Medical Imaging Markets

  • June 2013
  • -
  • TriMark Publications
  • -
  • 455 pages

The purpose of this TriMark Publications report is to describe the specific market segment of the diagnostics market sector called medical imaging. Medical imaging can be categorized into nine main modalities: X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine (NM), mammography and fluoroscopy. Globally, X-ray is the most frequently used imaging procedure with about 108 million X-ray exams per year. MRI is second with 26 million examinations per year. PET, SPECT, CT and nuclear medicine rank third with 30 million examinations per year. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and contrast agents are the sub-segments in medical imaging market that have gained significant growth in recent years.

As a result of these medical imaging advancements, the multi-slice systems are generating large volumes of data, and this creates demand for data storage, 3-D visualization and analysis. As such, the global medical imaging industry is primed to experience significant growth through the next decade. This report surveys almost all of the companies known to be marketing, manufacturing or developing medical imaging equipment and supplies in the world. Each company is discussed in extensive depth with a section on its history, product line, business and marketing analysis, and a subjective commentary of the company's market position. Detailed tables and charts with sales forecasts and marketshare data are also included.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Overview 22
1.1 Statement of This Report 22
1.2 Scope of This Report 22
1.3 Methodology 23
1.4 Executive Summary 24

2. Medical Imaging Technologies: An Overview 26
2.1 X-Ray 26
2.1.1 Applications of X-Ray 26
2.2 Computed Radiography 27
2.3 Digital Radiography 28
2.4 Fluoroscopy and C-Arms Systems 29
2.4.1 Undercouch (Conventional) System 30
2.4.2 Overcouch (Remote-Controlled) Systems 30
2.4.3 Multipurpose Systems 31
2.4.4 Clinical Procedures Using Radiography/Fluoroscopy Systems 31
2.4.4.1 Barium Studies 31
2.4.4.2 Biopsy 31
2.4.4.3 Angiography 31
2.4.4.4 Other Clinical Procedures 32
2.4.5 The Available R/F Systems 32
2.4.6 The Available Overcouch R/F Systems 32
2.4.7 The Available Multipurpose R/F Systems 32
2.4.8 A Buyer’s Guide for C-Arm Systems 32
2.4.8.1 Procedure Room Layout 32
2.4.8.2 Procedures Using C-Arms Systems 33
2.4.8.3 Available C-Arms Systems 33
2.4.8.4 Comparison of C-Arms Systems 34
2.4.8.5 Popular C-Arms Brands 37
2.4.8.6 Return on Investment for C-Arm Systems 37
2.5 Mammography 38
2.5.1 Film/Screen Systems for Mammography 39
2.5.2 Full Field Digital Mammography 39
2.5.2.1 Clinical Applications of Mammography Systems 39
2.5.2.2 Components of a Mammography System 39
2.5.2.3 Comparison of Mammography Technologies 40
2.5.3 Selected Mammography Systems 40
2.5.3.1 The available FFDM systems 41
2.6 Bone Densitometry Scanners 41
2.6.1 Bone Densitometry Scanners: Purchase Options 42
2.7 Computed Tomography 44
2.7.1 Conventional CT Scanners 45
2.7.2 Spiral CT Scanners 45
2.7.3 Multislice CT Scanners 45
2.7.4 Electron Beam CT Scanners 45
2.7.6 Tube Voltage 46
2.7.7 Tube Current 46
2.7.8 Pitch 46
2.7.9 Gantry Rotation Time 46
2.7.10 Scan Volume 46
2.7.11 Dose Reduction and Optimization Strategies 46
2.7.12 Market Leaders in CT Scanners 46
2.7.13 16-Slice CT Scanners 50
2.7.14 32- to 40-Slice CT Scanners 50
2.7.15 64-Slice CT Scanners 51
2.7.16 64 Slice Cardiac CT Scanners 53
2.7.17 Wide Bore CT Scanners 54
2.7.18 Greater Than 64-Slice CT Scanners 55
2.8 MRI Scanners 56
2.8.1 Types of MRI Scanners 57
2.8.1.1 High-Field MRI Scanners 57
2.8.1.2 Low-Field MRI Scanners 57
2.8.1.3 Stand-Up/Upright MRI Scanners 58
2.8.2 Leading Vendors and their Models 58
2.8.3 Key Purchasing Factors to Consider 59
2.8.3.1 Technical Features 59
2.8.3.2 Ease of Use and Safety 60
2.8.3.3 MRI Machine Cost and Price 61
2.9 Ultrasound Scanners 62
2.9.1 Types of Ultrasound Imaging 62
2.10 Nuclear Imaging 64
2.10.1 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography 64
2.10.1.1 Advantages of SPECT Imaging 64
2.10.1.2 Disadvantages of SPECT Imaging 65
2.10.1.3 Medical Applications of SPECT Systems 65
2.10.1.4 Leading SPECT System Manufacturers 65
2.10.1.5 The Market Leading SPECT Systems 65
2.10.1.6 U.S. SPECT Statistics 66
2.10.1.7 Installed Devices and Patient Waiting Times in the U.S. for SPECT
Imaging 67
2.10.1.8 Projected Purchases of SPECT Systems in the U.S. 67
2.10.1.9 Radionuclides Used in SPECT Imaging 67
2.10.2 SPECT/CT 68
2.10.2.1 Clinical Applications of SPECT/CT 68
2.10.2.2 The Market Leading SPECT/CT Systems 68
2.10.3 Positron Emission Tomography 69
2.10.3.1 Medical Applications of PET 70
2.10.4 PET/CT 70
2.10.4.1 Clinical Applications of PET/CT in Oncology 70
2.10.4.2 Clinical Applications of PET/CT in Head and Neck Cancer 71
2.10.4.3 Clinical Applications of PET/CT in Lung Cancer 71
2.10.4.4 Clinical Applications of PET/CT in Breast Cancer 71
2.10.4.5 Clinical Application of PET/CT in Prostate Cancer 72
2.10.4.6 Clinical Application of PET/CT in Lymphomas 72
2.10.4.7 Clinical Application of PET/CT in Digestive Tract Tumors 72
2.10.4.8 Clinical Application of PET/CT in Cardiology 73
2.11 Nuclear Medicine 73
2.11.1 Diagnostic Techniques in Nuclear Medicine 73
2.11.2 Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals 73
2.11.2.1 Suppliers of Radioisotopes 74
2.11.2.2 Reactor Isotopes 75
2.11.2.3 Cyclotron Isotopes 76

3. Medical Indications for the Currently Available Imaging Modalities 78
3.1 Medical Imaging in Cancer Care 78
3.1.1 Global Incidence of Cancer 79
3.1.2 Incidence of Cancer in the U.S. 79
3.1.3 Cancer Incidence in Europe 81
3.1.4 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Oncology 81
3.2 Global Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases 82
3.2.1 Cardiovascular Diseases in the U.S. 83
3.2.2 Cardiovascular Disease in Europe 84
3.2.2.1 Mortality Due to Heart Diseases in Europe 85
3.2.3 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Cardiology 86
3.3 Global Incidence of Neurological Disorders 87
3.3.1 Neurological Diseases in the U.S. 87
3.3.2 Neurological Diseases in Europe 88
3.3.3 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Neurology 88
3.4 Musculoskeletal Disorders 89
3.4.1 Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Bone Scans 90

4. Medical Imaging: Market Analysis 91
4.1 Global Medical Imaging Market 91
4.1.1 Global Medical Imaging Market by Geography 92
4.1.2 Global Medical Imaging Market by Modality 93
4.1.3 Global Medical Imaging Market by Care Setting 94
4.1.4 U.S. Market for Medical Imaging Modalities 95
4.1.4.1 Cost of Hospital-Based Imaging Services in the U.S. 96
4.1.4.2 Cost of Imaging Procedures in Freestanding Imaging Centers in the U.S.
97
4.1.4.3 Hospital-Based vs. Freestanding Outpatient Imaging Services in the U.S.
98
4.1.4.4 Forecasting Imaging Volume under Healthcare Reform in the U.S. 99
4.1.4.5 Medical Imaging Forecast under Healthcare Reform in the U.S. 101
4.1.4.6 Medicare Spending for Imaging Services in the U.S. 104
4.1.4.7 Rapid Growth in CT and MRI Scans in Medicare Volume in the U.S. 104
4.1.4.8 The Declining Medicare Spending on Medical Imaging in the U.S. 105
4.1.4.9 Small Share of Imaging in Medicare Claims in the U.S. 107
4.1.4.10 Slow Growth of Medical Imaging in the U.S. 108
4.1.4.11 Historical Growth of Medical Imaging in the U.S. 108
4.1.4.12 Imaging-Center Chains in the U.S., 2012 109
4.1.5 Medical Imaging in Canada 119
4.1.5.1 Number of Selected Imaging Modalities in Canada 120
4.1.5.2 Segmentation of Diagnostic Imaging Equipment in Canada 125
4.1.6 Medical Imaging Market in Germany 126
4.1.7 Medical Imaging Market in France 127
4.1.8 Medical Imaging Market in Italy 128
4.1.9 Medical Imaging in Spain 129
4.1.10 Medical Imaging Market in the U.K. 130
4.1.10.1 Growth of Imaging Procedures in U.K. 131
4.1.10.2 Projected and Actual Replacement of CT Scanners in U.K. 132
4.1.10.3 Relative Strengths of Medical Imaging Market in Europe by Country 134
4.1.11 Growth of Medical Imaging in Pharmerging Markets 135
4.1.12 Medical Imaging Market in Asia/Pacific 136
4.1.12.1 Medical Imaging Market in Japan 137
4.1.12.2 Medical Imaging Market in China 138
4.1.12.3 Medical Imaging Market in South Korea 139
4.1.12.4 Medical Imaging Market in Australia 140
4.1.12.5 Medical Imaging Market in India 141
4.2 Global Market for X-Ray Systems 142
4.2.1 Growing Market for Mobile X-Ray Systems 143
4.2.2 Global Market for Fluoroscopy and Mobile C-Arms 144
4.2.3 Global Market for DR and CR X-Ray Systems 145
4.2.4 U.S. Market for X-Ray Systems 146
4.2.5 European Markets for General X-Ray Systems 147
4.2.6 X-Ray Market in China 148
4.2.7 Indian Market for X-Ray Systems 149
4.3 Global Market for Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems 150
4.3.1 Market Leaders in FFDM Systems 151
4.3.2 U.S. Market for Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems 152
4.4 Global Market for Bone Densitometry Systems 153
4.5 Global Market for CT Scanners 154
4.5.1 U.S. Market for CT Scanners 155
4.5.1.1 CT Systems by Slice Count in the U.S. 155
4.5.1.2 CT Utilization Rates in the U.S. 156
4.5.1.3 Increased CT Volume Growth in the U.S. 157
4.5.1.4 CT Procedure Growth in the U.S. 158
4.5.1.5 CT Utilization Percentage by System Age in the U.S. 159
4.5.1.6 Service Providers for CT Systems in the U.S. 160
4.5.1.7 CT Service Cost in the U.S. 160
4.5.1.8 The Average Age of CT Systems 161
4.5.1.9 Changes to Reimbursement for CT Imaging in the U.S., 2013 162
4.5.1.10 Number of Self-Referred and Non-Self Referred CT Services in the U.S.
162
4.5.1.11 Self-Referred and Non-Self-Referred CT Expenditure in the U.S. 163
4.5.2 Volume of CT Exams in Canada 163
4.5.3 European Market for CT Systems 164
4.5.3.1 Western European CT Market 165
4.5.3.2 CT Scanners in Austria and Switzerland by Slice Count 166
4.5.3.3 CT Scanners in Benelux by Slice Count 167
4.5.3.4 CT Scanners in France by Slice Count 167
4.5.3.5 CT Scanners in Germany by Slice Count 168
4.5.3.6 CT Scanners in Italy by Slice Count 168
4.5.3.7 CT Scanners in Spain and Portugal by Slice Count 169
4.5.3.8 CT Scanners in U.K. and Ireland by Slice Count 169
4.5.4 CT Exams in OECD Countries 170
4.5.4.1 CT Scanners in OECD Countries 170
4.5.5 CT Scanners Market in India 172
4.5.5.1 Indian CT Scanners Market by Segment 172
4.6 Global MRI Market 173
4.6.1 U.S. Market for MRI 174
4.6.1.1 Deployed MRI Systems by Field Strength in the U.S. 175
4.6.1.2 MRI Procedure Forecast in the U.S. 177
4.6.1.3 MRI Cost in the U.S. 177
4.6.1.4 MRI Utilization Percentage by System Age in the U.S. 177
4.6.1.5 Service Providers for MRI Systems in the U.S. 178
4.6.1.6 Average MRI Service Cost in the U.S. 179
4.6.1.7 Aging of Installed MRI Scanners in the U.S. 179
4.6.1.8 MRI Utilization Rates in the U.S. 180
4.6.1.9 Larger Increase among Self-Referred Services in MRI and CT 180
4.6.1.10 Utilization by Setting and Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Spending in
the U.S. 181
4.6.1.11 Number of Self-Referred and Non-Self-Referred MRI and CT Services in
the U.S. 181
4.6.1.12 Spending for MRI Services in the U.S. 182
4.6.1.13 CT and MRI Systems in Six States of the U.S. 183
4.6.1.14 Projected Revenue Increase for MRI and CT in the U.S. 183
4.6.1.15 Projected Need and Capacities for MRI and CT in Selected U.S. States
185
4.6.1.16 Number of MRI and CT Scans in the U.S. 185
4.6.2 Volume of MRI Exams in Canada 186
4.6.2.1 Wait Times for MRI Scans in Canada 187
4.6.3 European MRI Market 188
4.6.3.1 MRI and CT Exams in U.K. 189
4.6.3.2 Number of Imaging Machines Purchased by NHS 190
4.6.4 MRI: Installed Units in OECD Countries 191
4.6.4.1 MRI Exams in OECD Countries 193
4.6.5 Market for MRI Scanners in Japan 193
4.6.6 Market for MRI Systems in India 194
4.6.7 MRI Market in China 195
4.7 Global Market for Ultrasound Systems 196
4.7.1 Ultrasound Market by Clinical Specialties 197
4.7.2 Growth Rate for Ultrasound in Different Clinical Specialties 198
4.7.3 U.S. Ultrasound Market in Radiology 199
4.7.4 Ultrasound Market in Europe 200
4.7.5 Ultrasound Market in China 201
4.7.6 Indian Market for Ultrasound Equipment 202
4.7.6.1 Indian Ultrasound Equipment Market: Unit-Wise 203
4.7.6.2 Indian Color Doppler Equipment Market: Value-Wise 204
4.7.6.3 Indian Color Doppler Equipment Market: Unit-Wise 204
4.8 Global Market for Nuclear Imaging Systems 205
4.8.1 Global Nuclear Imaging Market Share by Vendor 206
4.8.2 U.S. Market for Nuclear Imaging Systems 206
4.8.3 European Market for Nuclear Imaging Systems 207
4.8.4 Global Market for PET Systems 209
4.8.4.1 PET and PET/CT Market by Geography 210
4.8.4.2 Growth Rate for PET in the Global Market 211
4.8.5 U.S. Market for PET Systems 212
4.8.5.1 Market for Refurbished PET Systems in the U.S. 213
4.8.5.2 Average Selling Price of Nuclear Equipment in the U.S. and U.K 213
4.8.5.3 Nuclear Medicine Procedure Volumes in the U.S. 214
4.8.5.4 Growth Rate for PET Medical Imaging in the U.S. 215
4.8.5.5 Distribution of PET Imaging Sites in the U.S. 217
4.8.5.6 Number of PET Imaging Sites and Clinical PET Patient Studies in the U.S.
217
4.8.5.7 Current PET Capability in the U.S. 218
4.8.5.8 The Installed Base of Fixed PET/CT and PET Scanners in the U.S. 222
4.8.5.9 Mobile vs. Fixed PET/CT or PET Sites in the U.S. 222
4.8.5.10 Fixed and Mobile PET/CT or PET Sites and Units 222
4.8.5.11 Growth in PET Patient Studies 222
4.8.5.12 Percentage of Sites Performing Research vs. Clinical Studies Using
PET/CT or PET 222
4.8.5.13 PET/CT and PET Oncology Study in the U.S. 222
4.8.5.14 Percent Distribution of PET/CT by Number of CT Slices in the U.S. 223
4.8.5.15 U.S. Cardiac PET/CT Market 224
4.8.6 Global Orders for PET/MR Systems 225
4.8.6.1 U.S. Orders for PET/MR 226
4.8.7 Status of PET Imaging in Canada 227
4.8.7.1 Funding for PET Scans in Canada 228
4.8.8 Growth of PET and PET/CT Centers in Europe 229
4.8.9 Growth of PET and PET/CT Centers in Emerging Markets 232
4.8.10 Indian Market for Nuclear Medicine Equipment 233
4.9 SPECT Market in the U.S. 234
4.9.1 Average Income from One SPECT Imaging System 235
4.9.2 SPECT in Canada 236

5. Relative Use of Imaging Modalities in Future 237

6. Company Profiles 239
6.1 3mensio Medical Imaging B.V. 239
6.1.1 CAAS A-Valve 239
6.1.2 CAAS QCA 239
6.1.3 CAAS QCA 2-D Bifurcation 239
6.1.4 CAAS QCA 3-D 240
6.1.5 CAAS QCA for Research 240
6.1.6 CAAS QVA 240
6.1.7 CAAS QVA 3-D 241
6.1.8 CAAS QVA for Research 241
6.1.9 CAAS LVA 241
6.1.10 CAAS RVA 241
6.1.11 CAAS MRV 242
6.1.12 CAAS MRV FARM 242
6.1.13 CAAS MR Flow 242
6.1.14 3mensio Aortic Root 242
6.1.15 3mensio Mitral Valve 243
6.1.16 3mensio Vascular 243
6.1.17 3-D Visual Component 243
6.1.18 CAAS Intravascular 244
6.2 Agfa Healthcare NV 244
6.2.1 IMPAX Business Intelligence 244
6.2.2 Cardiology Entry Level Solution 244
6.2.3 Cloud and Managed Services 244
6.2.4 CR 10-X 245
6.2.5 CR 12-X 245
6.2.6 CR 30-X 245
6.2.7 CR 30-Xm 245
6.2.8 DX-G 246
6.2.9 DX-M 246
6.2.10 Conventional Imaging and Processing 246
6.2.11 SKINTELL 246
6.2.12 IMPAX Orthopedic Tools 247
6.2.13 IMPAX PET/CT Viewing 247
6.2.14 IMPAX Virtual Colonoscopy 247
6.2.15 IMPAX Volume Viewing 247
6.2.16 IMPAX X-Ray Angio Analysis 247
6.2.17 Oasis for IMPAX 247
6.2.18 OrthoView for IMPAX 248
6.2.19 DX-D Retrofit 248
6.2.20 DX-D 100 248
6.2.21 DX-D 300 249
6.2.22 DX-D 400 249
6.2.23 DX-D 600 250
6.2.24 DX-D 800 250
6.2.25 DX-D 10 250
6.2.26 DX-D 20 251
6.2.27 DX-D 25C 251
6.2.28 DX-D 30C 251
6.2.29 DX-D 35C 251
6.3 B-K Medical ApS 252
6.3.1 Flex Focus 800 252
6.3.2 Flex Focus 500 253
6.3.3 Flex Focus 400 253
6.3.4 UltraView 800 254
6.3.5 Flex Focus 400 254
6.3.6 Flex Focus 200 255
6.4 Canon U.S.A., Inc. 255
6.4.1 Digital Detectors 255
6.4.2 Digital Radiography Solutions 256
6.4.2.1 RadPRO FM 256
6.4.2.2 RadPRO ELITE 256
6.4.2.3 RadPRO URS 256
6.4.3 Digital Radiography and Fluoroscopy Solution 257
6.4.3.1 RadPRO D2-50RF 257
6.5 Biosound Esaote, Inc. 257
6.5.1 Ultrasound Solutions 258
6.5.1.1 MyLab Twice 258
6.5.1.2 MyLab ClassC 258
6.5.1.3 MyLab Gold Platform 258
6.5.1.4 MyLab Seven 259
6.5.1.5 MyLab 50 Family 259
6.5.1.6 MyLab 40 Family 259
6.5.1.7 MyLab Alpha 260
6.5.1.8 MyLab 30 Gold Cardiovascular 260
6.5.1.9 MyLab 30CV 260
6.5.1.10 MyLab 25 Gold 261
6.5.1.11 MyLab 25 261
6.5.1.12 MyLab 20 Plus 261
6.5.1.13 MyLab 15/20 Family 262
6.5.1.14 MyLab Five 262
6.5.1.15 MyLab One 262
6.5.1.16 MyLab Guide 263
6.5.2 Dedicated Musculoskeletal MRI 263
6.5.2.1 G-Scan Brio 263
6.5.2.2 G-Scan 264
6.5.2.3 O-Scan 264
6.5.2.4 S-Scan 264
6.5.2.5 Opera 265
6.5.2.6 C-Scan 265
6.6 GE Healthcare 265
6.6.1 Bone Health Imaging Products 266
6.6.1.1 Lunar iDXA 266
6.6.1.2 Prodigy 266
6.6.1.3 DPX Bravo 267
6.6.1.4 DPX NT 267
6.6.2 Computed Tomography Products 267
6.6.2.1 Discovery CT 750 HD FREEdom Edition 267
6.6.2.2 Optima CT660 FREEdom Edition 268
6.6.2.3 Optima CT660 268
6.6.2.4 Optima CT540 269
6.6.2.5 Optima CT580 W 269
6.6.2.6 BrightSpeed Elite 270
6.6.2.7 Discovery CT590 RT 270
6.6.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 271
6.6.3.1 Discovery MR750w 3.0T 271
6.6.3.2 Optima MR450w 1.5T with GEM Suite 271
6.6.3.3 Optima MR430s 1.5T 271
6.6.3.4 Optima MR360 1.5T 272
6.6.3.5 Brivo MR355 1.5T 272
6.6.3.6 Signa HDxt 3.0T 273
6.6.4 Mammography Systems 273
6.6.4.1 Senographe Essential 273
6.6.4.2 Senographe Essential e 274
6.6.4.3 Senographe Care 274
6.6.4.4 Senographe DS 274
6.6.5 Nuclear Imaging 275
6.6.5.1 Optima PET/CT 560 275
6.6.5.2 Discovery PET/CT 710 275
6.6.5.3 Discovery PET/CT 610 275
6.6.6 Fixed RAD Systems 276
6.6.6.1 Discovery XR 656 276
6.6.6.2 Definium 5000 276
6.6.6.3 Proteus XR/a 277
6.6.6.4 Brivo XR 385 277
6.6.7 Mobile X-Ray Systems 277
6.6.7.1 Optima XR 220 amx 277
6.6.7.2 Optima XR 200 amx 278
6.6.7.3 Brivo XR 285 amx 278
6.6.8 Radiography and Fluoroscopy 279
6.6.8.1 Precision 500D 279
6.6.8.2 Precision RXi 279
6.6.9 Surgical Imaging Systems 279
6.6.9.1 OEC 9900 Elite Mobile C-Arm 279
6.6.9.2 OEC 9800 Plus 280
6.6.9.3 InstalTrak 3500 Plus 280
6.6.9.4 Nu BOOM M4 281
6.6.9.5 Nu BOOM M2 281
6.6.10 Ultrasound Systems 282
6.3.10.1 Vscan Pocket Ultrasound 282
6.6.10.2 LOGIQ S8 282
6.6.10.3 LOGIQ P5 283
6.6.10.4 LOGIQ E9 283
6.6.10.5 LOGIQ P6 284
6.6.10.6 LOGIQ e 284
6.6.10.7 Venue 40 284
6.6.10.8 LOGIQ BOOK XP Enhanced 285
6.6.10.9 LOGIQ P3 285
6.6.10.10 LOGIQ S7 286
6.6.10.11 LOGIQ A5 286
6.6.10.12 Voluson E8 Expert 286
6.6.10.13 Voluson i 287
6.6.10.14 Voluson E6 287
6.6.10.15 Voluson S8 288
6.6.10.16 Voluson e 288
6.6.10.17 Voluson S6 289
6.6.10.18 Voluson 730 289
6.6.10.19 Vivid E9 290
6.6.10.20 Vivid i 290
6.6.10.21 Vivid S6 290
6.6.10.22 Vivid e 291
6.6.10.23 Vivid q 291
6.6.10.24 Vivid S5 291
6.7 Hologic, Inc. 292
6.7.1 Digital Mammography 292
6.7.1.1 Dimensions 292
6.7.1.2 Selenia Digital Mammography 293
6.7.1.3 SecurView 293
6.7.1.4 M-Series Analog Mammography 293
6.7.1.5 StreoLoc 294
6.7.1.6 Affinity 294
6.7.2 Breast MRI Sentinelle Coil 294
6.7.3 Bone Densitometry 295
6.7.3.1 Discovery 295
6.7.3.2 Explorer 295
6.7.3.3 Delphi 296
6.7.3.4 QDR-4500 DOS Series 296
6.7.4 Min C-Arm Systems 296
6.7.4.1 Premier Encore 296
6.7.4.2 InSight 297
6.7.5 Extremity MRI 297
6.7.5.1 C-Scan 297
6.7.5.2 E-Scan XQ 298
6.7.5.3 Opera 298
6.8 Philips Healthcare 298
6.8.1 CT Scanners 299
6.8.1.1 Brilliance iCT Scanner 299
6.8.1.2 Ingenuity CT Scanner 300
6.8.1.3 Brilliance CT 64-Channel Scanner 301
6.8.1.4 Brilliance CT 16-Slice 301
6.8.1.5 MX 16FVO CT Scanner 302
6.8.1.6 Brilliance CT - Big Bore Radiology Configuration 302
6.8.1.7 MultiDiagnost Eleva 303
6.8.1.8 EasyDiagnost Eleva DRF 303
6.8.1.9 Juno DRF 304
6.8.2 MRI Scanners 304
6.8.2.1 Ingenia 3.0T MRI 304
6.8.2.2 Achieva 3.0TTX MRI 305
6.8.2.3 Achieva 3.0T X-Series MRI 305
6.8.2.4 Ingenia 1.5T 305
6.8.2.5 Panorama HFO 306
6.8.2.6 Achieva 1.5T A-Series 306
6.8.2.7 Achieva 1.5T SE 307
6.8.3 Mobile C-Arms 307
6.8.3.1 Veradius Neo 307
6.8.3.2 BV Pulsera 308
6.8.3.3 BV Endura 308
6.8.4 Nuclear Medicine 309
6.8.4.1 BrightView XCT 309
6.8.4.2 BrightView X 309
6.8.4.3 CardioMD 310
6.8.5 Digital Radiography 310
6.8.5.1 DigitalDiagnost 310
6.8.5.2 MobileDiagnost wDR 311
6.8.5.3 EasyDiagnost Eleva DRF 311
6.8.6 Cardiology Ultrasound 312
6.8.6.1 iE33 xMATRIX Echocardiography System 312
6.8.6.2 CX50 xMATRIX CompactXtreme Ultrasound System 313
6.8.6.3 HD15 PureWave Ultrasound System 314
6.8.6.4 CX30 CompactXtreme Ultrasound System 314
6.8.6.5 HD 11 XE Ultrasound System 315
6.8.6.6 HD7 XE 316
6.8.6.7 HD7 Ultrasound System 317
6.8.6.8 HD6 Ultrasound System 318
6.8.6.9 ClearVue 550 Ultrasound System 319
6.8.6.10 ClearVue 350 Ultrasound System 320
6.8.7 Ultrasound Systems for Critical Care 321
6.8.7.1 SparQ Ultrasound System 321
6.8.8 Women’s Healthcare 322
6.8.8.1 MicroDose SI Mammography 322
6.8.8.2 iU22 xMATRIX Ultrasound System 322
6.8.8.3 Elite Breast MRI 323
6.9 Positron Corporation 323
6.9.1 Attrius 323
6.9.2 PosiRx 324
6.9.3 Radiopharmaceuticals 324
6.9.4 Radioisotopes 325
6.9.5 Tech-Assist 326
6.10 Siemens Healthcare 326
6.10.1 Siemen’s Universal Angiography Systems 326
6.10.1.1 Artis Zeego 326
6.10.1.2 Artis Zee (Ceiling-Mounted System) 327
6.10.1.3 Artis Zee (Floor-Mounted System) 327
6.10.2 Neuro-Angiography Systems 327
6.10.2.1 Artis Zee Biplane System 327
6.10.2.2 Artis Zee Multipurpose System 328
6.10.3 Computed Tomography Systems 328
6.10.3.1 SOMATOM Definition Flash 328
6.10.4 Multislice CT Systems 328
6.10.4.1 SOMATOM Definition Edge 328
6.10.4.2 SOMATOM Definition AS 329
6.10.4.3 SOMATOM Perspective 329
6.10.4.4 SOMATOM Sensation 330
6.10.4.5 SOMATOM Emotion 330
6.10.4.6 SOMATOM Spirit 330
6.10.4.7 SOMATOM Sensation Open 331
6.10.5 Fluoroscopy 331
6.10.5.1 The New Luminos dRF 331
6.10.5.2 Luminos Agile 332
6.10.5.3 Artis Zee (Multipurpose System) 332
6.10.6 MRI Systems 332
6.10.6.1 MAGNETOM Aera 1.5T 332
6.10.6.2 MAGNETOM Skyra 333
6.10.6.3 MAGNETOM Espree 1.5T 333
6.10.6.4 MAGNETOM Verio 3T 334
6.10.6.5 MAGNETOM Avanto 1.5T 334
6.10.6.6 MAGNETOM Spectra 3T 335
6.10.6.7 MAGNETOM C! 0.35T 335
6.10.6.8 MAGNETOM Essenza 1.5T 336
6.10.6.9 Biograph mMR 336
6.10.7 PET/CT Systems 337
6.10.7.1 New Biograph mCT 337
6.10.7.2 Biograph mCT 20 Excel 337
6.10.7.3 Biograph TruePoint PET/CT 337
6.10.8 SPECT andamp; SPECT/CT Systems 338
6.10.8.1 Symbia T Series 338
6.10.9 Radiography Systems 338
6.10.9.1 Digital X-Ray Ysio 338
6.10.9.2 Multix Fusion 339
6.10.9.3 Mobilett Mira 339
6.10.9.4 Mobilett HP Digital 339
6.10.9.5 Mobilett XP Hybrid 340
6.10.10 Surgical C-Arms and Navigation Systems 340
6.10.10.1 Arcadis Avantic 340
6.10.10.2 Arcadis Orbic 3-D 341
6.10.10.3 Arcadis Orbic 341
6.10.10.4 Arcadis Varic 341
6.10.10.5 Siremobil Compact L 342
6.10.11 Cardiovascular Ultrasound Systems 342
6.10.11.1 Acuson SC2000 342
6.10.11.2 Acuson S2000 343
6.10.11.3 Acuson S2000 Cardiovascular 343
6.10.11.4 Acuson X700 343
6.10.11.5 Acuson X300 344
6.10.11.6 Acuson P300 344
6.10.11.7 Acuson P10 345
6.11 Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation 345
6.11.1 Computed Tomography Systems 345
6.11.1.1 Aquilion ONE VISION Edition 345
6.11.1.2 Aquilion ONE 346
6.11.1.3 Aquilion PRIME 346
6.11.1.4 Aquilion CXL-Series 347
6.11.1.5 Aquilion LB 347
6.11.1.6 Alexion 348
6.11.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 348
6.11.2.1 Vantage Titan 348
6.11.2.2 Vantage Atlas 349
6.11.2.3 Vantage 349
6.11.3 Ultrasound Systems 350
6.11.3.1 Artida 4-D 350
6.11.3.2 Artida 2-D 350
6.11.3.3 Aplio CV 351
6.11.3.4 Aplio 500 351
6.11.3.5 Aplio 400 351
6.11.3.6 Aplio 300 352
6.11.3.7 Xario 352
6.11.3.8 Viamo 352
6.11.3.9 Nemio MX 353
6.11.4 X-Ray Systems 353
6.11.4.1 Infinix CF-i/SP 353
6.11.4.2 Infinix CC-i 353
6.11.4.3 Infinix VF-i/BP 354
6.11.4.4 Infinix VC-i 354
6.11.4.5 Infinix DP-i 354
6.11.4.6 Ultimax-i 355
6.11.4.7 Zexira FPD Version 355
6.11.4.8 ZEXIRA I.I. Version 356
6.11.4.9 Winscope Plessart 356
6.11.4.10 Plessart VIVO 357
6.11.4.11 Radrex-i 357
6.11.4.12 Clearscope 1000 358
6.11.4.13 IME 100 L 358
6.12 Siemens Healthcare 359
6.12.1 Siemens’ Products for Interventional Radiology 359
6.12.1.1 Artis Zee Biplane System 359
6.12.1.2 Artis Zeego 360
6.12.1.3 Artis Zee Ceiling-Mounted System 360
6.12.1.4 Artis Zee Floor-Mounted System 360
6.12.2 Siemens’ Interventional Cardiology Products 361
6.12.2.1 Artis Zeego Multi-Axis System 361
6.12.2.2 Artis Zee Magnetic Navigation System 361
6.12.3 Computed Tomography from Siemens 362
6.12.3.1 SOMATOM Definition Flash 362
6.12.3.2 SOMATOM Definition Edge 362
6.12.3.3 SOMATOM Perspective 362
6.12.3.4 SOMATOM Spirit 363
6.12.3.5 SOMATOM Definition AS 363
6.12.3.6 SOMATOM Emotion 363
6.12.4 Fluoroscopy Offering from Siemens 364
6.12.4.1 Luminos dRF 364
6.12.4.2 Luminos Select 364
6.12.4.3 Luminos Fusion 364
6.12.4.4 Luminos RF Classic 365
6.12.4.5 Luminos Agile 365
6.12.5 MRI from Siemens 365
6.12.5.1 MAGNETOM Aera 365
6.12.5.2 MAGNETOM Avanto 366
6.12.5.3 MAGNETOM Essenza 366
6.12.5.4 Mobile MRI 366
6.12.5.5 MAGNETOM Espree 367
6.12.5.6 MAGNETOM Espree-Pink 367
6.12.5.7 MAGNETOM C! 0.35T 367
6.12.5.8 MAGNETOM Skyra 367
6.12.5.9 MAGNETOM Spectra 368
6.12.5.10 MAGNETOM Verio 368
6.12.5.11 MAGNETOM Trio 368
6.12.5.12 Biograph mMR 369
6.12.6 Mammography 369
6.12.6.1 MAMMOMAT Inspiration 369
6.12.7 Molecular Imaging 369
6.12.7.1 Biograph mCT 369
6.12.7.2 Biograph TruePoint PET/CT 370
6.12.7.3 Biograph mCT 20 Excel 370
6.12.7.4 Symbia T Series SPECT/CT 370
6.12.7.5 Symbia S 371
6.12.7.6 Symbia E 371
6.12.7.7 c.cam 371
6.12.8 Radiopharmaceuticals 372
6.12.8.1 Eclipse HP Cyclotron 372
6.12.8.2 Explora FDG4 372
6.12.8.3 Explora FM 372
6.12.8.4 Explora GN 373
6.12.8.5 Explora LC 373
6.12.9 Digital X-Ray 373
6.12.9.1 Ysio 373
6.12.9.2 Multix Fusion 374
6.12.9.3 Mobilett Mira 374
6.12.10 Surgical C-Arms and Navigation 374
6.12.10.1 ARCADIS Orbic 3-D 374
6.12.10.2 ARCADIS Orbic 375
6.12.10.3 ARCADIS Varic 375
6.12.10.4 ARCADIS Avantic 375
6.12.10.5 SIREMOBIL Compact L 375
6.12.10.6 NaviLink 376
6.12.11 Cardiovascular Ultrasound 376
6.12.11.1 ACUSON SC2000 376
6.12.11.2 ACUSON X300 PE 376
6.12.11.3 ACUSON P10 377
6.12.11.4 ACUSON S2000 377
6.12.11.5 ACUSON P300 377
6.12.12 OB/GYN 378
6.12.12.1 ACUSON S3000 378
6.12.12.2 ACUSON X150 378
6.12.12.3 ACUSON Antares 379
6.12.13 Radiology 379
6.12.13.1 ACUSON S2000 ABVS 379
6.12.13.2 ACUSON S1000 380
6.12.13.3 ACUSON X700 380
6.12.14 Point-of-Care 380
6.12.14.1 ACUSON Freestyle 380
6.13 Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation 381
6.13.1 Computwed Tomography 381
6.13.1.1 Aquilion ONE 381
6.13.1.2 Aquilion ONE VISION 381
6.13.1.3 Aquilion PRIME 382
6.13.1.4 Aquilion CXL-Series 382
6.13.1.5 Aquilion RXL Series 383
6.13.1.6 Aquilion LB 383
6.13.1.7 Alexion Advance Edition 383
6.13.1.8 Alexion 384
6.13.2 MRI 384
6.13.2.1 Vantage Titan 384
6.13.2.2 Vantage Atlas 384
6.13.2.3 Vantage 385
6.13.3 Ultrasound 385
6.13.3.1 Artida 4-D 385
6.13.3.2 Artida 2-D 385
6.13.3.3 Aplio CV 386
6.13.3.4 Aplio 500 386
6.13.3.5 Aplio 400 387
6.13.3.6 Aplio 300 387
6.13.3.7 Xario 387
6.13.3.8 Viamo 388
6.13.3.9 Nemio MX 388
6.13.4 X-Ray 388
6.13.4.1 Infinix CF-i/SP 388
6.13.4.2 Infinix CF-i/BP 389
6.13.4.3 Infinix CC-i 389
6.13.4.4 Infinix VF-i/BP 389
6.13.4.5 Infinix VC-i 389
6.13.4.6 Infinix DP-i 390
6.13.4.7 Ultimax-i 390
6.13.4.8 Zexira FPD Vertsion 390
6.13.4.9 Zexira I.I 391
6.13.4.10 Winscope Plessart 391
6.13.4.11 Plessart VIVO 391
6.13.4.12 Radrex-i 392
6.13.4.13 Radrex 392
6.13.4.14 Clearscope 1000 392
6.13.4.15 IME-100L 393


APPENDIX

Appendix 1: The Market Outlook for Refurbished Medical Devices 394
Appendix 1.1: Regulatory Scenario for Refurbished Medical Devices 394
Appendix 1.2: Refurbished Medical Devices by Product Segment 394
Appendix 1.3: Opportunity for Refurbished Medical Devices by Country 395
Appendix 1.3.1: Global Market for Refurbished Medical Devices 396
Appendix 1.4: Countries with a Positive Environment for Regulatory Devices 398
Appendix 1.4.1: Countries that Discourage the Purchase of Refurbished Medical
Devices 399
Appendix 1.4.2: Countries Restricting the Import of Refurbished Medical Devices
400
Appendix 1.4.3: Countries that Ban the Import of Refurbished Medical Devices 400
Appendix 1.5: Refurbished CT Scanner Market 400
Appendix 1.6: Refurbished MRI Scanner Market 401
Appendix 1.7: Refurbished Ultrasound Scanner Market 401
Appendix 1.8: Refurbished C-Arm Market 401
Appendix 1.9: Market for Refurbished Medical Devices in the U.S. 401
Appendix 1.10: Market for Refurbished Medical Devices in Western Europe 402
Appendix 1.10.1: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Benelux 402
Appendix 1.10.2: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in France 402
Appendix 1.10.3: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Germany 402
Appendix 1.10.4: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Italy 403
Appendix 1.10.5: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Scandinavia
403
Appendix 1.10.6: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Spain 403
Appendix 1.10.7: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in the U.K. 403
Appendix 1.11: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Canada 404
Appendix 1.12: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Brazil 404
Appendix 1.13: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Brazil 405
Appendix 1.14: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in South Africa 405
Appendix 1.15: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Russia 405
Appendix 1.16: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in India 406
Appendix 1.17: Opportunities for Refurbished Medical Devices in Romania 406
Appendix 2: Long-Term Global Demand for Technetium-99m 407
Appendix 2.1: Substitution of Tc 407
Appendix 2.2: Alternatives for Substitution 407
Appendix 2.3: Stability of Tc Supply 408
Appendix 2.4: Determinants of Change 411
Appendix 2.4.1: Drivers of Increased Demand for Tc 411
Appendix 2.4.2: Major Drivers of Decreased Demand for Tc 413
Appendix 2.5: Global Trends in Tc Demand 414
Appendix 2.5.2: Availability of Cameras 414
Appendix 2.5.3: The SPECT/PET Shift 416
Appendix 2.6: New Radiopharmaceuticals 417
Appendix 2.6.1: Demand Scenario 417
Appendix 2.6.1.1: Key Results of the Survey 417
Appendix 2.6.1.2: Scenario of Tc Demand 418
Appendix 3: X-Ray Usage and Safety 419
Appendix 3.1: Radiation 419
Appendix 3.1.1: Radiation in Medical Imaging 419
Appendix 3.2: Ionizing Radiation: Basic Concepts 423
Appendix 3.2.1: Action of Ionizing Radiation 423
Appendix 3.2.2: Regulatory Agencies and Radiation Effects 423
Appendix 3.2.3: Ionization Radiation: Quantification, Exposure and Risk 424
Appendix 3.2.4: Ionization Radiation: Proper Protection 425
Appendix 3.2.5: Ionizing Radiation: The Pregnant Patient 426
Appendix 3.3: Alternative Non-Radiation Imaging Modalities 428
Appendix 3.3.1: Ultrasound Imaging 428
Appendix 3.3.2: Magnetic Resonance Imaging 429
Appendix 4: Basic Principles of CT Scanning 430
Appendix 4.1: Field of Use 432
Appendix 4.2: Technical Considerations 432
Appendix 4.3: Total Scan Time and Scan Length 433
Appendix 4.3.1: Clinical Requirements 433
Appendix 4.3.2: Gantry Rotation Time 433
Appendix 4.3.3: Detector Array Length 433
Appendix 4.3.4: X-Ray Tube 436
Appendix 4.3.5: Image Quality 436
Appendix 4.3.6: Spatial Resolution 437
Appendix 4.3.7: Contrast Resolution 439
Appendix 4.3.8: Temporal Resolution 439
Appendix 4.3.9: Image Artifacts 441
Appendix 4.3.10: Ionizing Radiation and Patient Dose 442
Appendix 4.3.11: Over-Beaming 443
Appendix 4.3.12: Over-Ranging in Helical Scanning 444
Appendix 4.3.13: Automatic Tube Current Control in CT 445
Appendix 4.3.14: Cardiac Scanning 445
Appendix 4.4: Installation 446
Appendix 4.4.1: Scanner Location 446
Appendix 4.4.2: Room Requirements 446
Appendix 4.4.3: Ancillary Equipment 447
Appendix 4.4.4: Patient Workflow 447
Appendix 4.4.5: Staffing 448
Appendix 4.4.6: Cardiac Procedures 449
Appendix 4.4.7: Information Workflow 449
Appendix 5: Medical Imaging Systems’ Service 451
Appendix 5.1: Service Options 451
Appendix 5.2: Benchmarking Costs 452
Appendix 5.3: Cost-Reduction Opportunities 453
Appendix 5.4: Assessing Costs 453
Appendix 5.5: Guide to Managing Costs 454


INDEX OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: The U.S. Market Share of C-Ar

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