Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Global Markets

  • November 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 315 pages

INTRODUCTION

Newspaper headlines and television documentaries warn us that humanity rapidly approaches a global water crisis with the potential to leave millions dead from thirst, starvation and wars to acquire freshwater resources. Archeologists confirm their pessimists pointing to the numerous communities that vanished when their seemingly infinite water resources disappeared. Fortunately, there is more to the story. Cities lost to water shortages are far more the exception than the rule. London, Paris, Rome, New York, indeed all of the world’s major cities had at some point in their histories faced crises caused by an insufficient water supply or sanitation system. Those world capitals and thousands of smaller cities survived by applying technology to compensate for nature’s inadequacies and human neglect.

In the developed world, the integration of water and wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies into the fabric of urban infrastructures is barely noticed, at least until a pipe breaks, flooding a street. It is on those rare occasions that the discovery of a section of pipe made of a hollowed tree reminds us that the overall structure of the water and sanitation industry remain unchanged and would likely be familiar to the operators of Rome’s famed aqueducts. Similarly, the basic parts lists for modern systems continue to consist of a small number of commodities. In this study BCC Research forecasts the demand for those 15 core WWT products in the 40 robust national markets.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

In this study, BCC Research examines and provides a 2014 through 2019 forecast for 15 products essential for constructing, maintaining and operating WWT systems in the 40 most important national markets.

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY

For more than a decade, there has been increasing fear that water shortages will create mass dislocations, and perhaps ignite global conflicts — water wars if you will. While those fears have merit, they overlook an essential historic truth. All of the problems associated with a lack of clean water or adequate sanitation readily yield to relatively simple, and in most cases inexpensive, solutions. Illuminated with the light of pragmatism, the feared water crisis is less daunting than it appears, and for those involved in supplying the WWT industry, there are enormous opportunities as the business climbs toward reaching $96 billion before the end of the decade.

The modern WWT business rests on three stable and somewhat predictable profit centers:
• Constructing new plants.
• Upgrading existing facilities.
• Supplying chemicals consumed in preparing clean water to end-users and making wastewater less noxious to receiving surface and ground waters.

Since the Roman era, the construction of those water and sanitation systems has been viewed as a public benefit that is properly financed and maintained by a mechanism for guaranteeing payments for their expansion and continued operation. The inherent stability of those revenue sources based on taxes and tax-like payments has allowed WWT authorities unparalleled access to construction capital and operating funds. Despite the stability of that financial foundation, the WWT business has not been immune to change. Since BCC Research last visited the topic in 2011, national governments throughout the world have been forced to undertake unheard-of belt-tightening measures in order to have continued access to international credit markets, the so-called sovereign debt crisis. In this study, BCC Research accounts for those changes and updates its 2014 to 2019 forecast to take them into account.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This study, and its accompanying more than 260 tables, focuses on the demand for the 15 basic products sold in the 40 largest and most commercially accessible national WWT markets. The core water and sanitation business revolves around 15 products divided among four product groups:

The process equipment product group comprises:
• Primary treatment equipment.
• Secondary treatment equipment.
• Tertiary treatment equipment.
• Advanced treatment equipment.

The delivery equipment product group comprises:
• Pipes and fittings.
• Pumps.
• Valves and controls.

The instrumentation product group comprises monitoring devices that have been optimized for use with:
• Anaerobic digestion systems.
• Activated sludge systems.
• Nutrient removal systems.
• Sedimentation systems.

And the WWT chemicals product group comprises:
• Activated carbon.
• Aluminum sulfate.
• Calcium hydroxide.
• Specialty chemicals.

The WWT industry obviously uses far more than the 15 products listed above. A pumping station, for example, requires a structure to house the pump and concrete for the pad that supports the structure, as well as electrical connections. The focus of this work is exclusively on products optimized for WWT systems. It excludes design, engineering and construction services not directly related to product installation. This study excludes those items, along with plumbing fixtures, point-of-use appliances and locally provided consumables such as fuels, chlorine and other disinfectants and fluoridation supplies.

The 40 national markets examined in this study are:
• Argentina.
• Australia.
• Austria.
• Belgium.
• Brazil.
• Canada.
• China-Hong Kong.
• China-Mainland.
• China-Taiwan.
• Colombia.
• Egypt.
• France.
• Germany.
• Greece.
• India.
• Indonesia.
• Iran.
• Italy.
• Japan.
• Malaysia.
• Mexico.
• Netherlands.
• Nigeria.
• Norway.
• Pakistan.
• Philippines.
• Poland.
• Russia.
• Saudi Arabia.
• South Africa.
• South Korea.
• Spain.
• Sweden.
• Switzerland.
• Thailand.
• Turkey.
• Ukraine.
• United Kingdom.
• United States.
• Venezuela.

METHODOLOGY

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. The 15 products examined in this study were selected because they are common to WWT systems. These products were also the focus of BCC Research’s two most recent examinations of this topic, Growing Markets for Water and Wastewater Technologies(ENV008A) and Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Global Markets (ENV008B), published respectively in June 2007 and January 2011. While some of these 15 products are unique to water distribution and others to the treatment of sanitary waste, most have applications in both types of plants.

Selecting the national markets to include in this study proved a more complex task. It was, of course, essential to include the most populous countries, but size alone was not the sole criterion. Five of the countries — Australia, China-Mainland, Egypt, India and Mexico — were covered in ENV008A. The remaining 35 countries were selected on the basis of the openness of their countries to outside suppliers and the availability of information for assessing their WWT infrastructure. The primary factors taken into account in forecast projections were:
• Announced national water and sanitation goals.
• National internal financing capabilities.
• National standing in credit markets.
• Population growth.
• Rural-to-urban population shifts.

ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT

This study contains 12 chapters and more than 260 tables, plus a glossary.
• Chapter One: Introduction.
• Chapter Two: Summary.
• Chapter Three: Overview.
• Chapter Four: Water Resources.
• Chapter Five: Water Quality.
• Chapter Six: Process Equipment.
• Chapter Seven: Delivery Equipment.
• Chapter Eight: Instrumentation.
• Chapter Nine: Treatment Chemicals.
• Chapter Ten: Patent Analysis.
• Chapter Eleven: Country Analysis and Forecast.
• Chapter Twelve: The Water and Wastewater Treatment Community.

Consisting of a separate section for each of the 40 countries, Chapter Eleven is the longest portion of this study. With the exception of China-Hong Kong and China-Taiwan, which are presently believed to have their data commingled with China-Mainland, each section includes a national infrastructure assessment table. Each country, including China-Hong Kong and China-Taiwan, includes a Forecast table organized by product group, and by product within the group. Values are shown in current dollars which have been rounded to the nearest million prior to making the CAGR % calculation.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This study will be of interest to those who require a greater deal of operational-level detail about the business opportunities in the WWT industry than is typically contained in global forecasts. In addition to providing useful information for senior executives within industries that manufacture WWT products, it will also improve the understanding of the “business side” of the WWT enterprise for officers in regulatory agencies and industry trade associations, international investors, attorneys and other professional stakeholders.

INFORMATION SOURCES

BCC Research surveyed several hundred organizations to obtain data for this study. Included were major manufacturers of equipment and related products. Data were compiled from current financial and trade organizations as well as from government sources. Except for China-Taiwan, which separately provided statistical information, data pertaining to household water use and sanitary facilities were extracted from statistical information compiled by the UNICEF’s international household survey initiative, the World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Survey and the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Agency for International Development, the United National Environment Program, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN JSTOR data collection program and the U.S. State Department.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

James Wilson is a noted technology analyst and author of more than 300 articles and several books dealing with the environment, science, medicine, technology and business. His previous BCC Research studies include reports on remote sensing, medical device coatings, medical sensors, mobile telematics, robotics and intelligent wireless microsystems. A former editor of the Princeton Business Journal and a senior science and technology editor for Hearst Magazines, he is a past member of the National Association of Science Writers and the American Medical Writers Association. He has served on the adjunct faculty of Temple University and on the staffs of Drexel University and the Academy of Natural Sciences. At the Academy, Wilson was involved in organizing three national water conferences; served on the organizing committee of the National Water Alliance; authored and co-authored several studies on metals and nutrients in the aquatic environment; and wrote Ground Water: A Non-Technical Guide, ANSP Press (ISBN: 9780910006064), the first popular book dealing with ground water resources.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The demand for waste and wastewater treatment (WWT) products in the top 40 national markets was $47.7 billion in 2012. This total market is expected to reach nearly $53.1 billion in 2013, $59.2 billion in 2014 and about $96.3 billion by 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.2% for the period of 2014 to 2019.

This report provides:
• An overview of the global market for wastewater treatment technologies, including delivery equipment, instrumentation, process equipment, and treatment chemicals.
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013 and 2014, and projections of CAGRs for the period 2014 to 2019.
• Forecasts for 15 products essential for constructing, maintaining, and operating WWT systems in the 40 top global markets; the products are divided into four product groups: primary treatment equipment, secondary treatment equipment, tertiary treatment equipment, and advanced treatment equipment.
• Coverage of delivery equipment (pipes and fitting, pumps, valves and controls); the instrumentation products that have been optimized for use with anaerobic digestion systems, activated sludge systems, nutrient removal systems, and sedimentation systems; and the chemical products group (activated carbon, aluminum sulfate, calcium hydroxide, and specialty chemicals).
• Discussion of industry structure, including market shares.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 5
ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT 5
INTENDED AUDIENCE 6
INFORMATION SOURCES 6
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 7
DISCLAIMER 7

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 9

SUMMARY TABLE WASTE AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PRODUCT GROUP
FORECAST, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE WWT PRODUCTS FORECAST FOR 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 12

TABLE 1 OUTDOOR DEFECATION RATES (%) 13

CHAPTER 4 WATER RESOURCES 15

FRESHWATER RESOURCES 16
TABLE 2 FRESHWATER VERSUS SALTWATER (MILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 16
TABLE 3 FRESHWATER DISTRIBUTION (MILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 16
THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE 17
HOW WE USE WATER RESOURCES 19
AGRICULTURAL USES 19
INDUSTRIAL USES 19
DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLIES 20
TABLE 4 RURAL AND URBAN POPULATIONS, 1992-2011 (UNITS AS INDICATED) 21

CHAPTER 5 WATER QUALITY 23

CHEMICAL AGENTS 23
TABLE 5 WHO GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS, EXCEPT CARCINOGENS (MG/L) 24
CHEMICALS WITH PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES 25
TABLE 6 WHO PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES DUE TO LIMITED INFORMATION ON
HEALTH EFFECTS (MG/L) 26
TABLE 7 WHO PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES DUE TO POST- TREATMENT
DETECTABILITY (MG/L) 27
TABLE 8 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES WHERE DISINFECTION IS LIKELY TO RESULT IN
THE GUIDELINE VALUE BEING EXCEEDED (MG/L) 27
TABLE 9 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES WHERE CALCULATED GUIDELINE VALUE IS
BELOW THE ACHIEVABLE QUANTIFICATION LEVEL (MG/L) 28
TABLE 10 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES WHERE ACHIEVING HEALTH-BASED
GUIDELINE VALUE MAY AFFECT THE APPEARANCE, TASTE OR ODOR OF THE
WATER (MG/L)
28
CARCINOGENS 28
TABLE 11 CHEMICALS THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION CLASSIFIES AS
CARCINOGENS (MG/L) 29
CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD TOXIC CHEMICALS 30
TABLE 12 EU REACH SUBSTANCES OF VERY HIGH CONCERN 31
PATHOGENS 32
TABLE 13 TYPES OF PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 32
TABLE 14 BACTERIAL PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 33
TABLE 15 PROTOZOAN PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 33
TABLE 16 HELMINTH PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 33
TABLE 17 VIRAL PATHOGENS THAT DAMAGE WATER QUALITY 34
RADIOACTIVITY 34

CHAPTER 6 PROCESS EQUIPMENT 36

TABLE 18 DEMAND FOR WWT PROCESS EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 37
PRIMARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 37
PRELIMINARY PHYSICAL PROCESSING 37
DEGRITTING 37
SCREENING AND MACERATION 38
SEDIMENTATION 38
PRIMARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FORECAST 38
TABLE 19 FORECAST FOR PRIMARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 38
SECONDARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 39
FIXED FILM SYSTEMS 40
SUSPENDED GROWTH SYSTEMS 40
ROUGHING FILTERS 40
ACTIVATED SLUDGE 40
FILTER BEDS 40
INTEGRATED FIXED-FILM ACTIVATED SLUDGE (IFAS) 41
BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTERS (BAFS) 41
MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS (MBRS) 41
ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTRACTORS (RBCS) 41
SECONDARY SEDIMENTATION AND CLARIFICATION 42
SECONDARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FORECAST 42
TABLE 20 FORECAST FOR SECONDARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 42
TERTIARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 43
ACTIVATED CARBON (AC) 43
LAGOONS 44
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS 44
NUTRIENT REMOVAL 44
NITROGEN REMOVAL 44
PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL 44
DISINFECTION 45
CHLORINATION 45
TERTIARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FORECAST 45
TABLE 21 FORECAST FOR TERTIARY TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 46
ADVANCED WATER TECHNOLOGIES 47
DESALINATION 47
MICROFILTRATION 47
OZONE 48
REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) 48
ULTRAFILTRATION 48
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) 49
ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FORECAST 49
TABLE 22 FORECAST FOR ADVANCED TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 49

CHAPTER 7 DELIVERY EQUIPMENT 52

TABLE 23 DEMAND FOR WWT DELIVERY EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 52
PIPES AND FITTINGS 52
PIPES AND FITTING FORECAST 52
TABLE 24 FORECAST FOR PIPES AND FITTINGS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 53
PUMPS 54
PUMP FORECAST 54
TABLE 25 FORECAST FOR PUMPS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 55
VALVES AND CONTROLS 56
VALVE AND CONTROL FORECAST 56
TABLE 26 FORECAST FOR VALVES AND CONTROLS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 56

CHAPTER 8 INSTRUMENTATION 59

TABLE 27 DEMAND FOR WWT INSTRUMENTATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 59
GENERIC INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS 60
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION SENSORS 60
GASEOUS PRODUCTS (H2, CH4, CO2 AND H2S) 61
ALKALINITY/TITRIMETER 61
CALORIMETRY 61
FLUORESCENCE 61
VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS (VFAS) 62
BIOSENSORS 62
TABLE 28 FORECAST FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION INSTRUMENTATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 62
ACTIVATED SLUDGE INSTRUMENTATION 63
DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO) 63
RESPIROMETRY 64
BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND 64
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND 64
TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON 64
UV ABSORBANCE 65
TABLE 29 FORECAST FOR ACTIVATED SLUDGE INSTRUMENTATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 65
NUTRIENT REMOVAL INSTRUMENTATION 66
ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES (ISE) 66
UV ABSORPTION FOR NO3 66
TITRIMETRIC SENSOR 67
TABLE 30 FORECAST FOR NUTRIENT REMOVAL INSTRUMENTATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 67
SEDIMENTATION SENSORS 68
SLUDGE BLANKET 68
SETTLOMETER 68
IMAGE ANALYSIS 69
FLOC SIZE 69
TABLE 31 FORECAST FOR SEDIMENTATION INSTRUMENTATION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 69

CHAPTER 9 TREATMENT CHEMICALS 72

TABLE 32 DEMAND FOR WWT CHEMICALS MARKETS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 72
ACTIVATED CARBON 72
WATER-SOLUBLE ACTIVATED CARBON 73
PRINCIPLES OF ACTIVATED CARBON FILTRATION 74
ACTIVATION 74
TABLE 33 FORECAST FOR ACTIVATED CARBON, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 74
ALUMINUM SULFATE 75
TABLE 34 FORECAST FOR ALUMINUM SULFATE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 76
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE 77
TABLE 35 FORECAST FOR CALCIUM HYDROXIDE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 77
SPECIALTY CHEMICALS 78
CORROSION INHIBITORS 78
ORGANIC FLOCCULANTS 79
SCALE INHIBITORS 79
TABLE 36 FORECAST FOR SPECIALTY CHEMICALS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 79

CHAPTER 10 PATENT ANALYSIS 82

TABLE 37 THE 50 MOST RECENT WATER AND WASTEWATER CONTROL PATENTS
(NEWEST FIRST) 83

CHAPTER 11 COUNTRY ANALYSES AND FORECASTS 86

ARGENTINA 86
ARGENTINEAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 87
TABLE 38 WATER SOURCES IN ARGENTINA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 87
TABLE 39 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN ARGENTINA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 88
TABLE 40 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN ARGENTINA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 88
TABLE 41 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN ARGENTINA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 88
TABLE 42 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN ARGENTINA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 89
ARGENTINEAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 90
TABLE 43 WWT FORECAST IN ARGENTINA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 90
AUSTRALIA 91
AUSTRALIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 91
TABLE 44 WATER SOURCES IN AUSTRALIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 91
TABLE 45 WATER USE IN AUSTRALIA BY SECTOR (UNITS AS INDICATED) 92
TABLE 46 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN AUSTRALIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 92
TABLE 47 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN AUSTRALIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 93
TABLE 48 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN AUSTRALIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 94
AUSTRALIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 94
TABLE 49 WWT FORECAST IN AUSTRALIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 95
AUSTRIA 95
AUSTRIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 96
TABLE 50 WATER SOURCES IN AUSTRIA (MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 96
TABLE 51 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN AUSTRIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 97
TABLE 52 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN AUSTRIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 97
TABLE 53 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN AUSTRIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 97
TABLE 54 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN AUSTRIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 98
AUSTRIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 99
TABLE 55 WWT FORECAST IN AUSTRIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 99
BELGIUM 99
BELGIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 100
TABLE 56 WATER SOURCES IN BELGIUM (UNITS AS INDICATED) 100
TABLE 57 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN BELGIUM (UNITS AS INDICATED) 101
TABLE 58 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN BELGIUM (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 101
TABLE 59 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN BELGIUM, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 101
TABLE 60 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN BELGIUM, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 102
BELGIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 103
TABLE 61 WWT FORECAST IN BELGIUM, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 103
BRAZIL 103
BRAZILIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 104
TABLE 62 WATER SOURCES IN BRAZIL (UNITS AS INDICATED) 104
TABLE 63 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN BRAZIL (UNITS AS INDICATED) 105
TABLE 64 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN BRAZIL (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 105
TABLE 65 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN BRAZIL, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 106
BRAZILIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 106
TABLE 66 WWT FORECAST IN BRAZIL, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 107
CANADA 107
CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 108
TABLE 67 WATER SOURCES IN CANADA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 108
TABLE 68 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN CANADA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 109
TABLE 69 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN CANADA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 109
TABLE 70 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN CANADA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 110
TABLE 71 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN CANADA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 110
CANADIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 111
TABLE 72 WWT FORECAST IN CANADA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 111
CHINA-HONG KONG 112
TABLE 73 WWT FORECAST IN CHINA-HONG KONG, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 113
CHINA-MAINLAND 113
CHINESE WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 113
TABLE 74 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN CHINA-MAINLAND, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 114
TABLE 75 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN CHINA-MAINLAND, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 115
CHINESE WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 115
TABLE 76 WWT FORECAST IN CHINA-MAINLAND, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 116
CHINA-TAIWAN 116
TABLE 77 PRODUCT-LEVEL FORECAST IN CHINA-TAIWAN, THROUGH 2019 (BY
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 117
COLOMBIA 117
COLOMBIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 118
TABLE 78 WATER SOURCES IN COLOMBIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 118
TABLE 79 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN COLOMBIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 119
TABLE 80 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN COLOMBIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 119
TABLE 81 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN COLOMBIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 119
TABLE 82 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN COLOMBIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 120
COLOMBIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 121
TABLE 83 WWT FORECAST IN COLOMBIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 121
EGYPT 121
EGYPTIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 122
TABLE 84 WATER SOURCES IN EGYPT (UNITS AS INDICATED) 122
TABLE 85 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN EGYPT (UNITS AS INDICATED) 123
TABLE 86 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN EGYPT (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 123
TABLE 87 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN EGYPT, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 124
TABLE 88 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN EGYPT, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 124
EGYPTIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 125
TABLE 89 WWT FORECAST IN EGYPT, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 125
FRANCE 126
FRENCH WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 126
TABLE 90 WATER SOURCES IN FRANCE (UNITS AS INDICATED) 126
TABLE 91 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN FRANCE (UNITS AS INDICATED) 127
TABLE 92 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN FRANCE (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 127
TABLE 93 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN FRANCE, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 128
TABLE 94 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN FRANCE, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 128
FRENCH WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 129
TABLE 95 WWT FORECAST IN FRANCE, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 129
GERMANY 130
GERMAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 130
TABLE 96 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN GERMANY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 130
TABLE 97 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN GERMANY (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 131
TABLE 98 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN GERMANY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 131
TABLE 99 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN GERMANY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 132
GERMAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 132
TABLE 100 WWT FORECAST IN GERMANY, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 133
GREECE 133
GREEK WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 134
TABLE 101 WATER SOURCES IN GREECE (UNITS AS INDICATED) 134
TABLE 102 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN GREECE (UNITS AS INDICATED) 135
TABLE 103 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN GREECE (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 135
TABLE 104 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN GREECE, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 135
TABLE 105 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN GREECE, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 136
GREEK WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 137
TABLE 106 WWT FORECAST IN GREECE, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 137
INDIA 137
INDIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 138
TABLE 107 WATER SOURCES IN INDIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 138
TABLE 108 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN INDIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 139
TABLE 109 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN INDIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 139
TABLE 110 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 139
TABLE 111 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 140
INDIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 141
TABLE 112 WWT FORECAST IN INDIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 141
INDONESIA 141
INDONESIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 142
TABLE 113 WATER SOURCES IN INDONESIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 142
TABLE 114 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN INDONESIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 143
TABLE 115 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN INDONESIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 143
TABLE 116 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDONESIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 143
TABLE 117 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDONESIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 144
INDONESIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 145
TABLE 118 WWT FORECAST IN INDONESIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 145
IRAN 145
IRANIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 146
TABLE 119 WATER SOURCES IN IRAN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 146
TABLE 120 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN IRAN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 147
TABLE 121 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN IRAN (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 147
TABLE 122 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN IRAN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 147
TABLE 123 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN IRAN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 148
IRANIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 149
TABLE 124 WWT FORECAST IN IRAN, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 149
ITALY 149
ITALIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 150
TABLE 125 WATER SOURCES IN ITALY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 150
TABLE 126 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN ITALY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 151
TABLE 127 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN ITALY (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 151
TABLE 128 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN ITALY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 151
TABLE 129 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN ITALY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 152
ITALIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 153
TABLE 130 WWT FORECAST IN ITALY, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 153
JAPAN 153
JAPANESE WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 154
TABLE 131 WATER SOURCES IN JAPAN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 154
TABLE 132 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN JAPAN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 155
TABLE 133 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN JAPAN (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 155
TABLE 134 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN JAPAN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 155
TABLE 135 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN JAPAN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 156
JAPANESE WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 157
TABLE 136 WWT FORECAST IN JAPAN, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 157
MALAYSIA 158
MALAYSIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 158
TABLE 137 WATER SOURCES IN MALAYSIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 158
TABLE 138 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN MALAYSIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 159
TABLE 139 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN MALAYSIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 159
TABLE 140 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN MALAYSIA, THROUGH 2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 159
TABLE 141 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN MALAYSIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 160
MALAYSIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 161
TABLE 142 WWT FORECAST IN MALAYSIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 161
MEXICO 161
MEXICAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 162
TABLE 143 WATER SOURCES IN MEXICO (UNITS AS INDICATED) 162
TABLE 144 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN MEXICO (UNITS AS INDICATED) 163
TABLE 145 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN MEXICO (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 163
TABLE 146 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN MEXICO, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 163
TABLE 147 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN MEXICO, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 164
MEXICAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 165
TABLE 148 WWT FORECAST IN MEXICO, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 165
NETHERLANDS 166
NETHERLANDS WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 166
TABLE 149 WATER SOURCES IN THE NETHERLANDS (UNITS AS INDICATED) 166
TABLE 150 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN THE NETHERLANDS (UNITS AS INDICATED) 167
TABLE 151 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE NETHERLANDS
(UNITS AS INDICATED) 167
TABLE 152 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE NETHERLANDS, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 167
TABLE 153 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE NETHERLANDS, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 168
NETHERLANDS WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 169
TABLE 154 WWT FORECAST IN THE NETHERLANDS, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 169
NIGERIA 169
NIGERIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 170
TABLE 155 WATER SOURCES IN NIGERIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 170
TABLE 156 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN NIGERIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 171
TABLE 157 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN NIGERIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 171
TABLE 158 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN NIGERIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 171
TABLE 159 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN NIGERIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 172
NIGERIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 173
TABLE 160 WWT FORECAST IN NIGERIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 173
NORWAY 173
NORWEGIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 174
TABLE 161 WATER SOURCES IN NORWAY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 174
TABLE 162 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN NORWAY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 175
TABLE 163 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN NORWAY (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 175
TABLE 164 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN NORWAY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 175
TABLE 165 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN NORWAY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 176
NORWEGIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 177
TABLE 166 WWT FORECAST IN NORWAY, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 177
PAKISTAN 177
PAKISTANIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 178
TABLE 167 WATER SOURCES IN PAKISTAN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 178
TABLE 168 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN PAKISTAN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 179
TABLE 169 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN PAKISTAN (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 179
TABLE 170 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN PAKISTAN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 179
TABLE 171 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN PAKISTAN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 180
PAKISTANIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 181
TABLE 172 WWT FORECAST IN PAKISTAN, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 181
PHILIPPINES 181
PHILIPPINE WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 182
TABLE 173 WATER SOURCES IN THE PHILIPPINES (UNITS AS INDICATED) 182
TABLE 174 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN THE PHILIPPINES (UNITS AS INDICATED) 183
TABLE 175 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE PHILIPPINES (UNITS
AS INDICATED) 183
TABLE 176 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 183
TABLE 177 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 184
PHILIPPINE WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 185
TABLE 178 WWT FORECAST IN THE PHILIPPINES, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 185
POLAND 185
POLISH WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 186
TABLE 179 WATER SOURCES IN POLAND (UNITS AS INDICATED) 186
TABLE 180 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN POLAND (UNITS AS INDICATED) 187
TABLE 181 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN POLAND (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 187
TABLE 182 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN POLAND, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 187
TABLE 183 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN POLAND, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 188
POLISH WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 189
TABLE 184 WWT FORECAST IN POLAND, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 189
RUSSIA 189
RUSSIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 190
TABLE 185 WATER SOURCES IN RUSSIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 190
TABLE 186 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN RUSSIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 191
TABLE 187 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN RUSSIA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 191
TABLE 188 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN RUSSIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 191
TABLE 189 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN RUSSIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 192
RUSSIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 193
TABLE 190 WWT FORECAST IN RUSSIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 193
SAUDI ARABIA 193
SAUDI ARABIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 194
TABLE 191 WATER SOURCES IN SAUDI ARABIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 194
TABLE 192 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN SAUDI ARABIA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 195
TABLE 193 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SAUDI ARABIA (UNITS
AS INDICATED) 195
TABLE 194 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SAUDI ARABIA, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 195
TABLE 195 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SAUDI ARABIA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 196
SANDI ARABIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 197
TABLE 196 WWT FORECAST IN SAUDI ARABIA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 197
SOUTH AFRICA 197
SOUTH AFRICAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 198
TABLE 197 WATER SOURCES IN SOUTH AFRICA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 198
TABLE 198 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 199
TABLE 199 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SOUTH AFRICA (UNITS
AS INDICATED) 199
TABLE 200 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 199
TABLE 201 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 200
SOUTH AFRICAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 201
TABLE 202 WWT FORECAST IN SOUTH AFRICA (BY PRODUCT WITHIN PRODUCT
GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 201
SOUTH KOREA 201
SOUTH KOREAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 202
TABLE 203 WATER SOURCES IN SOUTH KOREA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 202
TABLE 204 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN SOUTH KOREA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 203
TABLE 205 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SOUTH KOREA (UNITS
AS INDICATED) 203
TABLE 206 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTH KOREA, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 203
TABLE 207 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SOUTH KOREA, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 204
SOUTH KOREAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 205
TABLE 208 WWT FORECAST IN SOUTH KOREA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 205
SPAIN 205
SPANISH WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 206
TABLE 209 WATER SOURCES IN SPAIN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 206
TABLE 210 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN SPAIN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 207
TABLE 211 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SPAIN (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 207
TABLE 212 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SPAIN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 207
TABLE 213 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SPAIN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 208
SPANISH WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 209
TABLE 214 WWT FORECAST IN SPAIN, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 209
SWEDEN 210
SWEDISH WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 210
TABLE 215 WATER SOURCES IN SWEDEN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 210
TABLE 216 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN SWEDEN (UNITS AS INDICATED) 211
TABLE 217 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SWEDEN (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 211
TABLE 218 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SWEDEN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 211
TABLE 219 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SWEDEN, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 212
SWEDISH WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 213
TABLE 220 WWT FORECAST IN SWEDEN, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 213
SWITZERLAND 213
SWISS WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 214
TABLE 221 WATER SOURCES IN SWITZERLAND (UNITS AS INDICATED) 214
TABLE 222 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN SWITZERLAND (UNITS AS INDICATED) 215
TABLE 223 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN SWITZERLAND (UNITS
AS INDICATED) 215
TABLE 224 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SWITZERLAND, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 215
TABLE 225 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN SWITZERLAND, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 216
SWISS WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 217
TABLE 226 WWT FORECAST IN SWITZERLAND, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT
WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 217
THAILAND 217
THAI WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 218
TABLE 227 WATER SOURCES IN THAILAND (UNITS AS INDICATED) 218
TABLE 228 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN THAILAND (UNITS AS INDICATED) 219
TABLE 229 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THAILAND (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 219
TABLE 230 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THAILAND, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 219
TABLE 231 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THAILAND, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 220
THAI WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 221
TABLE 232 WWT FORECAST IN THAILAND, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 221
TURKEY 221
TURKISH WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 222
TABLE 233 WATER SOURCES IN TURKEY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 222
TABLE 234 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN TURKEY (UNITS AS INDICATED) 223
TABLE 235 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN TURKEY (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 223
TABLE 236 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN TURKEY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 223
TABLE 237 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN TURKEY, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 224
TURKISH WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 225
TABLE 238 WWT FORECAST IN TURKEY, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 225
UKRAINE 225
UKRAINIAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 226
TABLE 239 WATER SOURCES IN UKRAINE (UNITS AS INDICATED) 226
TABLE 240 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN UKRAINE (UNITS AS INDICATED) 227
TABLE 241 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN UKRAINE (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 227
TABLE 242 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN UKRAINE, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 227
TABLE 243 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN UKRAINE, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 228
UKRAINIAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 229
TABLE 244 WWT FORECAST IN UKRAINE, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 229
UNITED KINGDOM 229
UNITED KINGDOM'S WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 230
TABLE 245 WATER SOURCES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM (UNITS AS INDICATED) 230
TABLE 246 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN THE UNITED KINGDOM (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 231
TABLE 247 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
(UNITS AS INDICATED) 231
TABLE 248 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 231
TABLE 249 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 232
UNITED KINGDOM'S WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 233
TABLE 250 WWT FORECAST IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, THROUGH 2019 (BY
PRODUCT WITHIN PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 233
UNITED STATES 233
UNITED STATES' WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 234
TABLE 251 WATER SOURCES IN THE UNITED STATES (UNITS AS INDICATED) 234
TABLE 252 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN THE UNITED STATES (UNITS AS INDICATED) 235
TABLE 253 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE UNITED STATES
(UNITS AS INDICATED) 235
TABLE 254 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 235
TABLE 255 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1992-2011
(MILLIONS, MILLIONS UTILIZING) 236
UNITED STATES' WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 237
TABLE 256 WWT FORECAST IN THE UNITED STATES (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 237
VENEZUELA 237
VENEZUELAN WATER RESOURCES AND WATER USE TABLES 238
TABLE 257 WATER SOURCES IN VENEZUELA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 238
TABLE 258 WATER USE BY SECTOR IN VENEZUELA (UNITS AS INDICATED) 239
TABLE 259 CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN VENEZUELA (UNITS AS
INDICATED) 239
TABLE 260 URBAN WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN VENEZUELA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 239
TABLE 261 RURAL WWT INFRASTRUCTURE IN VENEZUELA, 1992-2011 (MILLIONS,
MILLIONS UTILIZING) 240
VENEZUELAN WWT PRODUCT FORECAST 241
TABLE 262 WWT FORECAST IN VENEZUELA, THROUGH 2019 (BY PRODUCT WITHIN
PRODUCT GROUP, $ MILLIONS) 241

CHAPTER 12 THE WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT COMMUNITY 243

ACCIONA AGUA 243
ACQUEAU 244
ADVANCED DRAINAGE SYSTEMS, INC. 244
AGUAS DE PORTUGAL 245
AMERICAN CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION 245
AMERICAN CONCRETE PRESSURE PIPE ASSOCIATION 245
AMERICAN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION 246
AMERICAN PUBLIC WORKS ASSOCIATION 246
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 246
AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 247
AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 248
AMERICAN WATER 249
APTWATER INC. 249
AQUA AMERICA, INC. 250
AQUAFIN NV 250
AQUANTIS GMBH 250
AQUATEAM 251
ASIAN WATER TECHNOLOGY 251
ASOCIACION ESPANOLA DE ABASTECIMIENTOS DE AGUA Y SANEAMIENTO 251
ASSOCIATION OF WATER TECHNOLOGIES 252
ATKINS 252
AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATION 253
BEFESA AGUA 253
BERLIN CENTRE OF COMPETENCE FOR WATER 253
BEST WATER TECHNOLOGY 254
BLACK AND and VEATCH 254
BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 255
CABOT NORIT ACTIVATED CARBON 255
CALGON CARBON CORP. 256
CANADIAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION 256
CANAL DE ISABEL II 256
CERMAGREF 257
IRSTEA 257
CENTRE FOR ECOLOGY and HYDROLOGY 257
CERES 258
CETAQUA 258
CH2M HILL 258
COMPANHIA DE SANEAMENTO BASICO DO ESTADO DE SAO PAULO 259
COPA-COGECA 259
CSTB 260
CULLIGAN INTERNATIONAL CO. 260
DANISH WATER FORUM 260
DANISH WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 261
DELTARES 261
DHI 261
DVGW 262
EBARA JITSUGYO CO., LTD. 262
ENERKEM 263
ENPAR TECHNOLOGIES INC. 263
EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF NATIONAL WATER AND WASTEWATER
ASSOCIATIONS AND USERS 263
EUROPEAN CHEMICALS AGENCY 264
EUROPEAN COMMISSION WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION TECHNOLOGY
PLATFORM 264
EUROPEAN MEMBRANE HOUSE 264
EUROPEAN WATER ASSOCIATION 265
FEDERUTILITY 265
GE WATER and PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 266
GLOBAL WATER PARTNERSHIP 266
GRONTMIJ N.V. 267
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL HYDROLOGY 267
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCES 268
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HYDROLOGISTS 268
INTERNATIONAL DESALINATION ASSOCIATION 268
INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION 269
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY 269
INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION 270
INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 271
INTEVRAS 271
ITT CORP. 271
KEMIRA 272
KRUGER A/S 272
KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES LTD. 273
KWR WATERCYCLE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 273
LAYNE 273
LG SOUND 274
THE JAMES HUTTON INSTITUTE 274
MWH 275
NALCO 275
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CLEAN WATER AGENCIES 276
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WATER COMPANIES 276
NORIT CARBON 276
NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE FOR WATER RESEARCH 276
PALL CORP. 277
PENTAIR INC. 277
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES 278
SALINE WATER CONVERSION CORP. 279
SCHLUMBERGER WATER SERVICES 279
SEVERN TRENT PLC 280
SIEMENS INDUSTRY, INC. 280
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT 281
SVENSK VATTEN 281
THAMES WATER UTILITIES 282
THIRD WORLD CENTRE FOR WATER MANAGEMENT 282
UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION 283
UN-WATER 283
UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS - HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING
CENTER 284
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 284
FEDERAL LAWS 285
EXECUTIVE ORDERS 286
UNITED WATER INC. 287
UNITED UTILITIES PLC 287
VEOLIA ENVIRONNEMENT 287
WATER AND WASTEWATER EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 288
WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 289
WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD 289
WATTS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 289
WORLD WATER COUNCIL 290

CHAPTER 13 APPENDIX A 292

GLOSSARY OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT TERMS 292

CHAPTER 14 APPENDIX B 310

KEY WATER AND WASTEWATER CONTROL PATENTS 310
TABLE 263 KEY WATER and WASTEWATER CONTROL PATENTS (NEWEST 1ST) 310



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE WASTE AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PRODUCT GROUP
FORECAST, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
TABLE 1 OUTDOOR DEFECATION RATES (%) 13
TABLE 2 FRESHWATER VERSUS SALTWATER (MILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 16
TABLE 3 FRESHWATER DISTRIBUTION (MILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 16
TABLE 4 RURAL AND URBAN POPULATIONS, 1992-2011 (UNITS AS INDICATED) 21
TABLE 5 WHO GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICALS, EXCEPT CARCINOGENS (MG/L) 24
TABLE 6 WHO PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES DUE TO LIMITED INFORMATION ON
HEALTH EFFECTS (MG/L) 26
TABLE 7 WHO PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES DUE TO POST- TREATMENT DETECTABILITY
(MG/L) 27
TABLE 8 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES WHERE DISINFECTION IS LIKELY TO RESULT IN
THE GUIDELINE VALUE BEING EXCEEDED (MG/L) 27
TABLE 9 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES WHERE CALCULATED GUIDELINE VALUE IS
BELOW THE ACHIEVABLE QUANTIFICATION LEVEL (MG/L) 28
TABLE 10 PROVISIONAL GUIDELINES WHERE ACHIEVING HEALTH-BASED GUIDELINE
VALUE MAY AFFECT THE APPEARANCE, TASTE OR ODOR OF THE WATER (

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