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Advanced Technologies for Municipal Water Treatment

  • August 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 181 pages

This BCC Research report provides an in-depth analysis of the market for advanced municipal drinking water treatment. Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years.Industry structure, technological trends, pricing considerations, R&D, government regulations, company profiles, and competitive technologies are included in the study.

Use this report to:
- Examine the market for four categories of advanced municipal water treatment: membrane filtration, ultraviolet irradiation, ozone disinfection, and some novel advanced
oxidation processes.
- Learn about the industry's structure, technological trends, pricing considerations, R&D, and government regulations.
- Identify technical and market drivers in order to evaluate the current value of the technologies and to receive forecast growth trends.

Highlights
- The U.S. market for advanced municipal water treatment technologies was valued at about $2.1 billion in 2013. The market is expected to reach nearly $2.3 billion in 2014 and $3.2 billion in 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.4% for the five-year period, 2014 to 2019.
- The total market for membrane filtration systems used in U.S. potable water treatment is expected to increase from $1.7 billion in 2014 to $2.4 billion in 2019, a CAGR of 7.4% for the five-year period 2014 to 2019.
- The U.S. market value of advanced disinfection systems is expected to increase from $555 million in 2014 to $797 million in 2019, a CAGR of 7.5% for the five-year period 2014 to 2019.

INTRODUCTION
Depending upon the source and what is included in the estimate, the global market for water and wastewater treatment equipment is reportedly valued at $500 billion to
$600 billion. Between $80 billion and $95 billon is related specifically to equipment. According to the United Nations’ Fifth World Water Development Report (2014), up to
$148 billion will need to be invested worldwide in water supplies and wastewater services annually to 2025. That figure reflects chronic underinvestment in water infrastructure. This problem is manifest not only in the developing world, but also in advanced economies, which will need to make considerable investments in the coming
years just to maintain services. The majority of expenditures for water treatment are for conventional water equipment and chemicals; however, an ever growing percentage relates to advanced treatment technologies, including membrane filtration, ultraviolet irradiation, ozone disinfection, and some novel disinfectant systems.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
This BCC Research marketing report provides an in-depth analysis of the market for advanced municipal drinking water treatment. These methods include membrane filtration, ultraviolet irradiation, ozone disinfection, and a few emerging novel processes. These so-called advanced technologies are known as “advanced” due to their improved effectiveness against a growing range of regulated drinking water contaminants, their decreased production of waste, their nonhazardous properties, their diminished demand for chemical additives, and sometimes their lower energy requirements.

Municipal drinking water treatments, whether physical, biological, or chemical processes, range in sophistication from ancient sieving methods to state-of-the-art computer-controlled techniques. Conventional drinking water treatment is accomplished by methods hundreds of years old. Processes consist of one or more of the following steps: flocculation and sedimentation, in which small particles coagulate into larger ones and settle out of the water stream; rapid sand filtration, to remove remaining particles; and disinfection with chlorine, to kill microbes. None of the traditional technologies will be evaluated in this report except to make comparisons to advanced treatments. Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure, and dynamics along with technological developments.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
This report is intended for those who require a thorough analysis of the advanced municipal drinking water treatment industry. It traces significant developments and forecasts important trends, quantifies the various market sectors, and profiles companies active in those areas. Because of the fragmented nature of the industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather extensive data from diverse resources and analyze it in the context of a comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of information and conclusions that is difficult to find elsewhere.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This comprehensive report aims to provide those interested in investment, acquisition, or expansion into the advanced drinking water treatment market with specific, detailed information crucial to making educated decisions. Senior marketing personnel, venture capitalists, executive planners, research directors, government officials, and suppliers to the water industry who want to discover and exploit current or projected market niches should find this report of value. Nonindustry readers who wish to understand how regulations, market pressures, and technology interact in the arena also will find this study worthwhile.

SCOPE OF REPORT
This report examines the market for four categories of advanced municipal water treatment: membrane filtration, ultraviolet irradiation, ozone disinfection, and some
novel advanced oxidation processes. Five-year projections are provided for market activity and value. Industry structure, technological trends, pricing considerations, R&D,
government regulations, company profiles, and competitive technologies are included in the study. The report is primarily a study of the U.S. market, but due to the international presence of some industry participants, global activities are included when appropriate.

METHODOLOGY
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. A comprehensive literature, patent, and Internet search was undertaken and key
industry players were queried. Research methodology was both quantitative and qualitative. Growth rates were calculated based on existing and proposed equipment
sales for each of the advanced methods during the forecast period. A key table in the report’s overview presents the average capital cost per gallon of water treated by
technology type. These figures then were multiplied by anticipated treatment capacity additions during the survey period. Consumables used in the processes, replacement membranes, UV lamps, and so on, were also taken into account. Values are given in U.S. dollars; forecasts are made in constant U.S. dollars, and growth rates are compounded. Calculations for system sales do not include design or engineering costs.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Information in this report was gleaned from many different sources. SEC filings, annual reports, patent literature, business, scientific, and industry journals, government
reports, census information, conference literature, patent documents, online resources, and industry participants have all been researched. Information from the following industry associations also was reviewed: American Membrane Technology Association, American Water Works Association, International Desalination Association, International Ozone Association, International Ultraviolet Association, Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association, Water Environment Federation, and the Water Quality Association.

Table Of Contents

Advanced Technologies for Municipal Water Treatment
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED MUNICIPAL WATER
TREATMENTS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED MUNICIPAL WATER
TREATMENT, 2002-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY AND ASSESSMENT 10
TABLE 1 TOTAL 20-YEAR NEED BY SYSTEM SIZE, SYSTEM TYPE, AND PROJECT TYPE
($ BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 11
FIGURE 1 TOTAL 20-YEAR NEED BY SYSTEM SIZE, SYSTEM TYPE, AND PROJECT
TYPE ($ BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 11
NEEDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SDWA 13
TABLE 2 TOTAL 20-YEAR NATIONAL REGULATORY NEED TO COMPLY WITH SWDA ($
BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 13
Existing Regulations 13
Microbial Contaminants 13
Chemical Contaminants 14
Proposed or Recently Promulgated Regulatory Needs 14
TABLE 3 TOTAL NATIONAL 20-YEAR NEED FOR PROPOSED AND RECENTLY
PROMULGATED REGULATIONS ($ BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 14
Upcoming Regulatory Actions 15
TABLE 4 SCHEDULE FOR UPCOMING REGULATORY ACTIONS 15
Actions Expected in 2014 and 2015 15
Actions Expected Beyond 2015 16
FEDERAL INVESTMENT IN CLEAN WATER 17
WIFIA 18
The Private Activity Bond Initiative 18
STATE BUDGETS 18
ECOS SURVEY 19
MUNICIPAL BUDGETS 19
WATER AVAILABILITY AND USAGE IN THE U.S. 19
PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY 20
COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS 20
TABLE 5 TRENDS IN U.S. WATER USE THROUGH 2005, (BILLION GALLONS PER DAY) 20
CLIMATE CHANGE 21
POTABLE WATER COST 21
CAPITAL COSTS OF ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 22
TABLE 6 CAPITAL COSTS OF ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT, BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE (AVERAGE $ PER GALLON, BY PLANT SIZE) 22
WATER REUSE 23
HISTORY OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT 24
TABLE 7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT, 4000 B.C.-2011 24
OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 26
ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION 26
TABLE 8 ETV DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS EVALUATIONS, 1999-2013 26
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS 28
Particle Filtration 28
Disinfection 29
Disinfection Byproducts 29
Trihalomethanes 29
Haloacetic Acids 30
Alternate Forms of Chlorine 30
Alternatives to Chlorine 30
Ozone 30
Ultraviolet Light 30
TABLE 9 COMPARISON OF DISINFECTION METHODS 31
Membrane Filtration 31
CONTINUED RELIANCE ON CHLORINE 31
TABLE 10 DISINFECTION METHODS USED BY WATER TREATMENT PLANTS (%) 32
FIGURE 2 DISINFECTION METHODS USED BY WATER TREATMENT PLANTS (%) 32
THE COSTS OF CONVERTING TO NON-CHLORINE DISINFECTION 33
TABLE 11 COST OF CONVERTING TO NON-CHLORINE ALTERNATIVES AT MUNICIPAL
DRINKING WATER PLANTS ($ THOUSANDS) 34
FIGURE 3 INVESTMENT COST OF CONVERTING TO NON-CHLORINE ALTERNATIVES
AT MEDIUM SIZE MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER PLANTS ($ THOUSANDS) 35
TABLE 12 FORMS OF CHLORINE IN USE AS PRIMARY TREATMENT AT DRINKING
WATER PLANTS, 2013 (%) 35
FIGURE 4 FORMS OF CHLORINE IN USE AS PRIMARY TREATMENT AT DRINKING
WATER PLANTS, 2013 (%) 35
THE MULTI-BARRIER APPROACH 36
REGULATORY CLIMATE 37
SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT 37
TABLE 13 NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS 37
TABLE 14 NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS 42
1996 Amendments to the SDWA 43
LT1ESWTR, LT2ESWTR 43
THE STAGE 2 DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS RULE 44
Groundwater Rule 44
Drinking Water Contaminant Candidates 45
TABLE 15 DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST 3 45
Emerging Pathogens 52
Adenoviruses 52
Caliciviruses 52
Coxsackieviruses 52
Echoviruses 52
Helicobacter pylori 53
Mycobacterium avium complex 53
Emerging Inorganic Contaminants 53
Perchlorate 53
Emerging Organic Contaminants 54
MTBE 54
Endocrine Disrupters, Pharmaceuticals, and Other Organic
Contaminants 54
TABLE 16 CCL3-LISTED CONTAMINANTS WITHOUT SUITABLE ANALYTICAL
METHODS FOR NATIONAL DRINKING WATER OCCURRENCE STUDIES (AS OF
SEPTEMBER 2010)
55
CHEMICAL SECURITY 56
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 56
THE URGE TO MERGE 57
Why Merge? 57
TABLE 17 MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE WATER TREATMENT INDUSTRY,
1996-FEBRUARY 2014 57
CONTINUED CONSOLIDATION 59
U.S. Suppliers 59
Foreign Vendors 60
ENGINEERING FIRMS ACTIVE IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 61
TOP ENGINEERING FIRMS IN WATER 61
TABLE 18 TOP FIVE ENGINEERING FIRMS INVOLVED IN THE WATER TREATMENT
AND DESALINATION PLANT SECTOR, 2013 61
AECOM 62
Arcadis U.S. 62
CH2M Hill 62
MWH Global 63
Tetra Tech Inc. 63
PATENT SURVEY 63
PATENT TRENDS BY TECHNOLOGY 64
TABLE 19 PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014
(NUMBER/%) 64
FIGURE 5 PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014 (%) 64
PATENT TRENDS BY COMPANY 65
TABLE 20 PATENTS BY COMPANY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014 (NUMBER/%) 66
FIGURE 6 PATENTS BY COMPANY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014 (%) 66
MEMBRANE FILTRATION 67
MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 67
TABLE 21 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR MEMBRANE FILTRATION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 70
FIGURE 7 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR MEMBRANE FILTRATION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2002-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 70
OVERVIEW 71
Membrane Configurations 71
Flux 72
Modes of Filtration 72
Membrane Fouling 73
Filtration Processes 73
FIGURE 8 COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE PROCESSES 73
RO 74
RO Membranes 74
Membrane Cost 74
Pretreatment to RO Desalination 74
Benefits and Drawbacks 75
Brine 76
Membrane Manufacturers and Products 76
TABLE 22 PRIMARY RO PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 77
RO System Manufacturers and Products 77
NF 78
NF Membrane System Manufacturers 78
TABLE 23 PRIMARY NF PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 78
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL 79
Benefits and Drawbacks 79
EDR Membranes/Systems 80
MF 80
Benefits and Drawbacks 80
MF Membranes/Systems 81
TABLE 24 PRIMARY MF PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 81
UF 81
UF Membranes/Systems 82
TABLE 25 PRIMARY UF PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 82
COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION 83
TABLE 26 TYPICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM SPECS (10 MGD SYSTEM) 83
INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS 83
TABLE 27 COMPANIES SELLING MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR MUNICIPAL DRINKING
WATER TREATMENT 84
COMPANY PROFILES 84
ASAHI KASEI 84
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 85
ELTRON RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT 86
EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES 86
GENERAL ELECTRIC WATER and PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 87
INGE GMBH FLURSTRASSE 17 88
ITN NANOVATION AG 89
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 89
MEMBRANA-CHARLOTTE 90
MICRODYN-NADIR GMBH 91
MITSUBISHI RAYON CO., LTD. 91
NANOASIS 92
NANOH2O INC. 92
NITTO DENKO CORP. 93
Hydranautics 93
OASYS 94
PALL CORP. 95
PENTAIR INC. 96
POLYMEM 96
PORIFERA INC. 97
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT 97
Infilco Degremont Inc. 98
TORAY INDUSTRIES 98
TOYOBO CO., LTD. 99
TRISEP CORP. 100
VEOLIA WATER 100
WOONGJIN CHEMICAL 101
XYLEM 102
MARKET SHARE 102
TABLE 28 MEMBRANE MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 102
FIGURE 9 MEMBRANE MARKET SHARE BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 103
OZONE 103
MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 103
TABLE 29 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR OZONE DISINFECTION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 10 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR OZONE DISINFECTION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT, 2014-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
OVERVIEW 105
Mechanisms of Ozone Disinfection 105
Other Contaminants Oxidized 106
Generating O3 106
Dispersing the Gas 106
Ozone with Hydrogen Peroxide 107
DRAWBACKS AND BENEFITS 107
Bromate 108
COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF OZONE TREATMENT 108
TABLE 30 TYPICAL OZONE SYSTEM SPECS (10 MGD INSTALLATION) 108
INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS 109
TABLE 31 OZONE GENERATOR MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 109
COMPANY PROFILES 109
CLEARWATER TECH INC. 109
ClearWater Generators 110
DEGREMONT SA 110
XF Generators 111
OZAT CFS and CFV Series Generators 111
Membrel MK IV 111
FUJI ELECTRIC 112
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS INC. 112
OZOCAN CORP. 113
PROMINENT GMBH 113
ProMinent Generators 114
SUMITOMO PRECISION PRODUCTS 114
TRIPLE O SYSTEMS INC. 114
XYLEM INC. 115
WEDECO Ozone Technologies 115
WEDECO Generators 115
MARKET SHARE 116
TABLE 32 OZONE MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 116
FIGURE 11 OZONE MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 116
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT 117
MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 117
TABLE 33 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR UV IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 12 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR UV IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT,
2014-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 119
OVERVIEW 120
UV Lamps 120
Reactor Types 121
Benefits and Drawbacks 121
UV EQUIPMENT 121
TABLE 34 UV MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 122
COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF UV IRRADIATION 122
TABLE 35 TYPICAL UV SYSTEM SPECS (10 MGD INSTALLATION) 122
INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS 123
COMPANY PROFILES 123
AQUIONICS 123
CALGON CARBON CORP. 123
Sentinel System 124
Rayox System 124
ENGINEERED TREATMENT SYSTEMS (ETS) 124
MERIDIAN DESIGN INC. 125
OZONIA NORTH AMERICA 125
Aquaray Systems 125
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 126
UltraDynamics UV 126
MicroDynamics UV 126
TROJAN TECHNOLOGIES INC. 127
UVSwift System 127
UVSwift SC System 127
Torrent 128
WALLACE and TIERNAN (EVOQUA) 128
Barrier A 128
Barrier M 128
XYLEM 129
Spektrotherm, Ecoray Lamps 129
BX, LBX Series Systems 129
K-Series 130
Spektron 130
Quadron 130
MARKET SHARE 130
TABLE 36 U.S. UV MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 130
FIGURE 13 U.S. UV MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 130
NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES 131
MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 131
TABLE 37 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN
MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 14 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN
MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT, 2002-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 133
OVERVIEW 133
Hypochlorites 133
Chloramines 133
Chlorimination and Lead 134
Cities Disinfecting with Chloramines 134
TABLE 38 U.S. CITIES DISINFECTING WITH CHLORAMINES 134
Chlorine Dioxide 136
Chlorite/Chlorate 137
NDMA 137
NOVEL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 137
On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation 137
Disinfection with Chloramine 138
On-Site Chlorine Dioxide Production 138
Mixed Oxidant Disinfection 139
COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES 139
TABLE 39 NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES COMPARED (TYPICAL 10 MGD
PLANT) 139
MANUFACTURERS OF NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
PRODUCTS 140
TABLE 40 MANUFACTURERS OF NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
PRODUCTS 140
INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS/COMPANY PROFILES 140
CDG ENVIRONMENTAL 140
Gas: Solid System 141
ELECTROLYTIC TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 141
Klorigen 141
MIOX CORP. 142
On-Site Hypochlorite Generators 142
On-Site Mixed Oxidant Generators 142
PEPCON SYSTEMS 143
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 143
ClorTec Generators 144
Biochem Generator 144
WALLACE and TIERNAN/EOVQUA 144
Chlorine Dioxide Systems 144
OSEC 145
CHAPTER 4 INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS 147
WORLD ACCESS TO WATER 147
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS 148
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROJECTIONS 149
TOP EXPORT MARKETS FOR U.S. COMPANIES 149
"BEST PROSPECT" COUNTRIES 150
Austria 150
Water Needs 150
Belgium 150
Water Needs 151
Water Market 151
Brazil 151
Water Needs 152
Water Market 152
Chile 153
Water Needs 153
China 154
Water Needs 154
Colombia 155
India 155
Indonesia 156
Mexico 156
Water Needs 157
Water Market 157
Oman 158
Water Needs 158
Philippines 159
Water Needs 159
Water Market 160
Poland 160
Water Market 161
Portugal 161
Water Needs 161
Russia 162
Singapore 162
Thailand 163
Water Needs 163
Water Market 164
Turkey 164
Water Needs 164
Water Market 165
Vietnam 165
Water Needs 166
CHAPTER 5 APPENDIX: PATENT SURVEY 168
TABLE 41 PATENT SURVEY, 2004 168
TABLE 42 PATENT SURVEY, 2005 170
TABLE 43 PATENT SURVEY, 2006 172
TABLE 44 PATENT SURVEY, 2007 174
TABLE 45 PATENT SURVEY, 2008 174
TABLE 46 PATENT SURVEY, 2009 176
TABLE 47 PATENT SURVEY, 2010 177
TABLE 48 PATENT SURVEY, 2011 178
TABLE 49 PATENT SURVEY, 2012 181
TABLE 50 PATENT SURVEY, 2013 182
TABLE 51 PATENT SURVEY, 2014 (JANUARY 1 THROUGH JULY 1) 185
LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED MUNICIPAL WATER
TREATMENTS, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 TOTAL 20-YEAR NEED BY SYSTEM SIZE, SYSTEM TYPE, AND PROJECT TYPE
($ BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 11
TABLE 2 TOTAL 20-YEAR NATIONAL REGULATORY NEED TO COMPLY WITH SWDA ($
BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 13
TABLE 3 TOTAL NATIONAL 20-YEAR NEED FOR PROPOSED AND RECENTLY
PROMULGATED REGULATIONS ($ BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 14
TABLE 4 SCHEDULE FOR UPCOMING REGULATORY ACTIONS 15
TABLE 5 TRENDS IN U.S. WATER USE THROUGH 2005, (BILLION GALLONS PER DAY) 20
TABLE 6 CAPITAL COSTS OF ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
(AVERAGE $ PER GALLON, BY PLANT SIZE) 22
TABLE 7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT, 4000 B.C.-2011 24
TABLE 8 ETV DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS EVALUATIONS, 1999-2013 26
TABLE 9 COMPARISON OF DISINFECTION METHODS 31
TABLE 10 DISINFECTION METHODS USED BY WATER TREATMENT PLANTS (%) 32
TABLE 11 COST OF CONVERTING TO NON-CHLORINE ALTERNATIVES AT MUNICIPAL
DRINKING WATER PLANTS ($ THOUSANDS) 34
TABLE 12 FORMS OF CHLORINE IN USE AS PRIMARY TREATMENT AT DRINKING
WATER PLANTS, 2013 (%) 35
TABLE 13 NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS 37
TABLE 14 NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS 42
TABLE 15 DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST 3 45
TABLE 16 CCL3-LISTED CONTAMINANTS WITHOUT SUITABLE ANALYTICAL METHODS
FOR NATIONAL DRINKING WATER OCCURRENCE STUDIES (AS OF SEPTEMBER 2010) 55
TABLE 17 MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE WATER TREATMENT INDUSTRY,
1996-FEBRUARY 2014 57
TABLE 18 TOP FIVE ENGINEERING FIRMS INVOLVED IN THE WATER TREATMENT AND
DESALINATION PLANT SECTOR, 2013 61
TABLE 19 PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014
(NUMBER/%) 64
TABLE 20 PATENTS BY COMPANY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014 (NUMBER/%) 66
TABLE 21 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR MEMBRANE FILTRATION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 22 PRIMARY RO PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 77
TABLE 23 PRIMARY NF PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 78
TABLE 24 PRIMARY MF PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 81
TABLE 25 PRIMARY UF PRODUCTS FOR U.S. MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT 82
TABLE 26 TYPICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM SPECS (10 MGD SYSTEM) 83
TABLE 27 COMPANIES SELLING MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR MUNICIPAL DRINKING
WATER TREATMENT 84
TABLE 28 MEMBRANE MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 102
TABLE 29 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR OZONE DISINFECTION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 30 TYPICAL OZONE SYSTEM SPECS (10 MGD INSTALLATION) 108
TABLE 31 OZONE GENERATOR MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 109
TABLE 32 OZONE MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 116
TABLE 33 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR UV IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 34 UV MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCTS 122
TABLE 35 TYPICAL UV SYSTEM SPECS (10 MGD INSTALLATION) 122
TABLE 36 U.S. UV MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 130
TABLE 37 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN
MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 38 U.S. CITIES DISINFECTING WITH CHLORAMINES 134
TABLE 39 NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES COMPARED (TYPICAL 10 MGD
PLANT) 139
TABLE 40 MANUFACTURERS OF NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
PRODUCTS 140
TABLE 41 PATENT SURVEY, 2004 168
TABLE 42 PATENT SURVEY, 2005 170
TABLE 43 PATENT SURVEY, 2006 172
TABLE 44 PATENT SURVEY, 2007 174
TABLE 45 PATENT SURVEY, 2008 174
TABLE 46 PATENT SURVEY, 2009 176
TABLE 47 PATENT SURVEY, 2010 177
TABLE 48 PATENT SURVEY, 2011 178
TABLE 49 PATENT SURVEY, 2012 181
TABLE 50 PATENT SURVEY, 2013 182
TABLE 51 PATENT SURVEY, 2014 (JANUARY 1 THROUGH JULY 1) 185
LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR ADVANCED MUNICIPAL WATER
TREATMENT, 2002-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 TOTAL 20-YEAR NEED BY SYSTEM SIZE, SYSTEM TYPE, AND PROJECT TYPE
($ BILLIONS, 2011 DOLLARS) 11
FIGURE 2 DISINFECTION METHODS USED BY WATER TREATMENT PLANTS (%) 32
FIGURE 3 INVESTMENT COST OF CONVERTING TO NON-CHLORINE ALTERNATIVES AT
MEDIUM SIZE MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER PLANTS ($ THOUSANDS) 35
FIGURE 4 FORMS OF CHLORINE IN USE AS PRIMARY TREATMENT AT DRINKING
WATER PLANTS, 2013 (%) 35
FIGURE 5 PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014 (%) 64
FIGURE 6 PATENTS BY COMPANY, JANUARY 1, 2004, TO JULY 1, 2014 (%) 66
FIGURE 7 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR MEMBRANE FILTRATION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2002-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 70
FIGURE 8 COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE PROCESSES 73
FIGURE 9 MEMBRANE MARKET SHARE BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 103
FIGURE 10 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR OZONE DISINFECTION IN MUNICIPAL
WATER TREATMENT, 2014-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 11 OZONE MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 116
FIGURE 12 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR UV IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT,
2014-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 13 U.S. UV MARKET SHARE, BY COMPANY, 2014 (%) 130
FIGURE 14 SALES AND PROJECTIONS FOR NOVEL DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN
MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT, 2002-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 133

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  • September 2016
  • by BCC Research

Use this report to: - Analyze the companies and regions that are key players in water treatment market - Evaluate the global specialty chemicals industry used in water treatment - Assess product categories, ...

Ballast Water Treatment: Technologies and Global Markets

Ballast Water Treatment: Technologies and Global Markets

  • $ 6650
  • Industry report
  • August 2016
  • by BCC Research

Use this report to: - Gain information about the Impact of Aquatic Nuisance Species on environment, economies and public health. - Gain an insight about the various Ballast water pretreatment and disinfection ...

Water Purifier Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024

Water Purifier Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024

  • $ 5795
  • Industry report
  • September 2016
  • by Transparency Market Research

This report on the global water purifier market provides analysis for the period 2014 – 2024, wherein 2015 is the base year and the period from 2016 to 2024 is the forecast period. Data for 2014 has ...


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