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Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders

  • March 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 159 pages

This BCC Research report provides an overview of the various advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders and their corresponding production techniques and applications. It identifies the technological and business issues related to the commercial production and use of advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders. Market forecasts are provided through 2021.

Use this report to:

Analyze the various material types in advanced ceramic and nanosized ceramic powders along with processing technologies, properties, applications, and markets.

Gain information about the chemical and vapor- or gas-phase methodologies.

Analyze the qualitative and quantitative determinations of advanced and nanoscale ceramic powders.

Gain information about the profiles of selected companies and institutions involved in ceramic and nanoceramic powders.

Highlights

The global market for advanced and nanoscale ceramic powders will grow from nearly $14.6 billion in 2016 to $22.3 billion by 2021 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.9% for the period of 2016-2021.

The advanced ceramic material market will grow from $11.7 billion in 2016 to $16.1 billion by 2021,with a CAGR of 6.5%.

The nanosized ceramic material market will grow from nearly $2.9 billion in 2016 to nearly $6.3 billion by 2021, with a CAGR of 16.9%.

INTRODUCTION

Advanced ceramic and nanoceramic powders generally refer to inorganic nonmetallic granular materials that are fabricated from chemical processes, as differentiated from what are termed industrial minerals. The latter group is mined directly from the earth and purified and reduced in size to particular specifications. The advanced ceramic and nanoceramic powders covered in this report are oxides, carbides, nitrides and borides that, with a few exceptions, are sold as starting materials for solid commercial articles.

The origination of advanced ceramic powders in the post-World War II era was due to two factors: (1) a need for higher purity of ceramics for dielectric applications and (2) a need for a lower and smaller-size defect population for higher-temperature performance parts. These properties were not obtainable with processed minerals and therefore necessitated starting powder production by chemical precipitation and other methods. The fact that precipitated aluminum oxide (alumina) is an intermediate via the Bayer Process in the Hall-Heroult plating of aluminum metal contributed an already existing Advanced Ceramic Powder for utilization in advanced ceramic applications.

From the initial uses of alumina powder for ceramic substrates, where reproducible electric properties were required, use of precipitated powders spread to areas such as the barium titanate family of high-dielectric-constant capacitor materials, where in order to produce the proper ceramic material, pure small-particle-size precursors of barium and titanium oxides are necessary. Structural ceramics such as silicon carbide
and silicon nitride had long been identified as favorable materials in high temperature strength applications, but due to the small internal or surface defect size, which can cause fracture of these materials, more uniform chemically pure starting materials became desired than were commonly available in the mid-twentieth century.

The two critical properties of advanced ceramic powders that dominate the quality of fabricated ceramics derived from them are (1) particle size distribution and (2) chemical purity. The use of chemical precipitation or other controlled powder synthesis techniques enable the tailoring of particle size, size distribution and shape, while at the same time the purity can be established at the level of the starting chemicals utilized in the powder manufacturing. These properties are important in controlling every step of the ceramic manufacturing process including ceramic slurry rheology, particle compaction during pressing, initially formed article (green body) strength and drying behavior, microstructure development during heat treatment (sintering) and any subsequent annealing, and finally the properties of the finished part. The latter include the critical performance property (ies) of the finished part for which controlled starting powder is necessary.

The combination of the factors of reduced production costs and identification of appropriate markets has enabled nanoscale ceramic powders to find a commercial presence. Initially only obtainable in microgram quantities via vapor phase condensation techniques, more economical production methods have surfaced, including those adapted from chemical precursor methods developed for ceramic powders

Table Of Contents

Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 3
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 4
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4
INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 6
DISCLAIMER 6
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE
CERAMIC POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF ADVANCED AND NANOSIZED
CERAMIC POWDERS, 2015-2021 (%) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11
TABLE 1 COMMONLY USED ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIAL FAMILIES 11
ADVANCED CERAMIC POWDER MANUFACTURING 12
RandD SCALE PROCESSES 13
THERMAL DECOMPOSITION 14
CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) 14
PLASMA PROCESSES 14
TABLE 2 PLASMA SYNTHESIS OF CERAMIC POWDERS 14
FIGURE 1 SCHEMATIC OF DC ARC PLASMA FURNACE DEVELOPED BY THE JAPAN
NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR METALS 15
FIGURE 2 LOS ALAMOS RF PLASMA REACTOR 16
SOL-GEL TECHNIQUES 17
PRECIPITATION 17
HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS 18
EMULSION PROCESS 18
FIGURE 3 FLOWCHART OF EMULSION PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BARIUM
TITANATE 19
LASER SYNTHESIS 20
COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS/SELF-PROPAGATING HIGH-TEMPERATURE
SYNTHESIS 20
COMBINATORIALLY DISCOVERED MATERIALS 21
POWDER SYNTHESIS COMPARISON 21
TABLE 3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE POWDER SYNTHESIS
PROCESS 22
TABLE 4 VARIOUS CERAMIC MATERIALS USED IN THE POWDER SYNTHESIS
PROCESS 23
MATERIAL APPLICATIONS AND PROPERTIES 24
STRUCTURAL CERAMICS 24
ELECTRONIC CERAMICS 25
CERAMIC COATINGS 25
CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL RELATED 25
MEDICAL CERAMICS 25
TABLE 5 CURRENT AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF ADVANCED CERAMIC
MATERIALS 26
ADVANCED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS 27
TABLE 6 CURRENT AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF ADVANCED STRUCTURAL
CERAMICS 27
MONOLITHIC STRUCTURAL CERAMICS 28
TABLE 7 PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL ALUMINA CERAMICS 29
TABLE 8 PROPERTIES OF NORZIDE YZ-110HS TETRAGONAL ZIRCONIA CERAMICS 29
TABLE 9 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS AND CRITICAL FLAW SIZES OF MONOLITHIC AND
COMPOSITE CERAMIC MATERIALS 30
TABLE 10 PROPERTIES OF MONOLITHIC CERAMICS AND CERAMIC COMPOSITES 30
TABLE 11 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF VARIOUS ZIRCONIA CERAMICS 31
CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES 31
CERAMIC COATINGS 32
TABLE 12 HIGH-PERFORMANCE CERAMIC COATING MATERIALS AND THEIR
GENERAL APPLICATIONS 33
TABLE 13 REPRESENTATIVE FLAME AND PLASMA SPRAYED MATERIALS, MELTING
OR SOFTENING TEMPERATURES AND APPLICATIONS 33
ELECTRONIC CERAMICS 34
INSULATORS 35
TABLE 14 CERAMIC INSULATORS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 36
SUBSTRATES, IC PACKAGES AND MULTICHIP MODULES 36
TABLE 15 CERAMIC SUBSTRATE MATERIALS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 37
TABLE 16 CANDIDATE CERAMIC SUBSTRATE MATERIALS FOR ELECTRONICS 38
CAPACITORS 38
TABLE 17 DIELECTRIC MATERIALS IN THE FORMULATION OF MULTILAYERED
CERAMIC CAPACITORS (BARIUM TITANATE-BASED CERAMICS) 39
PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS 39
ADVANCED BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS 41
TABLE 18 CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 41
MAGNETIC FERRITES 42
SUPERCONDUCTORS 42
CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED CERAMICS 43
Ceramic Membranes and Filters 43
Catalysts and Catalytic Supports 44
CERAMICS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 45
Prosthetics 45
Diagnostics 46
TECHNICAL ISSUES 46
PARTICLE SIZE 46
RHEOLOGY CONTROL 47
UNIFORMITY 47
OTHER MATERIAL PROPERTIES 47
END-USER INDUSTRIES 48
COMPANIES 48
FIGURE 4 CERAMIC POWDER END-USER INDUSTRIES, 2015 (%) 48
OUTPUT 50
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 50
OVERALL WORLDWIDE MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC
POWDERS 50
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS
BY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 51
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS
BY END USE, 2015-2021 (%) 52
CHAPTER 4 OXIDE POWDERS 55
SUMMARY 55
MATERIAL TYPES 55
ALUMINA 55
SILICA 56
ZIRCONIA 56
FERRITES 56
TITANATES 56
BERYLLIA 56
MIXED COMPLEX OXIDES 57
SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION 57
ALUMINA 57
FIGURE 7 COMPARISON OF THE CONVENTIONAL SLURRY PROCESS FOR AL2O3
PRODUCTION AND THE PROCESS USING SOLUBLE ALKALI ADDITIVES 58
ZIRCONIA 59
Chemical Zirconia 59
Chlorination and Thermal Decomposition 59
Alkali Oxide Decomposition 59
Plasma Zirconia 60
FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC FOR PRODUCTION OF PLASMA DISSOCIATED ZIRCONIA 60
Partially and Fully Stabilized Zirconia Powders 61
Hydrothermal Method for High-Purity Zirconia 61
FERRITES 61
FIGURE 9 FLOW DIAGRAM OF A SPRAY ROASTER OF THE TYPE USED IN
COMMERCIAL FERRITE POWDER PRODUCTION 61
TITANATES 62
FIGURE 10 STEPS TO SYNTHESIZE BATIO3 62
SUPERCONDUCTOR POWDERS 63
PROPERTIES 63
APPLICATIONS 64
SUPPLIERS 65
TABLE 21 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF ADVANCED OXIDE CERAMIC POWDERS AND
PRODUCTS 65
MARKETS 69
ALUMINA 70
PRICES 70
SUBSEGMENTS 70
Electronics 70
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CERAMIC SUBSTRATES, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS,
MULTICHIP CERAMIC MODULES AND INSULATORS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR
ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 71
Structural 72
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR STRUCTURAL
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 72
Thermal Spray 72
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR THERMAL SPRAY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 73
Chemical Processing and Environmental-Related 73
Membranes 73
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 74
Filters 74
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR CERAMIC FILTERS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 74
Catalyst Supports 75
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING
CATALYST SUPPORTS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 75
Combined Chemical Processing and Environmental Market 75
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING
AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 76
Medical Applications 76
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 76
COMBINED ALUMINA MARKETS 76
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 77
BERYLLIA 77
PRICES 77
MARKETS 77
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BERYLLIA POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 78
ZIRCONIA 78
PRICES 78
MARKETS 79
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ZIRCONIA POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 80
TITANIA AND TITANATES 80
PRICES 80
MARKETS 80
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR CERAMIC CAPACITORS AND BARIUM TITANATE
POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS /$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC ELEMENTS AND LEAD
ZIRCONATE TITANATE POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TITANATE POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR
ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 81
FERRITES 82
PRICES 82
MARKETS 83
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HARD FERRITE PERMANENT MAGNETS, THROUGH
2021 ($/LBS/MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOFT FERRITE PERMANENT MAGNETS, THROUGH
2021 ($/LBS./MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONSUMPTION OF HARD AND SOFT FERRITE
POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 84
SILICA 84
PRICES 84
MARKETS 85
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONSUMPTION OF SILICA POWDER FOR CATALYST
SUPPORTS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 85
MIXED OXIDES 85
PRICES 85
MARKETS 86
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONSUMPTION OF MIXED OXIDE POWDER FOR
ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 86
OVERALL OXIDE MARKETS 87
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR OXIDE CERAMIC POWDERS BY APPLICATIONS
AND MATERIAL TYPES, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 87
CHAPTER 5 CARBIDE POWDERS 90
MATERIAL TYPES 90
SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION 90
ACHESON PROCESS FOR SILICON CARBIDE 90
THERMAX PROCESS 91
FIGURE 11 PROCESS FLOW FOR A TUNGSTEN CARBIDE FACILITY 91
ELECTRIC ARC PROCESS FOR BORON CARBIDE 92
SOL-GEL TECHNIQUE 92
POLYMER PYROLYSIS 93
GAS-PHASE PROCESS 93
NIST PROCESS 94
PRODUCTION OF POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMICS 95
PROPERTIES 95
APPLICATIONS 95
SUPPLIERS 96
TABLE 43 SIGNIFICANT SUPPLIERS OF CARBIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMICS APPLICATIONS 96
MARKETS 97
PRICES 98
MARKETS 98
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CARBIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 99
CHAPTER 6 NITRIDE POWDERS 101
MATERIAL TYPES 101
SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION 101
DIRECT NITRIDATION 101
CARBOTHERMAL REDUCTION 102
PYROLYSIS 102
GAS-PHASE REACTIONS 103
SOL-GEL TECHNIQUES 103
LASER OR MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS 103
PROPERTIES 103
APPLICATIONS 104
SUPPLIERS 105
TABLE 45 SUPPLIERS OF NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMICS
APPLICATIONS 105
MARKETS 106
SILICON NITRIDE 106
Prices 107
Markets 107
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SILICON NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 107
ALUMINUM NITRIDE 107
Prices 108
Markets 108
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINUM NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 109
BORON NITRIDE 109
Prices 109
Markets 109
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BORON NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 110
OVERALL NITRIDE MARKETS 110
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 110
CHAPTER 7 BORIDE POWDERS 112
MATERIAL TYPES 112
SYNTHESIS AND POWDER PREPARATION 112
PROPERTIES 113
APPLICATIONS 113
TITANIUM DIBORIDE 113
ZIRCONIUM DIBORIDE 114
SUPPLIERS 114
TABLE 50 SUPPLIERS OF BORIDE POWDERS AND ADVANCED CERAMICS 114
MARKETS 115
PRICES 115
CONSUMPTION 115
TABLE 51 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BORIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 115
CHAPTER 8 NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS 117
MATERIAL TYPES 117
PROPERTIES 118
TABLE 52 SURFACE AREAS OF SELECTED OXIDE POWDERS 119
FABRICATION OF NANOPOWDERS 120
GAS-PHASE PROCESSING 120
Gas-Phase Condensation 120
High Frequency Plasma-Chemical Process 121
Combustion Synthesis 121
Electroexplosion 121
Combustion Synthesis (Metal Chloride) 122
WET-PHASE PROCESSING 122
Conventional Chemical Precipitation 122
Hydrothermal Processing 123
Sol-Gel Processing 123
FIGURE 12 SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS CHART 124
Electric Dispersion Reaction 124
Thermochemical Synthesis 125
Microfluidizer Process 125
Microemulsion Technology 126
MECHANICAL PROCESSING 127
High-Energy Mechanical Milling 127
APPLICATIONS 128
TABLE 53 POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOCERAMIC
POWDERS 128
CERAMIC FILTERS 130
SUPERPLASTIC CERAMICS 131
LOW PROCESSING TEMPERATURE COMPONENTS 131
OPTICAL/ELECTRICAL 131
CERAMIC-CERAMIC JOINING 131
STRUCTURAL CERAMICS APPLICATIONS 132
CATALYSTS AND CATALYST SUPPORTS 132
FERROFLUIDS 132
SUNSCREENS 132
ADVANCED COATINGS 132
MEDICAL 133
SUPPLIERS 133
TABLE 54 SUPPLIERS OF NANOCERAMIC POWDERS AND PRODUCTS 133
PRODUCTS AND CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION 135
MARKET LEADERS 136
MARKETS 136
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CERAMIC NANOPOWDERS BY APPLICATIONS AND
MATERIALS TYPES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 136
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CERAMIC NANOPOWDERS BY SEGMENTS,
2015-2021 (%) 137
CHAPTER 9 PROFILES OF SELECTED COMPANIES AND INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN
CERAMIC AND NANOCERAMIC POWDERS 140
ABCR GMBH and CO. KG 140
ACUMENTRICS CORP. 140
ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS LLC 140
ALMATIS GMBH 141
ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 141
ALTEO NA LLC 141
ALUCHEM INC. 141
ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA (ALCOA) 142
AMSC 142
AREMCO PRODUCTS 142
ARGONIDE CORP. 142
BAIKOWSKI GROUP 143
BASF AG 143
BAYER AG 143
BLOOM ENERGY INC. 144
CABOT MICROELECTRONICS CORP. 144
CARBO CERAMICS 144
CATHAY PIGMENTS 144
C-E MINERALS 145
CERADYNE INC. 145
CERALOX DIVISION 145
CERAMATEC INC. 146
CERAMTEC GMBH 146
CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY INC. 146
COORSTEK INC. 147
CORNING INC. 147
COTRONICS CORP. 147
DA NANOMATERIALS 147
DEMETER TECHNOLOGIES 148
E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS and CO. 148
ELECTRO ABRASIVES CORP. 148
ELKEM SILICON MATERIALS 149
EVONIK INDUSTRIES, AG 149
FERRO CORP. 149
FERROTEC CORP. 150
FUJIFILM PLANAR SOLUTIONS LLC 150
FUJIMI CORP. 150
GELEST INC. 151
GFS CHEMICALS INC. 151
H.C. STARK GMBH 151
HADRON TECHNOLOGIES INC. 151
HOOSIER MAGNETICS INC. 152
INFRAMAT CORP. 152
INNOVA SUPERCONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. 152
INNOVNANO 153
ISHIHARA SANGYO KAISHA, LTD. 153
KENNAMETAL INC. 153
KYOCERA CORP. 154
MACH 1 INC. 154
MARKINTER CO. 154
MATERIALS MODIFICATION INC. 154
MATERION CORP. 155
MEL CHEMICALS 155
MER CORP. 155
MICRO ABRASIVES CORP. 156
MOMENTIVE PERFORMANCE MATERIALS INC. 156
MS TECHNOLOGY INC. 156
NANOCEROX 157
NANOGRAM CORP. 157
NANOPHASE TECHNOLOGIES INC. 157
NANOSYS CORP. 158
NEI CORP. 158
NEXCERIS LLC 158
NYACOL NANO TECHNOLOGIES INC. 159
OERLIKON METCO INC. 159
POWDER PROCESSING AND TECHNOLOGY 159
PQ CORP. 160
PRAXAIR SURFACE TECHNOLOGIES 160
PRAXAIR SURFACE TECHNOLOGIES INC. 161
PRIMET PRECISION MATERIALS INC. 161
READE ADVANCED MATERIALS 161
RHODIA (SOLVAY) 162
RIO TINTO ALCAN 162
SAINT-GOBAIN CERAMICS AND PLASTICS 162
STEWARD ADVANCED MATERIALS 163
STREM CHEMICALS 163
STRYKER ORTHOBIOLOGICS 163
SCI ENGINEERED MATERIALS INC. 163
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL COMPANY LTD 164
SUPERIOR GRAPHITE CO. 164
TOSOH CORP. 164
TRS TECHNOLOGIES INC. 165
UBE INDUSTRIES LTD. 165
UK ABRASIVES INC. 165
UMICORE 166
UNIMIN CORP. 166
UNITED STATES PRODUCTS CO. 166
US TECHNICAL CERAMICS 166
WASHINGTON MILLS ELECTRO MINERALS CORP. 167
YAGEO CORP. 167
Z-TECH LLC 167
ZIRCOA INC. 167
ZYP COATINGS INC. 168

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC
POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 COMMONLY USED ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIAL FAMILIES 11
TABLE 2 PLASMA SYNTHESIS OF CERAMIC POWDERS 14
TABLE 3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE POWDER SYNTHESIS PROCESS 22
TABLE 4 VARIOUS CERAMIC MATERIALS USED IN THE POWDER SYNTHESIS PROCESS 23
TABLE 5 CURRENT AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF ADVANCED CERAMIC
MATERIALS 26
TABLE 6 CURRENT AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF ADVANCED STRUCTURAL
CERAMICS 27
TABLE 7 PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL ALUMINA CERAMICS 29
TABLE 8 PROPERTIES OF NORZIDE YZ-110HS TETRAGONAL ZIRCONIA CERAMICS 29
TABLE 9 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS AND CRITICAL FLAW SIZES OF MONOLITHIC AND
COMPOSITE CERAMIC MATERIALS 30
TABLE 10 PROPERTIES OF MONOLITHIC CERAMICS AND CERAMIC COMPOSITES 30
TABLE 11 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF VARIOUS ZIRCONIA CERAMICS 31
TABLE 12 HIGH-PERFORMANCE CERAMIC COATING MATERIALS AND THEIR GENERAL
APPLICATIONS 33
TABLE 13 REPRESENTATIVE FLAME AND PLASMA SPRAYED MATERIALS, MELTING OR
SOFTENING TEMPERATURES AND APPLICATIONS 33
TABLE 14 CERAMIC INSULATORS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 36
TABLE 15 CERAMIC SUBSTRATE MATERIALS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 37
TABLE 16 CANDIDATE CERAMIC SUBSTRATE MATERIALS FOR ELECTRONICS 38
TABLE 17 DIELECTRIC MATERIALS IN THE FORMULATION OF MULTILAYERED
CERAMIC CAPACITORS (BARIUM TITANATE-BASED CERAMICS) 39
TABLE 18 CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 41
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC COMPONENTS, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 50
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 51
TABLE 21 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF ADVANCED OXIDE CERAMIC POWDERS AND
PRODUCTS 65
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CERAMIC SUBSTRATES, INTEGRATED CIRCUITS,
MULTICHIP CERAMIC MODULES AND INSULATORS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR
ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR STRUCTURAL
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR THERMAL SPRAY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR CERAMIC FILTERS, THROUGH
2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OXIDE POWDERS FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING
CATALYST SUPPORTS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING
AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINA POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BERYLLIA POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ZIRCONIA POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR CERAMIC CAPACITORS AND BARIUM TITANATE
POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS /$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC ELEMENTS AND LEAD
ZIRCONATE TITANATE POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TITANATE POWDER CONSUMPTION FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR HARD FERRITE PERMANENT MAGNETS, THROUGH
2021 ($/LBS/MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SOFT FERRITE PERMANENT MAGNETS, THROUGH
2021 ($/LBS./MILLIONS/$ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONSUMPTION OF HARD AND SOFT FERRITE
POWDERS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONSUMPTION OF SILICA POWDER FOR CATALYST
SUPPORTS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONSUMPTION OF MIXED OXIDE POWDER FOR
ADVANCED CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR OXIDE CERAMIC POWDERS BY APPLICATIONS AND
MATERIAL TYPES, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 43 SIGNIFICANT SUPPLIERS OF CARBIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMICS APPLICATIONS 96
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CARBIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 45 SUPPLIERS OF NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMICS
APPLICATIONS 105
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SILICON NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ALUMINUM NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 109
TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BORON NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED
CERAMIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR NITRIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 110
TABLE 50 SUPPLIERS OF BORIDE POWDERS AND ADVANCED CERAMICS 114
TABLE 51 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BORIDE POWDERS FOR ADVANCED CERAMIC
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION LBS/$ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 52 SURFACE AREAS OF SELECTED OXIDE POWDERS 119
TABLE 53 POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOCERAMIC
POWDERS 128
TABLE 54 SUPPLIERS OF NANOCERAMIC POWDERS AND PRODUCTS 133
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CERAMIC NANOPOWDERS BY APPLICATIONS AND
MATERIALS TYPES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 136

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF ADVANCED AND NANOSIZED
CERAMIC POWDERS, 2015-2021 (%) 8
FIGURE 1 SCHEMATIC OF DC ARC PLASMA FURNACE DEVELOPED BY THE JAPAN
NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR METALS 15
FIGURE 2 LOS ALAMOS RF PLASMA REACTOR 16
FIGURE 3 FLOWCHART OF EMULSION PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BARIUM
TITANATE 19
FIGURE 4 CERAMIC POWDER END-USER INDUSTRIES, 2015 (%) 48
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS
BY TYPE, 2015-2021 (%) 51
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR ADVANCED AND NANOSCALE CERAMIC POWDERS
BY END USE, 2015-2021 (%) 52
FIGURE 7 COMPARISON OF THE CONVENTIONAL SLURRY PROCESS FOR AL2O3
PRODUCTION AND THE PROCESS USING SOLUBLE ALKALI ADDITIVES 58
FIGURE 8 SCHEMATIC FOR PRODUCTION OF PLASMA DISSOCIATED ZIRCONIA 60
FIGURE 9 FLOW DIAGRAM OF A SPRAY ROASTER OF THE TYPE USED IN
COMMERCIAL FERRITE POWDER PRODUCTION 61
FIGURE 10 STEPS TO SYNTHESIZE BATIO3 62
FIGURE 11 PROCESS FLOW FOR A TUNGSTEN CARBIDE FACILITY 91
FIGURE 12 SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS CHART 124
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CERAMIC NANOPOWDERS BY SEGMENTS,
2015-2021 (%) 137

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