The global market for quantum dots (QDs) in 2010 was worth an estimated $67 million in revenues. This market is projected to grow over the next 5 years at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 59.3%, reaching almost $670 million by 2015, representing a tenfold increase.    

Optoelectronics represents one of the greatest market sectors. This area was launched in 2010 and is expected to increase at a 128.4% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach a value of $310 million in 2015.

The established in the biomedical sector was valued at $48 million in 2010. This sector is expected to increase at a 30% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach a value of $179 million in 2015. 

INTRODUCTION 

MOTIVATION

Among the many subsets of nanomaterials, quantum dots (QDs) are like no other. At dimensions typically below 10 nanometers (nm), nanocrystalline (nc) semiconductors (SC), metals, and magnetic materials can all exhibit extraordinary quantum confinement phenomenon.   Basically, at these dimensions, their physical size encroaches upon the fundamental quantum confinement dimensions of orbiting electrons that are uniquely prescribed by their atomic nucleus. Within the regime of these critical dimensions, QDs exhibit distinctly different behavior from their bulk form, which manifests itself, for example, in distinctly different optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. 

Today, scientists can precisely synthesize nanocrystalline materials at these critical dimensions and thereby systematically tune their quantum confining behavior.   As a result, there is currently enormous interest in exploiting and capitalizing on the unique properties exhibited by QD materials.   As a harbinger for future business developments, colloidal QD-bioconjugates are among the first wave of commercial product applications stimulating market interest.   Primarily, these have quickly established a niche market in the life sciences and biomedical communities, where they provide unrivalled cellular imaging and therapeutic detection capabilities.   Other promising prototype developments of SC QDs now on the commercial-horizon include: a new generation of flash memory devices; nanomaterial enhancements for improving the performance of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs), as well as solid-state white-LED lighting; and a core technology used in flexible solar panel coatings.

With these impending commercial developments and their enormous business potential, this report provides a timely assessment of quantum dot materials—where they currently are, and where they might be in the foreseeable future.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

The primary objective of this report is threefold: (1) to assess the current state-of-the-art in synthesizing QDs; (2) to identify the current market players seeking to exploit QD behavior; and (3) to evaluate actual or potential markets in terms of application, type, and projected market revenues.

SCOPE OF REPORT

Since their simultaneous discovery in Russia and the U.S. almost 30 years ago, SC QDs, until quite recently, have resided exclusively in the domain of solid state physics, where they have been fabricated using expensive and sophisticated molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) equipment.   However, in a relatively short time frame this situation has changed dramatically with the recent commercial availability of colloidal QDs synthesized by less expensive wet-chemical processes. Practically, the availability of QDs in a colloidally dispersed form will help demystify these somewhat esoteric materials.   Most importantly, colloidal-QDs now provide access to a much broader audience, which promises to further widen their potential market exploitation.

Current and future applications of QDs impact a broad range of industrial markets.   These include, for example, biology and biomedicine; computing and memory; electronics and displays; optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, lighting, and lasers; optical components used in telecommunications; and security applications such as covert identification tagging or biowarfare detection sensors.

This report probes in considerable depth the early pioneers and champions in this field both in industry, government, and academic laboratories.   The most active organizations, promising technical applications, and developments realizable within the next 5 years, will all be highlighted. 

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report represents a major update of the BCC Research report (NAN027B) Quantum Dots: Technologies and Commercial Prospects, published in September 2008. The most significant revisions in the new edition include:

An extensive updated patent analysis (2008 to 2010)
An in-depth assessment of the unfolding commercial markets
Progress in the synthesis and commercial scaleup by QD producers
Updated company profiles of the producers and end users dictating market development
Updated 5-year market projection analysis of the emerging QD market

This is the third exclusive report to focus on QD nanomaterials from the perspective of their technology, applications, and future business prospects. Thus, this up-to-date technical assessment and business analysis should prove an especially valuable resource to individuals and organizations seeking more insight into the current status of QDs, their stand-alone capabilities within the spectrum of nanomaterials, and time-to-market commercial development. The report’s comprehensive technical and business assessment on the current status of the QD-based industry should prove informative to nanomaterials manufacturers, investors seeking near-term commercialization opportunities, technologists confronted with nanomaterial device integration issues, and companies specifically interested in exploiting QDs in biological, biomedical, electronics, energy, optics, optoelectronics, and security applications.

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. This report is primarily derived from the enormous amount of patent and technical literature relating to QDs disclosed in the public domain.   In addition, complementary information has also been drawn from the business community, such as company investment news, company profiles, press releases, and personal telephone interviews with selected companies. 

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

John Oliver, the author of this report, is the founder of Innov8 Solutions, which provides advanced materials consultation services to various clients. He has more than 30 years of industrial research and development (R&D) experience in surface and colloid science, spanning a wide range of materials technology.  Primarily while working as a senior scientist at Xerox Research Centre of Canada, he developed an invaluable understanding in advanced materials used in digital printing technologies such as xerography and ink-jet printing.   In the past 10 years, following his involvements with the Alberta Research Council and several local universities, his interests have evolved into the realm of nanomaterials and microsystems device integration.   He has a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from McGill University, a BSc degree in Chemistry from Surrey University, U.K. His publications include more than 40 peer-reviewed technical articles, 20 patents, and one technical book.

Between 2005 and 2009, he was the editor of BCC’s bimonthly Nanoparticle News and has authored four previous BCC technical reports: Quantum Dots: Technical Status and Market Prospects (NAN027A, NANO27B); Carbon Nanotubes: Technologies and Commercial Prospects (NAN024C); and Carbon Nanotubes: Technologies and Global Markets (NANO24D).

Table Of Contents

Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION

MOTIVATION 1
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 1
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 3
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4

Chapter-2: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN PROMISING MARKET SECTORS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN PROMISING MARKET SECTORS, 2009-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 7

Chapter-3: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

WHAT IS A QUANTUM DOT? 8
HISTORY OF QUANTUM DOTS 9
TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF QDS: FROM RESEARCH CURIOSITY THROUGH COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT, 1960S-2010 9
PROPERTIES OF QUANTUM DOTS 10
FIGURE 1  LUMINESCENCE SIZE REGIMES FOR DIFFERENT SEMICONDUCTOR AND METAL QUANTUM DOTS 10
TABLE 2   COMPARISON OF EMISSION WAVELENGTH OF SC AND METAL NC QUANTUM DOTS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR SIZE 11
TABLE 3   OTHER PROPERTIES OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 12
QUANTUM DOT INDUSTRY 12
APPLICATIONS AND STRUCTURAL TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS 13
BASIC STRUCTURES 14
TABLE 4   HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QDS: BASIC STRUCTURES 14
COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 15
TABLE 5   HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QDS: COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 15
COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 15
TABLE 6 QD MATERIAL TYPES AND THEIR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 16
TABLE 7    KEY QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 17
PATENT ANALYSIS 18
QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION (SYNTHESIS) AND DEVICE ASSEMBLY 19
SYNTHESIS OF METAL CHALCOGENIDE QUANTUM DOTS 19
VAPOR PHASE 19
TABLE 8 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: VAPOR PHASE 20
Aerosol Drop Method 20
Melt Atomization 21
Chemical Vapor Deposition 21
Physical Vapor Deposition 21
Molecular Beam Epitaxy 22
LIQUID PHASE (“WET” COLLOID CHEMISTRY) 22
TABLE 9 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: LIQUID PHASE 23
Colloid 24
Batch Process 24
Continuous Flow 25
Precipitation 26
SOLID PHASE 27
TABLE 10 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: SOLID PHASE 27
SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON QDS 27
LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS 28
TABLE 11 VARIOUS METHODS USED FOR SI-NC SYNTHESIS 28
TABLE 11 (CONTINUED) 29
SOLID-PHASE SYNTHESIS 30
VAPOR-PHASE SYNTHESIS 31
SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE METALS AND QDS 31
SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE … (CONTINUED) 32
TABLE 12 VARIOUS SYNTHETIC METHODS AND PHOTOPHYSICAL BEHAVIOR OF METAL-NCS 33
SYNTHESIS OF CARBON QUANTUM DOTS 34
ASSEMBLY OF QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURES 35
TABLE 13 QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY METHODS 36
LITHOGRAPHY 37
Conventional Top-Down Methods 37
Nanolithography 37
FILM FORMATION 38
Cast Film 39
Langmuir-Blodgett 39
Layer-by-Layer 39
Metamaterials 40
Biomolecular Self-Assembly 41
Photopatternable Arrays 42
OTHER TECHNIQUES 42
Digital Printing 42
Nanoporous Templates 43
Nanoporous Templates (Continued) 44

Chapter-4: PATENT ANALYSIS

RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY 45
RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY (CONTINUED) 46
U.S. PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) SEARCH 47
CHRONOLOGICAL GROWTH TRENDS IN USPTO ACTIVITY 47
FIGURE 2   U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED, 1986-JUNE 29, 2010 (CUMULATIVE TOTAL: 3,124) 47
FIGURE 3 COMPARISON OF U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED AND PENDING, 2001-2010* CUMULATIVE TOTAL: 2,881 (ISSUED); 7,225 (PENDING) 48
USPTO ACTIVITY CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTOR 49
FIGURE 4 BREAKDOWN (%) FOR THE MAIN INDUSTRY/APPLICATION SECTORS EMERGING FROM QD-PATENTS ISSUED (2008-JUNE 29, 2010) (%) 49
FIGURE 4 (CONTINUED) 50
TABLE 14 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND EXEMPLARY APPLICATIONS EMERGING FROM ISSUED U.S. QD-PATENTS, 2008-2010 50
FIGURE 5 RELATIVE TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTORS FOR ISSUED U.S. QD-PATENTS FOR THE PERIOD, 1998-2010 (%) 51
FIGURE 6   U.S. VERSUS FOREIGN QD PATENTS ISSUED (2008-JUNE 29, 2010): CLASSIFIED BY APPLICATION SECTOR TOTALS: 905 (U.S.), 292 (FOREIGN) 52
FIGURE 6 (CONTINUED) 53
USPTO ACTIVITY: ASIAN, EUROPEAN, AND OTHER COUNTRIES 53
FIGURE 7 U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED ASSIGNED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES, FOR THE PERIOD 2008-JUNE 29, 2010 TOTALS: ASIA (173), EUROPE (92), ROW (24) 54
FIGURE 8 U.S. QD FILED PATENTS ASSSIGNED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 55
USPTO ACTIVITY: SMALL U.S. COMPANIES 55
TABLE 15 LEADING U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MUTIPLE PATENTS FOR QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 56
TABLE 16 OTHER U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 57
USPTO ACTIVITY: LARGE U.S. COMPANIES 58
TABLE 17 LEADING U.S. LARGE BUSINESSES GRANTED MUTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 58
TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 59
USPTO ACTIVITY: U.S. ACADEMIC, GOVERNMENT, OTHER INSTITUTIONS 59
TABLE 18 U.S. ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 60
TABLE 19 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 61
USPTO ACTIVITY: ACCORDING TO FOREIGN OWNERSHIP 61
Asia 61
TABLE 20 LEADING JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 62
TABLE 21 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES GRANTED PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2007 63
Europe 63
TABLE 22 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN EUROPE AND OTHER COUNTRIES GRANTED PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 64
TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) 65
Rest of the World 65
TABLE 23 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN REST OF THE WORLD COUNTRIES GRANTED PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008-JULY 1, 2010 66
IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT FUNDED RESEARCH ON PATENT ACTIVITY 66
TABLE 24 MAJOR U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FUNDING QD-BASED RESEARCH 67
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS and TECHNOLOGY (NIST) 67
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) 67

Chapter-5: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

QUANTUM DOT PRODUCERS 68
WET CHEMICAL-BASED SYNTHESIS 68
TABLE 25 CURRENT PRODUCERS OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS (CQDS) 69
American Dye Source, Inc. 70
American Elements 71
Bayer Technology Services GmbH 72
Evident Technologies 73
Evident Technologies (Continued) 74
TABLE 26 EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES QUANTUM DOT GRADES 75
TABLE 27 RECENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS AT EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES 76
TABLE 27 (CONTINUED) 77
Hanwha Nanotech Corporation 78
Innovalight, Inc. 78
Life Technologies Corporation 79
Life Technologies … (Continued) 80
Life Technologies … (Continued) 80
Life Technologies … (Continued) 81
Life Technologies … (Continued) 82
Melben 83
Nanoco Technologies, Ltd. 83
Nanoco Technologies, Ltd. (Continued) 84
Nanosquare Company Ltd. 85
NN-Labs, LLC 86
NN-Labs, LLC (Continued) 87
NN-Labs, LLC (Continued) 88
Ocean NanoTech LLC 89
PlasmaChem GmbH 90
QD Solution 90
Reade Advanced Materials 91
Selah Technologies, LLC 91
Vive Nano, Inc. 92
Vive Nano, Inc. (Continued) 93
Voxtel Inc. 94
SOLID STATE-BASED SYNTHESIS 95
TABLE 28 U.S. LARGE CORPORATIONS INTERESTED IN SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS OF QDS BASED ON PATENT ANALYSIS, 2008-2010* 96
COMMERCIAL QD-BASED APPLICATION PLATFORMS 96
TABLE 29 PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL QD-BASED PRODUCT APPLICATION PLATFORMS 97
TABLE 29 (CONTINUED) 98
NANOSYS INC. 98
Nanosys Inc. (Continued) 99
Nanosys Inc. (Continued) 100
TABLE 30 NANOSYS’ LATEST QD-FOCUSED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS 101
TABLE 31 NANOSYS’ EARLIER NANOMATERIALS-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS, 2005-2008 102
FOREIGN COMPETITION IN QUANTUM DOTS 102
WET CHEMICAL-BASED SYNTHESIS 103
SOLID-STATE-BASED SYNTHESIS 103
TABLE 32 LEADING ASIAN COMPANIES CURRENTLY DEVELOPING SOLID-STATE-BASED, QD-BASED DEVICES 103
TABLE 33 EUROPEAN AND OTHER FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS CURRENTLY INVOLVED IN COMMERCIALLY DEVELOPING SOLID-STATE QD-BASED DEVICES 104
DRIVING FORCES IMPACTING QD INDUSTRY 104
SPECIALTY AND POTENTIAL FOR COMMODITY QD APPLICATIONS 104
SOLAR ENERGY 105
IMPORTANT FACTORS NURTURING GROWTH 106
DEVICE FABRICATION 106
TOP-DOWN IN SITU LITHOGRAPHIC FABRICATION 106
BOTTOM-UP ASSEMBLY 107
Solid State Synthesis 107
Wet Colloid Synthesis 108
BUILDING OF QUANTUM DOT DEVICES 108
TABLE 34 PROCESS SYNTHESIS AND DEVICE FABRICATION PARADIGMS FOR COLLOIDAL-QDS 109
TABLE 35 RECENT DEVICE FABRICATION DEVELOPMENTS FOR COLLOIDAL-QDS 110
CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACING THE QD INDUSTRY 110
TABLE 36 MAJOR ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE COLLOID QD INDUSTRY 111
NANOTOXICITY 111
TABLE 37 RECENT RandD STUDIES IN THE NANOTOXICOLOGY OF QD SYSTEMS 112
RoHS Directive 113
Non-toxic QD systems 113
TABLE 38 RECENT RandD IN NON-TOXIC QD SYSTEMS 114
PRODUCTION SCALE-UP OF QDS 114
Production Scale-up of QDs (Continued) 115
SURFACE CHEMICAL PASSIVATION 116
TRADE PRACTICES/REGULATORY ISSUES AND INFORMATION 116
REGULATORY ISSUES 116
TABLE 39 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN NANOMATERIALS SAFETY AND IMPENDING REGULATION 117
Toxicity Studies 118
Environmental Studies 118
GREEN CHEMISTRY 119
EVOLUTIONARY STAGE OF INDUSTRY 119
COLLOIDAL QDS 119
Colloidal QDs versus Epitaxial QDs 120

Chapter-6: MARKETS BY APPLICATION

TABLE 40 COMMERCIALLY PROMISING SECTORS WITH FIRST-GENERATION OR PROTOTYPE QD-BASED PRODUCTS 121
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 122
BIOTECHNOLOGY 123
BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS 123
TABLE 41 ADVANTAGES OF QUANTUM DOTS AS BIOLOGICAL LABELS 123
BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS (Continued) 124
TABLE 42 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED AND FILED ON QD BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS, 2001—2003 125
QD-TAGGED MICROBEADS 126
LIVE CELL IMAGING 126
Live Cell Imaging (Continued) 127
MOLECULAR SPECIES DIAGNOSIS/DETECTION 128
TABLE 43 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED AND FILED ON QD BIOTECHNOLOGY, MOLECULAR SPECIES DIAGNOSIS/DETECTION, 2001-2003 128
TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 129
ANALYTICAL/INSTRUMENTS METHODS 129
TABLE 44 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON QD BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ANALYTICAL/INSTRUMENT METHODS, 2001-2003 129
TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 130
SENSOR AND MICROARRAY APPLICATIONS 130
TABLE 45 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON SENSOR AND MICRO-ARRAY APPLICATIONS, 2001-2003 131
MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 131
Commercial Organizations 131
TABLE 46 COMPANIES LEADING QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2005-2008 132
TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 133
TABLE 47 COMPANIES LEADING QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2008-OCTOBER 28, 2010 133
TABLE 47 (CONTINUED) 134
Academic Organizations 134
TABLE 48 THE MOST ACTIVE UNIVERSITIES INVOLVED IN QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENTS ISSUED, 2005-2007 135
TABLE 49 LEADING UNIVERSITIES AND HOSPITALS INVOLVED IN QD-BIO/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENTS, 2008—OCTOBER 28, 2010 136
TABLE 49 (CONTINUED) 137
COMPANY PROFILES—BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 137
Affymetrix, Inc. 137
Amnis Corporation 138
Applera Corporation 138
Biocrystal Ltd. 139
Clinical Micro Sensors, Inc./Osmetech Molecular Diagnostics 140
Clontech Laboratories, Inc. 141
Genoptix, Inc. 141
Helicos BioSciences Corporation 142
Illumina, Inc. 142
Intel Corporation 143
Integrated Raman Bioanalyzer System 144
MEMS-Based Hydrodynamic Focusing 145
LI-COR Incorporated 145
Luminex Corporation 146
Nanosphere, Inc. 146
Pharmaceutical Product Development, Inc. 147
U.S. Genomics, Inc. 147
BIOMEDICINE 148
DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 148
TABLE 50 QD MEDICAL APPLICATIONS DERIVED FROM U.S. PATENTS: 2000-2004 149
TABLE 50 (CONTINUED) 150
MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 150
TABLE 51 QD MEDICAL APPLICATIONS DERIVED FROM U.S. PATENTS, 2005-2007 151
BIOPHARMACEUTICS 152
CANCER THERAPY AND DIAGNOSTICS 152
Cancer Therapy and Diagnostics (Continued) 153
DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS 154
Alverix, Inc. 154
Ventana Medical Systems, Inc. 155
DISEASE SCREENING 155
IMPLANTABLE DEVICES 156
Motorola Inc. 156
IntrinsiQ Materials, Ltd 157
SURGICAL AIDS 158
Medical Instrumentation 158
Spectros Corporation 158
Photodynamic Therapy 159
Light Sciences Oncology, Inc. 159
Teledyne Lighting and Display Products 160
ELECTRONICS 160
TABLE 52    NOVEL QD-BASED DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRONICS 160
TABLE 52 (CONTINUED) 161
LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICE FABRICATION 161
Top-Down QD Electronic Device Assembly 162
TABLE 53 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING CONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 1999-2004 162
TABLE 53 (CONTINUED) 163
TABLE 54 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING CONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2007 164
Bottom-Up QD Electronic Device Assembly—Molecular Electronics 164
TABLE 55 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION INTO UNCONVENTIONAL NANOELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 1999-2003 165
TABLE 56 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING UNCONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2007 166
TABLE 57 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN UNCONVENTIONAL QD-BASED MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2008-2010 167
QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND CRYPTOGRAPHY 167
Quantum Computing and Information Processing 167
Quantum Cryptography 168
Patent Activity in Quantum Computers and Quantum Cryptography 168
TABLE 58 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS, 1999-2004 168
TABLE 58 (CONTINUED) 169
TABLE 59 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2005-2007 170
TABLE 60 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2008-2010 170
D-Wave Systems Inc. 171
LTX-Credence Corporation 172
MagiQ Technologies, Inc. 172
Qucor Pty. Ltd. 173
Toshiba Research Europe Ltd. 173
STORAGE/MEMORY DEVICES 174
TABLE 61 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 1999-2004 174
TABLE 61 (CONTINUED) 175
TABLE 62 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 2005-2007 175
TABLE 62 (CONTINUED) 176
TABLE 63 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 2008-2010 176
OPTOELECTRONICS 177
DISPLAYS 178
TABLE 64 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES, 2005-2007 178
TABLE 64 (CONTINUED) 179
TABLE 65 LATEST U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIESM, 2008-2010 179
3DIcon Corporation 180
Boeing Company 180
E Ink Corporation 181
Eastman Kodak Company 182
Goldeneye, Inc. 183
Imaging Systems Technology 183
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) 184
Microvision, Inc. 185
Prysm, Inc. 186
QD Vision, Inc. 186
TABLE 66 BENEFITS OF QD-LEDS OVER OTHER DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES 187
TABLE 67 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN QD VISION’S SOLID STATE LIGHTING AND DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES 188
Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology 189
Solexant Corporation 189
Superimaging, Inc. 190
FLEXIBLE DISPLAY INDUSTRY 191
TABLE 68 PROFILE OF SOME EMERGING FLEXIBLE DISPLAY MARKET PLAYERS 191
TABLE 68 (CONTINUED) 192
Complementary Fabrication Technology 192
Ink-jet Printing 192
Mist Deposition 192
LASERS 193
TABLE 69 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS 2005-2007 IN LASERS AND LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS 194
TABLE 70 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 194
TABLE 70 (CONTINUED) 195
TABLE 71 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES, 2008-2010 196
Finisar Corporation 196
Innolume GmbH 197
TABLE 72 ADVANTAGES OF QD DIODE LASERS 198
Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 199
QD Laser, Inc. 199
LEDS AND LIGHTING 200
TABLE 73 ROADMAP RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SSL-LED TECHNOLOGY/ LAMP TARGETS 201
TABLE 74 IMPORTANT PLAYERS IN GROWING WLED SSL INDUSTRY 202
TABLE 75 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LEDS AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 203
TABLE 75 (CONTINUED) 204
TABLE 76 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LEDS AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 204
TABLE 76 (CONTINUED) 205
TABLE 77 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LEDS AND LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, 2008-2010 205
Avago Technologies Limited 206
Evident Technologies, Inc. 206
Global OLED Technology, LLC 207
Group IV Semiconductor Inc. 208
Kopin Corporation 209
Los Alamos National Laboratory 209
3M Company 210
3M Company (Continued) 211
Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 212
Philips Lumileds Lighting Company 213
Sandia National Laboratories 214
TABLE 78 PROPERTY COMPARISON OF COLLOIDAL QDS AND CONVENTIONAL LED PHOSPHORS 215
Sandia National Laboratories (Continued) 216
Challenges Facing Solid-State LED Development 217
TABLE 79 COLLOIDAL QD-BASED SOLID STATE WHITE LIGHTING: ENABLING FEATURES AND FUTURE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES 217
TABLE 79 (CONTINUED) 218
YLX Corporation 218
OPTICAL COMPONENTS 218
BACKGROUND 218
PATENT ACTIVITY 219
TABLE 80 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS AND RELATED DEVICES, 1999-2004 220
MORE RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY 220
TABLE 81 RECENT U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS, 2005-2008 221
TRACKDALE LTD. (U.K.) 222
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 222
VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS, INC. 223
LATEST PATENT ACTIVITY 223
TABLE 82 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS, 2008-2010 224
SECURITY 224
RATIONALE FOR QDS AS AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY 224
QDs versus Organic Fluorescent Dyes 225
Market Drivers 225
Counterfeiting 226
ORGANIZATIONS EXPLOITING QD-BASED SECURITY TECHNOLOGY 226
TABLE 83 KEY ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN SECURITY APPLICATIONS OF QDS OR COMPETITIVE MARKING MATERIALS 227
MORE RECENT SECURITY APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENTS 227
TABLE 84 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2005-2008 228
TABLE 85 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2008-2010 229
BioCrystal Ltd. 229
Center for Forensic Studies 230
Digimarc Corporation 230
Evident Technologies 231
Honeywell International Inc. 232
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 233
Nanosolutions GmbH 233
National Research Council of Canada 234
NCR Corporation 235
New Light Industries, Ltd. 235
Oxonica Inc/Nanoplex Technologies, Inc. 236
Oxonica Inc/Nanoplex … (Continued) 237
Life Technologies Corporation 238
Spectra Systems Corporation 239
Veritec, Inc. 240
BUSINESS PROGNOSIS OF THE SECURITY MARKET 240
TABLE 86 RECENT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES FOCUSING ON NEW SECURITY DEVELOPMENTS 241
Market Size 241
Digital Security Printing 241
DVDs 242
Counterfeit Drugs 242
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 243
CHEMICAL REACTION ENERGY CONVERSION 243
SOLAR ENERGY 244
Organic Dye-Based Solar Cells 245
TABLE 87 ADVANTAGES OF FLEXIBLE POLYMER-BASED DESIGNS OVER CONVENTIONAL RIGID SOLAR CELL DESIGNS 245
Organic Dye-Based … (Continued) 246
Organic QD-Based Solar Cells 247
TABLE 88 SOME ADVANTAGES OF COLLOIDAL QDS OVER ORGANIC DYES USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELLS 247
Development of QD-Based Solar Cells 248
TABLE 89 EARLY PLAYERS INVOLVED IN PATENTING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF QD-ENHANCED SOLAR CELLS 248
TABLE 89 (CONTINUED) 249
Agfa-Gevaert 249
Harvard University 249
Los Alamos National Laboratory 250
Lund University 250
Nanosys Inc. 251
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 252
University of California 253
University of Idaho 254
University of Rochester 254
More Recent Developments 254
TABLE 90 MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS BY MAJOR PLAYERS INVOLVED IN QD SOLAR CELLS AND COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES, 2005-2008 255
TABLE 90 (CONTINUED) 256
Current Developments 256
TABLE 91 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN QD SOLAR CELLS, 2008-2010 256
TABLE 91 (CONTINUED) 257
TABLE 92 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY OF MAJOR COMMERCIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN QD-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATION, 2008-2010 257
TABLE 92 (CONTINUED) 258
THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION 258
TABLE 93 DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY (TE) CONVERSION, 2005-2008 259
TABLE 94 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY (TE) CONVERSION, 2008-2010 260

Chapter-7: MARKET ANALYSIS

QD COMMERCIAL PRODUCERS 261
LEADING COLLOIDAL QD PRODUCERS 261
U.S. Producers 261
TABLE 95 LEADING U.S. COLLOIDAL QD PRODUCERS, CURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIOS, AND COMMERCIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS 262
U.S. Producers (Continued) 263
Foreign Producers 264
TABLE 96 FOREIGN COLLOIDAL QD PRODUCERS: CURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO AND COMMERCIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS 264
COMPARISON WITH SOLID STATE SYNTHESIZED QDS 265
TABLE 97 LEADING PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL SOLID STATE QD-BASED PRODUCT APPLICATION PLATFORMS 266
MAJOR PRODUCTION CHALLENGES 266
TABLE 98 MAJOR CHALLENGES FACING COMMERCIAL QD PRODUCERS 267
TABLE 99 ANTICIPATED COMMERCIAL MARKET SECTORS FOR QUANTUM DOTS AND PRODUCT OFFERINGS,2010—2015 268
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN BIOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 269
POTENTIAL MARKET SIZE 269
EVOLUTION OF NC MATERIALS IN BIOLOGICAL DETECTION 269
MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 270
COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR QDS IN BIOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 271
Crystalplex Nanotech 272
Cytodiagnostics, Inc. 272
Cytoptics Corporation 273
Fio Corporation 274
Lab21 Ltd/Selah Technologies, LLC 275
Life Technologies Corporation 275
Life Technologies … (Continued) 276
EMERGING MARKETS FOR SMALL NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 277
Standalone Bioconjugate-QD Materials Market 277
TABLE 100 PREDICTED REVENUE GROWTH FOR BIOCONJUGATE QDS, 2010-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 278
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN MEMORY APPLICATIONS 278
TABLE 101 QD AND OTHER FUTURE NANOMATERIALS-BASED MEMORY ARCHITECTURES 279
FLASH, THE MEMORY OF CHOICE 280
Freescale Semiconductor Inc. 280
Freescale Semiconductor Inc. (Continued) 281
OTHER NEAR-TERM COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES 282
Other Near-Term … (Continued) 283
PROJECTED GROWTH IN QD-BASED MEMORY MARKET 284
FIGURE 9 TOTAL WORLWIDE FLASH MEMORY REVENUE GROWTH PROJECTION 284
TABLE 102 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY FREESCALE’S QD-BASED MEMORY PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 284
HEWLETT-PACKARD 285
IBM 286
MICRON TECHNOLOGY INC. 287
NANOSYS INC. 287
Nanosys Inc. (Continued) 288
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN (GERMANY) 289
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES 289
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 290
Other Foreign Competition 290
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN RIGID AND FLEXIBLE LED WHITE LIGHTING AND DISPLAYS 290
RIGID LED WHITE LIGHTING 291
TABLE 103 MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING THE IMPENDING USE OF QDS IN SSL WLED TECHNOLOGY 292
North American Interests 293
Foreign Interests 294
FLEXIBLE LED LIGHTING 295
Market Prediction in LED lighting 296
Rigid LED lighting 296
Flexible LED Lighting 297
TABLE 104 PROJECTED RIGID AND FLEXIBLE QD-LED LIGHTING REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 297
RIGID AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS 297
TABLE 105 MAJOR PERFORMANCE ISSUES CONFRONTING OLED DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY AND POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS PROVIDED BY QDS 298
Rigid and Flexible Displays (Continued) 299
Rigid and Flexible Displays (Continued) 300
Rigid and Flexible Displays (Continued) 301
Market Prediction 302
Rigid Displays 302
LED Backlighting for Rigid Displays 302
LED Backlighting for Small Flexible Displays 302
TABLE 106 PROJECTED RIGID AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAY REVENUES GENERATED BY QD-BASED PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 303
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATION 304
DOPED FIBER OPTICS 304
LASERS 305
Finisar Corporation 305
Innolume GmbH 306
Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 306
QD Laser, Inc. 306
OPTICAL COMPONENTS 307
Evident Technologies, Inc. 307
InVisage Technologies, Inc. 308
Siemens AG 309
Trackdale Ltd. 309
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY 310
PROJECTED GROWTH FOR QDS IN OPTICAL PRODUCTS 310
Optical Telecommunications 311
Quantum Cryptography 311
Portable Laser Projectors 312
Cell Phone/Digital Camera Sensors 312
TABLE 107 PROJECTED REVENUES FOR QD-BASED OPTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION AND PORTABLE COMMUNICATION DEVICES, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 313
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN SECURITY APPLICATIONS 313
TABLE 108 CLASSIFICATION OF COVERT QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS BY MARKET SECTOR 313
TABLE 108 (CONTINUED) 314
INITIAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 315
Life Technologies Corporation 315
Voxtel Inc. 315
Xerox Corporation 316
PROJECTED GROWTH IN THE QD-BASED SECURITY MARKET 317
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY 317
INITIAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 318
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: ADDRESSING MAJOR ISSUES 319
TABLE 109 MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING THE IMPENDING USE OF COLLOIDAL QDS IN SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY 320
IMPENDING COMMERCIAL QD-BASED SOLAR PRODUCTS 320
Cyrium Technologies, Inc. 320
Cyrium Technologies, Inc. (Continued) 321
Innovalight, Inc. 322
Innovalight, Inc. (Continued) 323
Natcore Technology, Inc. 324
QD Soleil, Inc. 325
QuantaSol Ltd. 326
Quantum PV 327
Shrink Nanotechnologies, Inc. 327
Spire Corporation 328
Solexant Corporation 329
Solterra Renewable Technologies 330
COMPLEMENTARY DEVELOPMENTS IMPACTING QD-SOLAR CELLS 331
TABLE 110 COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES SHAPING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS 332
First-Generation: Bulk Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 333
Second-Generation: Inorganic Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 333
Third-Generation: Organic Thin Film Solar Cells 334
Third-Generation: … (Continued) 335
PROJECTED GROWTH IN THE QD-BASED SOLAR MARKET 336
Second-Generation: Inorganic Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 336
Third-Generation: Organic Thin Film Solar Cells 337
TABLE 111 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY QD-BASED SECOND- AND THIRD-GENERATION SOLAR CELL PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 338
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN OTHER ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 339
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 339
THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION 339
Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (Continued) 340
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN OTHER PROMISING SECTORS 341
FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS 341
Flexible Electronics (Continued) 342

Chapter-8: APPENDIX: ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND UNITS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 343
UNITS 344

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