
BANGLADESH 108
TABLE 48 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BANGLADESH 108
TABLE 49 BANGLADESH MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 110
BELARUS 110
TABLE 50 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BELARUS 111
TABLE 51 BELARUS MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 111
BELGIUM 112
TABLE 52 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BELGIUM 113
TABLE 53 BELGIUM MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 114
BOLIVIA 114
TABLE 54 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BOLIVIA 115
TABLE 55 BOLIVIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 116
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 116
TABLE 56 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA 117
TABLE 57 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 118
BRAZIL 118
TABLE 58 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BRAZIL 118
TABLE 59 BRAZIL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 119
BULGARIA 120
TABLE 60 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BULGARIA 120
TABLE 61 BULGARIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 121
BURKINA FASO 122
TABLE 62 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BURKINA FASO 122
TABLE 63 BURKINA FASO MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 123
BURUNDI 124
TABLE 64 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN BURUNDI 124
TABLE 65 BURUNDI MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 125
CAMBODIA 125
TABLE 66 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CAMBODIA 125
TABLE 67 CAMBODIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 127
CAMEROON 127
TABLE 68 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CAMEROON 128
TABLE 69 CAMEROON MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 129
CANADA 129
TABLE 70 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CANADA 129
TABLE 71 CANADA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 131
CHAD 131
TABLE 72 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CHAD 132
TABLE 73 CHAD MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 133
CHILE 133
TABLE 74 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CHILE 133
TABLE 75 CHILE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 135
CHINA-MAINLAND 135
TABLE 76 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CHINA-MAINLAND 136
TABLE 77 CHINA-MAINLAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 137
CHINA-TAIWAN 137
TABLE 78 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CHINA-TAIWAN 137
TABLE 79 CHINA-TAIWAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
COLOMBIA 139
TABLE 80 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN COLOMBIA 140
TABLE 81 COLOMBIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 141
TABLE 82 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CONGO, DEM.
REP 142
TABLE 83 CONGO, DEM. REP. MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 143
COSTA RICA 143
TABLE 84 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN COSTA RICA 143
TABLE 85 COSTA RICA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 145
COTE D'IVOIRE 145
TABLE 86 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN COTE D'IVOIRE 146
TABLE 87 COTE D'IVOIRE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
CROATIA 147
TABLE 88 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CROATIA 148
TABLE 89 CROATIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 149
CUBA 149
TABLE 90 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN CUBA 149
TABLE 91 CUBA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 150
CZECH REPUBLIC 151
TABLE 92 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE CZECH
REPUBLIC 151
TABLE 93 THE CZECH REPUBLIC MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 152
DENMARK 153
TABLE 94 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN DENMARK 153
TABLE 95 DENMARK MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 154
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 155
TABLE 96 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC 155
TABLE 97 THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 156
ECUADOR 156
TABLE 98 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ECUADOR 157
TABLE 99 ECUADOR MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 158
EGYPT 158
TABLE 100 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN EGYPT 159
TABLE 101 EGYPT MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 160
EL SALVADOR 160
TABLE 102 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN EL SALVADOR 161
TABLE 103 EL SALVADOR MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY,
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
ERITREA 162
TABLE 104 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ERITREA 163
TABLE 105 ERITREA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 164
ESTONIA 164
TABLE 106 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN 164
TABLE 107 ESTONIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 166
ETHIOPIA 166
TABLE 108 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ETHIOPIA 167
TABLE 109 ETHIOPIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 168
FINLAND 168
TABLE 110 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN FINLAND 169
TABLE 111 FINLAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 170
FRANCE 170
TABLE 112 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN FRANCE 171
TABLE 113 FRANCE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 172
GEORGIA 172
TABLE 114 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN GEORGIA 173
TABLE 115 GEORGIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 174
GERMANY 174
TABLE 116 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN GERMANY 175
TABLE 117 GERMANY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 176
GHANA 176
TABLE 118 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN GHANA 177
TABLE 119 GHANA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
GREECE 178
TABLE 120 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN GREECE 178
TABLE 121 GREECE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
GUATEMALA 180
TABLE 122 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN GUATEMALA 181
TABLE 123 GUATEMALA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 182
GUINEA 182
TABLE 124 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN GUINEA 183
TABLE 125 GUINEA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 184
HAITI 184
TABLE 126 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN HAITI 184
TABLE 127 HAITI MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 185
HONDURAS 186
TABLE 128 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN HONDURAS 186
TABLE 129 HONDURAS MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 187
HUNGARY 188
TABLE 130 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN HUNGARY 188
TABLE 131 HUNGARY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 189
INDIA 190
TABLE 132 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN INDIA 190
TABLE 133 INDIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 191
INDONESIA 192
TABLE 134 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN INDONESIA 192
TABLE 135 INDONESIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 193
IRAN 194
TABLE 136 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN IRAN 194
TABLE 137 IRAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 195
IRAQ 196
TABLE 138 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN IRAQ 196
TABLE 139 IRAQ MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 197
IRELAND 197
TABLE 140 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN IRELAND 198
TABLE 141 IRELAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 199
ISRAEL 199
TABLE 142 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ISRAEL 200
TABLE 143 ISRAEL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 200
ITALY 201
TABLE 144 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ITALY 202
TABLE 145 ITALY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 203
JAMAICA 203
TABLE 146 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN JAMAICA 203
TABLE 147 JAMAICA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 204
JAPAN 205
TABLE 148 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN JAPAN 205
TABLE 149 JAPAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 206
JORDAN 207
TABLE 150 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN JORDAN 207
TABLE 151 JORDAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 208
KAZAKHSTAN 208
TABLE 152 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN KAZAKHSTAN 209
TABLE 153 KAZAKHSTAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 210
KENYA 210
TABLE 154 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN KENYA 211
TABLE 155 KENYA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 212
KUWAIT 212
TABLE 156 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN KUWAIT 212
TABLE 157 KUWAIT MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 214
KYRGYZ REPUBLIC 214
TABLE 158 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN KYRGYZ
REPUBLIC 214
TABLE 159 THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 215
LAOS 216
TABLE 160 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN LAOS 216
TABLE 161 LAOS MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 217
LATVIA 218
TABLE 162 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN LATVIA 218
TABLE 163 LATVIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 219
LEBANON 219
TABLE 164 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN LEBANON 220
TABLE 165 LEBANON MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 221
LIBYA 221
TABLE 166 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN LIBYA 222
TABLE 167 LIBYA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 222
LITHUANIA 223
TABLE 168 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN LITHUANIA 224
TABLE 169 LITHUANIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 225
MACEDONIA 225
TABLE 170 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MACEDONIA 225
TABLE 171 MACEDONIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 227
MADAGASCAR 227
TABLE 172 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MADAGASCAR 227
TABLE 173 MADAGASCAR MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 228
MALAWI 229
TABLE 174 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MALAWI 229
TABLE 175 MALAWI MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 230
MALAYSIA 231
TABLE 176 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MALAYSIA 231
TABLE 177 MALAYSIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 232
MALI 233
TABLE 178 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MALI 233
TABLE 179 MALI MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 234
MAURITANIA 234
TABLE 180 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MAURITANIA 235
TABLE 181 MAURITANIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY,
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 236
MAURITIUS 236
TABLE 182 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MAURITIUS 237
TABLE 183 MAURITIUS MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 238
MEXICO 238
TABLE 184 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MEXICO 238
TABLE 185 MEXICO MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 240
MONGOLIA 240
TABLE 186 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MONGOLIA 241
TABLE 187 MONGOLIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 242
MOROCCO 242
TABLE 188 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MOROCCO 242
TABLE 189 MOROCCO MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY, BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 244
MOZAMBIQUE 244
TABLE 190 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MOZAMBIQUE 245
TABLE 191 MOZAMBIQUE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY,
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 246
MYANMAR 246
TABLE 192 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN MYANMAR 246
TABLE 193 MYANMAR MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 248
NAMIBIA 248
TABLE 194 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NAMIBIA 249
TABLE 195 NAMIBIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 249
NEPAL 250
TABLE 196 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NEPAL 250
TABLE 197 NEPAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 251
THE NETHERLANDS 252
TABLE 198 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE
NETHERLANDS 252
TABLE 199 THE NETHERLANDS MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 253
NEW ZEALAND 254
TABLE 200 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NEW ZEALAND 254
TABLE 201 NEW ZEALAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 255
NICARAGUA 255
TABLE 202 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NICARAGUA 256
TABLE 203 NICARAGUA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 257
NIGER 257
TABLE 204 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NIGER 258
TABLE 205 NIGER MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 259
NIGERIA 259
TABLE 206 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NIGERIA 260
TABLE 207 NIGERIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 260
NORWAY 261
TABLE 208 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN NORWAY 262
TABLE 209 NORWAY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 263
OMAN 263
TABLE 210 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN OMAN 264
TABLE 211 OMAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 264
PAKISTAN 265
TABLE 212 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN PAKISTAN 265
TABLE 213 PAKISTAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 267
PANAMA 267
TABLE 214 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN PANAMA 268
TABLE 215 PANAMA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 269
PAPUA NEW GUINEA 269
TABLE 216 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN PAPUA NEW
GUINEA 270
TABLE 217 PAPUA NEW GUINEA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 271
PARAGUAY 271
TABLE 218 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN PARAGUAY 271
TABLE 219 PARAGUAY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 272
PERU 273
TABLE 220 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN PERU 273
TABLE 221 PERU MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 274
THE PHILIPPINES 275
TABLE 222 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE PHILIPPINES 275
TABLE 223 THE PHILIPPINES MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 276
POLAND 277
TABLE 224 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN POLAND 277
TABLE 225 POLAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 278
PORTUGAL 279
TABLE 226 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN PORTUGAL 279
TABLE 227 PORTUGAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 280
QATAR 281
TABLE 228 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN QATAR 281
TABLE 229 QATAR MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 282
ROMANIA 282
TABLE 230 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ROMANIA 282
TABLE 231 ROMANIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 284
RUSSIA 284
TABLE 232 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN RUSSIA 285
TABLE 233 RUSSIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 285
SAUDI ARABIA 286
TABLE 234 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SAUDI ARABIA 287
TABLE 235 SAUDI ARABIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 288
SENEGAL 288
TABLE 236 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SENEGAL 289
TABLE 237 SENEGAL MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 290
SERBIA 290
TABLE 238 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SERBIA 291
TABLE 239 SERBIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 292
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 292
TABLE 240 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE SLOVAK
REPUBLIC 292
TABLE 241 THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 294
SLOVENIA 294
TABLE 242 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SLOVENIA 294
TABLE 243 SLOVENIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 295
SOUTH AFRICA 296
TABLE 244 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SOUTH AFRICA 296
TABLE 245 SOUTH AFRICA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 297
SOUTH KOREA 298
TABLE 246 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SOUTH KOREA 298
TABLE 247 SOUTH KOREA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 299
SPAIN 300
TABLE 248 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SPAIN 300
TABLE 249 SPAIN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 301
SRI LANKA 302
TABLE 250 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SRI LANKA 302
TABLE 251 SRI LANKA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 303
SUDAN 304
TABLE 252 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SUDAN 304
TABLE 253 SUDAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 305
SWAZILAND 305
TABLE 254 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SWAZILAND 306
TABLE 255 SWAZILAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 307
SWEDEN 307
TABLE 256 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SWEDEN 307
TABLE 257 SWEDEN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 309
SWITZERLAND 309
TABLE 258 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN SWITZERLAND 310
TABLE 259 SWITZERLAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 311
TAJIKISTAN 311
TABLE 260 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TAJIKISTAN 312
TABLE 261 TAJIKISTAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 314
TANZANIA 314
TABLE 262 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TANZANIA 315
TABLE 263 TANZANIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 316
THAILAND 316
TABLE 264 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THAILAND 317
TABLE 265 THAILAND MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 319
TIMOR-LESTE 319
TABLE 266 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TIMOR-LESTE 320
TABLE 267 TIMOR-LESTE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 321
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 321
TABLE 268 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TRINIDAD AND
TOBAGO 322
TABLE 269 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 323
TUNISIA 323
TABLE 270 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TUNISIA 323
TABLE 271 TUNISIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 324
TURKEY 325
TABLE 272 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TURKEY 325
TABLE 273 TURKEY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 326
TURKMENISTAN 327
TABLE 274 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN TURKMENISTAN 327
TABLE 275 TURKMENISTAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 328
UGANDA 329
TABLE 276 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN UGANDA 329
TABLE 277 UGANDA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 330
UKRAINE 331
TABLE 278 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE UKRAINE 331
TABLE 279 UKRAINE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 332
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 333
TABLE 280 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE UNITED
ARAB EMIRATES 333
TABLE 281 THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 334
UNITED KINGDOM 334
TABLE 282 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE UNITED
KINGDOM 335
TABLE 283 THE UNITED KINGDOM MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER
TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 336
UNITED STATES 336
TABLE 284 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN THE UNITED
STATES 337
TABLE 285 UNITED STATES MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY
BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 338
URUGUAY 338
TABLE 286 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN URUGUAY 339
TABLE 287 URUGUAY MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 340
UZBEKISTAN 340
TABLE 288 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN UZBEKISTAN 341
TABLE 289 UZBEKISTAN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 342
VENEZUELA 342
TABLE 290 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN VENEZUELA 343
TABLE 291 VENEZUELA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 344
VIETNAM 344
TABLE 292 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN VIETNAM 345
TABLE 293 VIETNAM MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 346
YEMEN 346
TABLE 294 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN YEMEN 347
TABLE 295 YEMEN MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 348
ZAMBIA 348
TABLE 296 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ZAMBIA 349
TABLE 297 ZAMBIA MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 349
ZIMBABWE 350
TABLE 298 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NATIONAL MARKET IN ZIMBABWE 351
TABLE 299 ZIMBABWE MARKET FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY BY
PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 352
CHAPTER 7 SIGNIFICANT WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PATENTS 354
TABLE 300 U.S. PATENTS ON WWT TECHNOLOGIES, 1976 TO MAY 2015 355
CHAPTER 8 THE WWT COMMUNITY 379
ACQUEAU 379

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