REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

THIS REPORT CONTAINS

* An overview of fluorochemicals and fluoropolymers
* Analysis of U.S. market trends, with data from 2010, estimates for 2011, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2016
* Coverage of the U.S. markets by applications, such as water fluoridation, dentistry, equipment, electrical and electronics manufacture, chemical processing, refrigeration, coatings and surface treatments, and packaging
* Discussion of the chemistry and physicochemical properties of fluorochemicals and polymers, their syntheses, and new technologies
* Public policy analysis
* Evaluation of the industry and market structure in the U.S.
* Comprehensive company profiles.

REPORT SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Fluorine compounds are all around us. We use them every day, despite the fact that most people do not know them as such, or at least did not know them until the end of the last century, when controversies arose over issues such as the effect of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the atmosphere’s ozone layer, some other perfluorochemicals, and water fluoridation. Fluorine itself is chemically a bit curious; it is the most reactive halogen, yet its most well-known compounds such as CFCs and fluoropolymers (used in nonstick frying pans and many other products) are best known and used because they are stable and inert.

BCC Research defines “performance” fluorine compounds as those that perform a specific task, based on their physical and/or chemical properties, better than other products and materials. These criteria for “performance” are based more on function than price, but price is also a component of acceptance. By our definition and discrimination, most compounds that we exclude from the study are low-priced, large-volume commodity inorganic fluorides.

Our goal is to describe the compounds and markets for performance fluorine compounds of three basic families: inorganic fluorochemicals, organic fluorochemicals, and fluoropolymers. Because of the great diversity and breadth of these products and markets, no study can attempt to cover the entire fluorine chemical world. Many applications are quite small in volume, yet have fairly large dollar sales because they command high prices. Others, which are rather high volume and could be considered commodities, do really fill a performance function, for example, hydrogen fluoride (HF) as a petroleum alkylation catalyst. The compounds and applications we cover are discussed below under “Scope.”

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Performance fluorine chemicals are important materials of commerce and today have both commercial and political significance. Most of us drink fluorinated water and brush our teeth with fluorinated toothpaste. We drive air-conditioned cars fueled by high-octane unleaded gasoline produced with the assistance of hydrogen fluoride alkylation catalyst. We cook with fluoropolymer-coated frying pans (best known by DuPont’s Teflon brand name) and wear Gore-Tex and other brand name weather-resistant outdoor clothing.

Other applications for performance fluorine chemicals are not as well known to the average person, but are no less important, since they affect chemical and electrical/electronic manufacture, packaging, and a number of other important commercial and consumer businesses and markets. Fluorochemicals have become increasingly important in semiconductor and other electronics manufacture.

This report is an update of a similar report by the same author published in November 2004 and covers not only the fluorochemicals and polymers industry in general but also changes that have occurred in the intervening years. There have been quite a few events that have changed these businesses in this time period, ranging from new controls on fluorinated chemicals to some new products and applications and company and business mergers and consolidations.

BCC Research performs these studies to provide a comprehensive and timely reference for those interested and/or involved in these products; this is a wide and varied group of chemical and other companies that make and supply performance fluorine chemicals and polymers, process technology and equipment, designers and marketers, politicians of all stripes, and the general public. We have sorted through and condensed information from a large amount of literature, reference materials, and other sources to compile this report.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM

This report is intended to assist those involved in several different segments of the U.S. industrial and commercial business sectors. These organizations and people include those who are involved in the development, formulation, manufacture, sale, and use of performance fluorine chemicals and polymers. These include process and product development experts, process and product designers, purchasing agents, construction and operating personnel, market staff, and top management. BCC Research feels that this report will be of great value to technical and business personnel in the following areas, among others:

* Marketing and management personnel in companies that produce, market, and sell performance fluorine chemicals and polymers
* Companies involved in the design and construction of plants to manufacture performance fluorine chemicals and polymers
* Financial institutions that supply money for these facilities
* Personnel in end-user companies and industries, such as chemical processing, packaging, and electronics
* Personnel in government at many levels, primarily at the federal level but also state and local environmental and other regulators who must implement and enforce the laws regarding water and air quality, etc. This has become an international issue with concerns about the ozone layer and global warming

SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT

This study covers many of the most important technological, economic, political, and environmental considerations in the U.S. performance fluorine chemicals/polymers industry. It is primarily a study of U.S. markets, but because of the global nature of chemistry it touches on some noteworthy international activities; these are primarily those that can have an impact on the U.S. market such as imports/exports, foreign firms that operate here, and the international protocols on issues like the ozone layer and global warming.

Market analyses, estimates, and forecasts are presented for base year 2010 and a 5-year forward forecast to 2015. Market estimate tables are presented in volumes in millions of pounds and are all rounded to the nearest million pounds. Some materials have very small markets, only a few million pounds or perhaps less than a million. However, the precision of any market analysis and estimate like this one, with many different products serving multiple markets, cannot be much better than a million pounds (and probably not even that precise). Thus, for all materials that have any market at all, the smallest volume will be one million pounds even though the actual volume may be lower than that. All growth rates are compounded and presented as a compounded annual growth rate, or CAGR. Because of rounding of these small numbers, some CAGRs may not agree exactly with figures in the market tables.

This report is segmented into 10 chapters, of which this is the first.

The Summary encapsulates our findings and conclusions, and includes the Summary Table with our overall major market estimates and forecast. It is the place where the busy executive can find the major findings of the study in summary format.

Next is an Overview to fluorochemicals and fluoropolymers, with subsections devoted to the three main types or classes of these products: (1) organic fluorochemicals, (2) inorganic fluorochemicals, and (3) fluoropolymers and fluoroelastomers. The most important subclasses of each are introduced and described, such as aliphatic and aromatic fluorine compounds.

The next chapter is the first of two chapters devoted to market analyses, estimates, and forecasts. It discusses, estimates, and forecasts markets for performance fluorine chemicals by product type or class, again segmented into the three large groupings of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and polymers. We start the subsection for each of these three major product types/classes with a market estimate and forecast for the major types of performance fluorochemicals and polymers in each class, for base year 2010 and forecast year 2015. Then, in each subsection we introduce and describe important applications.

The next chapter discusses and forecasts the markets by application. We have categorized applications into nine specific groups, plus one catch-all “other” class for some uses that do not fall easily into one of the other nine. These applications groups are as follows:

* Water fluoridation chemicals, relatively large volume silicofluorides and inorganic fluorides
* Dentistry, inorganic fluorides used in toothpastes
* Nonelectrical equipment: End uses covered here utilize the physical, rather than chemical, characteristics of fluorochemicals; these lead to uses in industrial equipment and machinery manufacture and use as cleaning agents, functional fluids, and in finished polymer parts such as piping.
* Electrical and electronics (E/E) manufacture, mostly in the increasingly important business of microelectronics and semiconductors. Principal uses are in microelectronics and semiconductor manufacture, such as for cleaning and preparing E/E equipment for further processing.
* Electrical equipment, a segment dominated by two large end uses: fluoropolymer wire/cable sheathing and switchgear dielectrics.
* Chemical processing, which include all applications that serve the “chemical processing industries” (CPI) in its chemical sense. This means applications that stress chemical rather than physical properties, since physical applications such as chemical piping and valves are covered in nonelectrical equipment.
* Refrigeration, a market group served by only one type of fluorochemical, replacement products for the banned CFCs. These include hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), also now being phased out, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and a new class called hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs).
* Coatings and surface treatments for both inside and outside surfaces. We include here applications that may not end up on an outside surface, such as the important use in making insulation foam for architectural walls.
* Packaging and other consumer applications: These include fluorochemical replacements for CFCs as blowing agents for consumer products (such as appliance insulation and flexible foams for cushions, etc.), plus diverse other end uses such as sports clothes and some medical packaging.
* Other applications, ranging from fire fighting to Teflon tapes.

The next chapter is devoted to fluorochemical technologies. It includes discussions of the chemistry and physico-chemical properties of fluorochemicals and polymers, their syntheses, and some newer technologies.

Public policy and other public issues are discussed in the next chapter, primarily CFCs and their replacements and their effect on the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect and global warming, and the seemingly never-ending controversy over water fluoridation.

Next we discuss the industry and market structure of the U.S. performance fluorochemical/polymers industry, with emphasis on the major domestic producers and suppliers. We also note several important foreign-owned supplier companies that operate in the United States. Imports and exports, product prices and pricing methods, distribution, and technical service are also discussed.

Our last narrative chapter contains profiles of companies BCC Research considers to be among the most important or visible in these businesses. There are many more companies that operate in one or more niche markets, but we try to list the ones that we consider important enough to be considered major producers and suppliers.

The Appendix is a glossary of some important terms, abbreviations, acronyms, etc. used in the fluorochemical and polymer industry.

Outside the scope of this study are compounds we do not consider “performance” compounds. We make no attempt to cover the entire field of fluorine chemistry; it is simply too large. Literally thousands of compounds, most of them organic, are in use in chemical synthesis to make pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals. These compounds, especially the many intermediates, are impossible to categorize and characterize except for the fact that they contain fluorine.

We thus restrict the scope of this study to those performance fluorine compounds and classes of compounds for which definite markets have been established, whose suppliers are known, and which meet our criteria of “performance.“ Only single-entry moieties are considered here; that is, mixtures and compounded resins are excluded to avoid double counting of the same chemical or resin in virgin stock and in the finished product.

This strategy of including only single-entry moieties can be difficult. Since many such compounds are monomers or other starting materials as well as intermediates, there is always the possibility of double counting and subsequent estimates overstatement. Many popular refrigerants are mixtures of fluorochemicals.

Captive use further complicates the analysis; for example, a significant percentage of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin made is used captively, along with significant quantities of organic and inorganic fluorochemicals that are made but then further converted in-house to a different product. Finished fluorine-containing pharmaceutical and agricultural products are beyond our scope since they are huge dollar markets by themselves. This study is concerned only with chemicals and polymers that are commercial products on their own and does not included captive use.

We define “performance” as signifying that the product has properties that make it unique for its performance and applications. Such chemicals, which normally command higher prices and are made in relatively small volumes, are also usually grouped with specialty chemicals and products (as opposed to commodities). This delineation holds pretty well for all products and applications in this report except three: hydrogen fluoride, some CFC replacements, and water fluoridation chemicals. These three groups are made in large quantities and thus could be considered to be commodity in nature. We include them because they do perform specialty functions that other chemicals do not do as well; thus, they are truly performance chemicals. To date the CFC replacements are also more costly than true commodities.

Because of the versatility of these compounds, many products and companies appear more than once in the report. In order to reduce repetition, in our chapter on markets by product type/class we present overall market estimate tables for each class of fluoro product (organics, inorganics, and polymers); each table is then segmented by major product type or application. Then we introduce the most important applications for each type or class.

In the chapter that follows on markets by applications, we estimate and forecast markets in each of the major applications groups and “other” applications, cited above. For each of these groups we break the forecasts down into the type of fluorochemical or polymer, and in many cases further break down the forecast to individual compounds, compound classes, or application (see below for more on the difficulties in classifying these materials).

Even with this separation, we still discuss some products and applications in more than one place. This treatment may seem repetitious, but we feel that it is important to cite key information at the place where it is appropriate and pertinent. Many readers will only purchase or may turn to particular chapters of the report for specific information, and we want that information to be there for them. Thus, any apparent repetition is a deliberate action to place information where it will be the most helpful. By covering the bases in this manner we attempt to show all the different uses and interactions, and by this means also again show the versatility of fluorine chemicals and polymers.

This report is an overview to the entire field of performance fluorine chemistry and its products, and as such is not as detailed as some specialty reports that focus in greater detail on one specific group of fluorine chemicals or polymers. BCC Research has published several such reports.

CLASSIFICATION OF FLUOROCHEMICALS

Definition and CLASSIFICATION OF FLUOROCHEMICALS into our three basic categories is relatively straightforward, with the caveats noted below regarding compounds such as liquid low molecular weight (MW) polymers that could be placed in either the organics or polymers segment. Our classifications also follow usual customs and chemical nomenclature.

Nomenclature used is conventional; that is, we use ordinary chemical names and conventional notation for compounds and polymers. We assume that the reader has at least some elementary knowledge of chemistry; the glossary in the Appendix also defines some important terms. In cases where trade and public custom prevails, we also use the commonly accepted terms.

Because of the complicated and long chemical names for many compounds covered in this study, they are often referred to by acronyms or other abbreviations or names; we do the same and the common acronyms are both explained at the outset and defined in the glossary. Thus, fluoropolymers are usually referred to by their acronyms (e.g., PTFE, FEP or fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer [poly(hexafluoropropylene-tetrafluoroethylene)], etc., all of this in uppercase letters). Trade names are given with initial capitalization, such as Teflon for DuPont’s brand of fluoropolymers. Generic names are in lowercase script.

By the same token we use industry parlance in discussing CFCs: “CFC” refers to the now-banned chlorofluorocarbons, those compounds that contain only chlorine and fluorine in addition to carbon. “HCFC” denotes the first class of replacement chemicals, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons, with hydrogen in addition to chlorine and fluorine. Finally “HFC” denotes hydrofluorocarbons, the preferred compounds that contain no chlorine and therefore allegedly do not damage the ozone layer.

However, the HFCs also contribute to global warming and are therefore being themselves pushed for phaseout by environmental and other activist groups. This drive against HFCs started in Europe and is still primarily being pushed there. However, the drive has begun to have some effect in the United States with auto manufacturers working with DuPont and Honeywell on development of new HFOs to replace HCF-134a in automotive air conditioners.

Finally, a note regarding how we segmented and classified performance fluorine chemicals and their markets. Many such compounds are often listed either by their chemical classification (such as fluoroaromatic compound), by application (such as chemical intermediate), or both. This makes it difficult to place fluorochemicals and polymers into neat boxes in tables or charts. We had to make some arbitrary decisions regarding where to list and discuss many of the most important products. Our conventions are as follows:

Organic fluorochemicals are restricted to individual compounds, discrete moieties such as fluorobenzene. Any product that is a polymer of any sort, even low molecular weight polymers, which are liquids, are grouped with other fluoropolymers. We further break organics down into aliphatics and aromatics.

Inorganic compounds are simpler to group. We include all boron trifluoride derivatives with inorganics, even though a large part of the BF3 market consists of organic complexes; the active chemical is still inorganic. However, even with this simpler grouping, there are still some compounds classified either by name/type or by application. Examples of the former are silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) and the fluoborates; of the latter, fluorides used in water fluoridation and toothpaste.

Fluoropolymers as a group consists of polymer resins (PTFE and its cousins), elastomers of several types, and low molecular weight polymers with many uses ranging from surfactants to textile finishing. Many low MW polymers are liquids and some find use as chemical intermediates; however, since they are polymeric in nature we include them with other polymers.

There are also many fluorosilicon compounds and products. They are all introduced and discussed where they belong. Thus, water fluoridation chemicals and SiF­4 are inorganics, and fluorosilicon fluids and elastomers are polymers.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. Extensive searches were made of the literature and the Internet, including many of the leading trade publications, and well as technical compendia, government publications, and information from trade and other associations. Much product and market information was obtained from principals involved in the industry. Other sources included textbooks, directories, articles, and Internet sites.

ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

Dr. J. Charles Forman is a research analyst for BCC Research covering polymers and chemicals. His work in industry included 21 years at Abbott Laboratories in R&D and manufacturing management. Dr. Forman has researched and written more than 50 multiclient market research reports on a variety of subjects ranging from building construction materials and spectroscopy, to several studies on plastic packaging. He has been writing for BCC Research for over 15 years. His educational credentials include an S.B. from MIT and M.S. and Ph.D. from Northwestern University, all in chemical engineering. He is also a licensed Professional Engineer (P.E.)

Table Of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION . 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY .. 1
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT .... 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT (CONTINUED) .. 4
SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT (CONTINUED) .. 5
SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT (CONTINUED) .. 6
CLASSIFICATION OF FLUOROCHEMICALS ... 7
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES .... 8
ANALYST’S CREDENTIALS .. 8
RELATED BCC REPORTS 9
BCC ONLINE SERVICES .. 9
DISCLAIMER . 9
CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY .... 10
SUMMARY .... 10
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. OVERALL PERFORMANCE
FLUOROCHEMICAL AND POLYMER MARKETS ESTIMATES,
THROUGH 2015 (MILLION POUNDS) .... 11
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. OVERALL PERFORMANCE
FLUOROCHEMICAL AND POLYMER MARKETS ESTIMATES, 2010
AND 2015 (MILLION POUNDS) 12
CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW OF FLUOROCHEMICALS AND
POLYMERS ... 13
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS . 13
TABLE 1 HYDROCARBON AND HALOCARBON BOND STRENGTHS .... 14
TABLE 2 PROPERTIES CONFERRED BY FLUORINE SUBSTITUTION . 15
ALIPHATIC FLUORINE COMPOUNDS 15
Chlorofluorocarbons ... 16
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons .... 17
Hydrofluorocarbons .... 17
Hydrofluoroolefins . 18
Common Commercial Uses .. 19
TABLE 3 COMMON CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (CFCS) AND
REFRIGERANT MIXTURES . 19
TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) ... 20
TABLE 4 HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCARBONS AND HCFC-BASED
MIXTURES .... 20
TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) ... 21
TABLE 5 HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFCS) AND HFC-BASED
MIXTURES .... 21
TABLE 5 (CONTINUED) ... 22
CFC, HCFC, and HFC Nomenclature 22
CFC, HCFC, and HFC Nomenclature (Continued) .... 23
Major Applications. 24
Synthesis of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCS ... 25
Trifluoroaliphatics . 25
Other Fluoroaliphatics .... 26
Intermediates ... 26
Fluorosilanes .... 27
Carbon Tetrafluoride . 27
Perfluoroethane (Hexafluoroethane).. 27
Air Products’ Selectfluor and Deoxo-Fluor .. 27
AROMATIC FLUORINE COMPOUNDS . 28
Ring-Substituted Fluoroaromatics 28
Fluorobenzene .. 29
Other Ring-Substituted Aromatics .... 29
Side-Chain Substituted Fluoroaromatics 30
INORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 30
WATER FLUORIDATION CHEMICALS 31
Hydrofluosilicic Acid ... 31
Sodium Silicofluoride .. 32
Sodium Fluoride .... 32
TABLE 6 WATER SOLUBILITY OF WATER TREATMENT FLUORIDE
CHEMICALS .. 33
Other Water Fluoridation Chemicals . 33
Ammonium Silicofluoride .... 33
Magnesium Silicofluoride .... 33
Potassium Fluoride .... 34
Calcium Fluoride .. 34
Hydrofluoric Acid .. 34
Bifluorides ... 34
INORGANIC DENTAL FLUORIDES . 34
FLUOBORON COMPOUNDS ... 35
Fluoborates .. 36
Boron Trifluoride ... 37
Boron Trifluoride Complexes .... 37
Uncomplexed Boron Trifluoride .... 38
GASEOUS PERFORMANCE INORGANIC
FLUOROCHEMICALS .... 38
Fluorine ... 38
Halogen Fluorides .. 39
Hydrogen Fluoride . 40
Nitrogen Trifluoride ... 41
Nitrogen Trifluoride (Continued) .. 42
Silicon Tetrafluoride ... 43
Sulfur Tetrafluoride ... 43
Sulfur Hexafluoride .... 44
Tungsten Hexafluoride .... 44
Uranium Hexafluoride .... 45
OTHER INORGANIC FLUORIDES ... 45
Cleaners, Dopants, and Etchants .. 46
Others . 46
FLUOROPOLYMERS AND FLUOROELASTOMERS 47
FLUOROPOLYMER RESINS ... 47
TABLE 7 FLUOROPOLYMER NAMES AND ACRONYMS . 47
Synthetic Routes and Average Properties .... 48
TABLE 8 FLUOROPOLYMER RAW MATERIALS AND SYNTHETIC
ROUTES .... 48
TABLE 9 AVERAGE PROPERTIES OF FLUOROPOLYMER RESINS .. 49
TABLE 10 FLUOROPOLYMER PROPERTIES AND THE EFFECTS OF
INCREASING FLUORINE CONTENT 50
Processing .... 50
Other Characteristics . 51
Polytetrafluoroethylene ... 51
Polytetrafluoroethylene (Continued) . 52
Polyvinylidene Fluoride... 53
Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer 54
Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer ... 55
Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer .... 56
Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF) . 56
Perfluoroalkyl-Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer (PFA) 57
Poly-Chlorotrifluoroethylene 58
Other Fluoropolymer Resins 59
Perfluorinated Ion Exchange/Electrolytic
Membrane Resins . 59
Solid (Dry) Lubricants .... 60
Safety, Handling, and Regulatory Matters .. 61
FLUOROELASTOMERS . 62
Fluorocarbon Elastomers 62
VF2/HFP (FKM) Fluoroelastomers 63
VF2/HFP/TFE (FKM) Fluoroelastomers . 63
TFE/P (FXM) Fluoroelastomers .... 63
TFE/P/VF2 “Advanced” Fluoroelastomers .... 64
Perfluoro (or Perfluorinated) (FFKM)
Fluoroelastomers .. 64
VF2/CTFE (CFM) Fluoroelastomers ... 65
Fluorosilicone (FVMQ) Elastomers .... 65
Differences and Applications .... 65
LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLUOROPOLYMERS 66
Synthesis of Low MW Fluoropolymers .... 66
Electrochemical Synthesis ... 66
Telomerization . 66
Oligomerization 67
Functional Fluids .. 67
Chlorotrifluoroethylene Fluids . 67
Perfluorinated Alkyls . 68
Perfluorinated Polyether (PFPE) Fluids . 68
Fluorosilicones .. 68
Surfactants ... 68
TABLE 11 FLUOROSURFACTANT APPLICATIONS 69
Textile Finishing Chemicals 69
Textile Finishing Chemicals (Continued) .... 70
Chemical Intermediates .. 71
CHAPTER FOUR: MARKETS BY PRODUCT TYPE OR CLASS .. 72
MARKET OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE AND
FORECAST ... 72
TABLE 12 OVERALL PERFORMANCE FLUOROCHEMICAL AND
POLYMER MARKET ESTIMATES BY PRODUCT TYPE OR CLASS,
THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) 73
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS . 74
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECASTS ... 74
TABLE 13 U.S. MERCHANT ORGANIC PERFORMANCE
FLUOROCHEMICALS, MARKET ESTIMATES BY CHEMICAL TYPE
OR CLASS, THROUGH 2015 (MILLION POUNDS) ... 75
TABLE 14 U.S. MERCHANT MARKET ESTIMATES FOR ALIPHATIC
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS BY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 75
NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT . 76
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING . 77
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT .... 78
CHEMICAL PROCESSING .. 79
REFRIGERATION . 80
Refrigeration (Continued) .... 81
COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS ... 82
PACKAGING AND CONSUMER APPLICATIONS .... 83
OTHER APPLICATIONS 84
INORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 84
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 85
TABLE 15 U.S. MERCHANT MARKET ESTIMATES FOR
PERFORMANCE INORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS, THROUGH
2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 85
WATER FLUORIDATION .... 86
Background .. 86
Cost Benefit . 87
TABLE 16 EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT DENTAL
FLUORIDATION METHODS 87
DENTISTRY . 88
NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT . 89
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING . 90
Fluoborates .. 90
Gases .. 91
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT .... 91
CHEMICAL PROCESSING .. 92
Hydrogen Fluoride . 92
Boron Trifluoride ... 93
Others . 93
COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS ... 93
OTHER APPLICATIONS 94
FLUOROPOLYMERS .. 94
MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 95
TABLE 17 U.S. MERCHANT FLUOROPOLYMER MARKET
ESTIMATES BY TYPE OR CLASS, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF
POUNDS) .. 95
NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT . 96
Resins . 96
Elastomers ... 97
Low-Molecular Weight Polymers ... 97
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING . 97
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT .... 98
Wire and Cable . 98
Other Fluoropolymer Applications 99
CHEMICAL PROCESSING .. 99
COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS . 100
Resins .... 100
Low Molecular Weight Polymers . 100
PACKAGING AND CONSUMER APPLICATIONS .. 101
OTHER APPLICATIONS ... 102
Other Applications (Continued) ... 103
CHAPTER FIVE: MARKETS BY APPLICATIONS .. 104
MARKET OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE
TABLE.... 104
TABLE 18 OVERALL PERFORMANCE FLUOROCHEMICALS AND
POLYMER MARKET ESTIMATES, BY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) .... 105
WATER FLUORIDATION .. 106
TABLE 19 WATER FLUORIDATION CHEMICALS MARKET
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) 106
DENTISTRY 107
TABLE 20 TOOTHPASTE FLUORIDES MARKET ESTIMATE,
THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 108
NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT .... 109
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 109
TABLE 21 NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FLUOROCHEMICALS
MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) .... 109
Organic Fluorochemicals .... 109
Inorganic Fluorochemicals . 110
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 110
TABLE 22 NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FLUOROPOLYMERS
SUMMARY MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF
POUNDS) 110
Resins .... 111
TABLE 23 NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FLUOROPOLYMER
RESINS MARKET ESTIMATE BY RESIN TYPE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 111
TABLE 24 NONELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FLUOROPOLYMER
RESINS MARKET ESTIMATE BY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 111
Elastomers . 112
Low Molecular Weight Polymers . 113
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING 113
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 113
TABLE 25 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING
FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATES, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 113
Organic Fluorochemicals .... 114
TABLE 26 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH
2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) .... 114
Organic Fluorochemicals (Continued) .. 115
Inorganic Fluorochemicals . 116
TABLE 27 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING
INORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATE,
THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 116
Fluoborates 116
Gases .... 117
Others ... 118
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 118
TABLE 28 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING
FLUOROPOLYMERS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 118
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ... 119
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 119
Organic Fluorochemicals .... 119
Inorganic Fluorochemicals . 119
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 119
TABLE 29 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FLUOROPOLYMERS MARKET
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 120
Wire and Cable .... 120
Resins Used .... 121
Other Polymers and Applications 122
CHEMICAL PROCESSING 122
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 123
TABLE 30 CHEMICAL PROCESSING FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 123
Organic Fluorochemicals .... 123
TABLE 31 CHEMICAL PROCESSING ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS
MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) .... 124
Inorganic Fluorochemicals . 124
TABLE 32 CHEMICAL PROCESSING INORGANIC
FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 125
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 125
TABLE 33 CHEMICAL PROCESSING FLUOROPOLYMERS MARKET
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 125
REFRIGERATION 126
TABLE 34 FLUOROCHEMICAL REFRIGERANTS MARKET
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 126
TABLE 35 U.S. CONSUMPTION ESTIMATE OF CFC
REPLACEMENTS IN REFRIGERATION, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 127
COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS .. 128
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 128
TABLE 36 COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENT
FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 129
Organic Fluorochemicals .... 129
TABLE 37 COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENT ORGANIC
FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 129
Organic Fluorochemicals (Continued) .. 130
Inorganic Fluorochemicals . 131
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 131
TABLE 38 COATINGS AND SURFACE TREATMENT
FLUOROPOLYMERS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 131
PACKAGING AND OTHER CONSUMER APPLICATIONS ... 132
TABLE 39 PACKAGING AND OTHER CONSUMER APPLICATIONS
FLUOROCHEMICALS AND POLYMERS MARKET ESTIMATE,
THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 133
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS ... 133
TABLE 40 PACKAGING AND OTHER CONSUMER APPLICATIONS
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH
2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) .... 133
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 134
TABLE 41 PACKAGING AND OTHER CONSUMER APPLICATION
FLUOROPOLYMERS MARKET ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015
(MILLIONS OF POUNDS) ... 135
TABLE 42 PERFORMANCE FLUOROCHEMICALS AND POLYMERS
IN OTHER MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS MARKET
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2015 (MILLIONS OF POUNDS) . 136
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS ... 136
INORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS .... 137
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 137
CHAPTER SIX: FLUOROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES . 138
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 138
CHEMICAL AND BIOREACTIVE PROPERTIES 139
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS . 140
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS ... 140
INORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS .... 140
FLUOROPOLYMERS .... 140
COMMERCIAL FLUOROCHEMICAL AND FLUOROPOLYMER RAW
MATERIALS .... 141
FLUORSPAR ... 141
Fluorspar (Continued) ... 142
PHOSPHATE ROCK . 143
ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICAL AND FLUOROPOLYMER
FEEDSTOCKS 144
Chloroform . 145
Carbon Tetrachloride .... 145
Methyl Chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane) .... 145
Perchloroethylene (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene) .. 146
Trichloroethylene . 146
SYNTHESIS OF ORGANOFLUORINE COMPOUNDS . 147
HALOGEN EXCHANGE .... 147
ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS 147
DIRECT FLUORINATION . 148
CHEMISTRY AND SYNTHETIC METHODS FOR INORGANIC
FLUOROCHEMICALS .. 149
NEWER TECHNOLOGIES . 149
CFC (AND NOW ALSO HCFC) REPLACEMENTS .. 150
HCFCs ... 151
HFCs 152
HFCs (Continued) .... 153
Mixtures and Continuing Problems .. 154
Other Materials that Can Substitute for CFCs ... 155
Cleaning and Solvent Applications .. 155
Blowing Agents ... 155
Refrigeration .. 156
SUPERCRITICAL SOLVENT EXTRACTION 157
SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE FLUOROPOLYMER
PROCESS ... 158
SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE IN SEMICONDUCTOR
MANUFACTURE . 158
PERFLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD AND
BREATHING AIDS .. 159
MELT-PROCESSABLE PTFE . 160
PERFLUOROPOLYETHER-BASED ELASTOMERS ... 161
CHAPTER SEVEN: PUBLIC POLICY ... 162
THE OZONE LAYER AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT .... 162
BACKGROUND ... 163
THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL .... 164
Carbon Tetrachloride and Methyl Chloroform 165
Transitional Compounds .... 166
PROGRAMME FOR ALTERNATIVE FLUOROCARBON
TOXICITY TESTING (PAFT) . 166
Projections of Future Atmospheric CFC Levels ... 167
CFC PHASEOUT PROGRESS 168
THE “GREENHOUSE EFFECT” AND GLOBAL WARMING 168
Potential Effects of New Products .... 169
Predictions . 170
The Kyoto Protocol and Later Climate Conferences . 171
The Kyoto Protocol and … (Continued) 172
WATER FLUORIDATION .. 173
CONTROVERSY .. 174
Safety .... 175
Research 176
CONCERNS OVER FLUOROCHEMICALS AND
PERFLUOROCHEMICALS 177
PERFLUOROALKYL SULFONATES AND REPLACEMENTS .. 177
PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID .. 178
Perfluorooctanoic Acid (Continued) .. 179
FLUOROPOLYMER BREAKDOWN PRODUCTS .... 180
CHAPTER EIGHT: INDUSTRY AND MARKET STRUCTURE .. 181
MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FACTORS 181
COMMON MARKET FACTORS .. 181
SPECIFIC PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS ... 182
Specific Product Market Factors .. 183
MAJOR PRODUCERS AND SUPPLIERS .. 184
SUPPLIERS AND PRODUCTS .... 184
Consolidation, Restructuring, etc. .... 185
Domestic Companies 185
Recent Developments.... 186
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS . 187
MAJOR FOREIGN COMPANIES 187
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS . 188
DISTRIBUTION AND TECHNICAL SERVICE ... 189
PRICES AND PRICING . 190
PRICES AND PRICING (CONTINUED) .... 191
CHAPTER NINE: SUPPLIER COMPANY PROFILES . 192
INTRODUCTION . 192
SUPPLIER COMPANIES .... 192
ACETO CORP. 193
ADVANCE RESEARCH CHEMICALS, INC. .. 193
ADVANCED SPECIALTY GASES, INC. .... 194
AGC CHEMICALS AMERICAS, INC. ... 195
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS, INC. .... 196
ALBEMARLE CORP. 197
ANDERSON DEVELOPMENT CO. .. 198
ARKEMA, INC. .... 198
Arkema, Inc. (Continued) ... 199
DAIKIN AMERICA, INC. ... 200
DOW CORNING CORP. 201
E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS and CO. 202
DYNEON, LLC 203
W.L. GORE and ASSOCIATES, INC. ... 204
W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc. (Continued) .. 205
GREEN, TWEED and CO. 206
HALOCARBON PRODUCTS CORP. 206
Halocarbon Products Corp. (Continued) 207
HONEYWELL, INC. . 208
Honeywell, Inc. (Continued) .... 209
KALTRON-PETTIBONE .... 210
LCI, LTD. .... 210
MEXICHEM FLUOR, INC. 211
MINNESOTA MINING AND MANUFACTURING CO. 212
OMG FIDELITY … 213
OMNOVA SOLUTIONS, INC. . 214
PHIBRO ANIMAL HEALTH CORP. 215
RHODIA, INC. . 215
SACHEM, INC. …. 216
SHIN-ETSU SILICONES OF AMERICA, INC. … 216
SOLVAY N.A., LLC … 217
Solvay N.A., LLC (continued) .. 218
ZEON CHEMICALS, LP 219
APPENDIX .. 220
GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS,
ACRONYMS, ETC. …. 220
GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, (CONTINUED) …. 221

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