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Wood-Plastic Composites: Technologies and Global Markets

  • September 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 170 pages

This BCC Research report gives a comprehensive study of all cellulosic-plastic combinations as well as plastics that are direct competitors in the drive to replace lumber in building and construction markets. These segments include wood-plastic composites, plastic lumber, cellulosic plastics and natural fiber composites.

Use this report to:
- Learn about the history, current status and forecast scenario for four major products: wood-plastic composites (WPCs), plastic lumber, cellulosic plastics and natural fiber
composites.
- Receive market analysis by key resins such as polyethylene, PVC and polypropylene.
- Learn about the technical challenges inherent in producing WPCs.
- Receive profiles of key players in the industry.

Highlights
- The global market for wood-plastic composites (WPCs), cellulosic plastics, plastic lumber and natural fiber composites was valued at 2.8 million metric tons in 2013. This market is expected to increase from nearly 3.1 million metric tons in 2014 to 5.6 million metric tons in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.7% for the five-year period, 2014 to 2019.
- The building products segment is expected to grow from about 2.2 million metric tons in 2014 to nearly 3.8 million metric tons in 2019, at a CAGR of 11.6% from 2014 to 2019.
- Applications in automotive markets are expected to increase from 0.5 million metric tons in 2014 to about 1.1 million metric tons in 2019, at a CAGR of 15% from 2014 to 2019.

INTRODUCTION

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
This report is an update of what was to our knowledge the first comprehensive global report that examined all cellulosic-plastic combinations as well as plastics that are
direct competitors in the drive to replace lumber in building and construction markets. These segments include wood-plastic composites, plastic lumber, cellulosic plastics
and natural fiber composites. The update of that report is timely because of environmental pressures to reduce use of timber and eliminate use of toxic chemicals that preserve timber. It’s also timely because of a separate environmental initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through increased use of renewable resources as replacements for plastics based on petrochemicals. This is a particularly important factor in the automotive market in Europe, Japan and the United States. A third reason for doing the study is the enormous impact that infrastructure improvements in China will have on demand for innovative materials, such as wood-plastic composites.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the history, current status and forecast scenario for four major products: wood-plastic composites (WPCs), plastic lumber, cellulosic plastics and natural fiber composites. Their four major applications are: building products, automotive, infrastructure and other consumer/industrial products. The building products segment is further analyzed by its major components, as related to these products, namely decking; fencing/windows and doors; and other. In addition, the study further segments these markets by key resins such as polyethylene, PVC and polypropylene within each application and whether these resins are being used as plastic lumber or WPCs.

Other critical issues included in detail are technologies, production (e.g., compounding, injection molding, extrusion), use of additives (colorants, lubricants, coupling agents
and UV stabilizers), requisite properties required for each application, costs and pricing, marketing, competitive company strategies, distribution, product standards and testing, and the claims and counter-claims of companies producing these products.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. Extensive searches were made of the literature, including most of the leading trade
publications, as well as technical and government documents and information from trade associations. Additional information was gleaned from interviews with many of
the leading participants in these four market areas.

Table Of Contents

Wood-Plastic Composites: Technologies and Global Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF THE STUDY 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 2
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 3
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS,
PLASTIC LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC
TONS)
6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS,
PLASTIC LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 9
DEFINITIONS 9
CHAPTER 4 HISTORY 12
WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 12
OVERVIEW 12
INTERACTION OF TWO DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES 12
THE BEGINNING 12
ACTIVITIES IN THE 1990S 12
IMPACT OF USDA AND FOREST PRODUCT COMPANIES 13
ENCOURAGEMENT OF CHINESE GOVERNMENT 13
CONTRAST WITH PLASTIC LUMBER 14
CELLULOSICS 14
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 14
BACKGROUND 15
TYPES OF FIBERS 15
OUTLOOK 16
TECHNIQUES 16
PLASTIC LUMBER 16
CHAPTER 5 BACKGROUND 19
WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 19
OVERVIEW 19
USE OF ADDITIVES 19
USE OF FOAMS 20
APPLICATIONS OVERVIEW 20
NEW GENERATION PRODUCTS 20
SOME MARKETING ASPECTS 20
FUTURE 21
CELLULOSIC PLASTICS 21



BACKGROUND 21
CHEMISTRY 21
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 22
BACKGROUND 22
TYPES OF FIBERS 22
OUTLOOK 22
TECHNIQUES 23
PLASTIC LUMBER 23
BACKGROUND 23
COMPONENTS OF PLASTIC LUMBER SYSTEMS 23
CHAPTER 6 KEY COMPONENTS 25
WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 25
PROPERTIES 25
Background 25
Specific Properties 25
CELLUOSICS 26
PROPERTIES 26
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 26
BACKGROUND 26
TABLE 1 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF GLASS AND NATURAL FIBERS 26
COMPARISON WITH GLASS FIBERS 26
PLASTIC LUMBER 27
OVERVIEW 27
WPC AND PLASTIC LUMBER CONSUMER COMPARISONS 27
CHAPTER 7 ADVANTAGES 29
WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 29
OVERVIEW 29
RELATIVE COSTS 30
RECYCLING ASPECTS 30
COLORING 30
STANDARD ADVANTAGES 30
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 31
BAST FIBERS 31
KENAF 31
FLAX 32
HEMP 32
SISAL 33
PLASTIC LUMBER 33
CHAPTER 8 LIMITATIONS 36
WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 36
CELLULOSICS 36
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 37
PLASTIC LUMBER 37



CHAPTER 9 GLOBAL MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECAST 39
WPC MARKET 39
OVERVIEW 39
TABLE 2 GLOBAL WPC MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 39
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL WPC MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 39
NORTH AMERICA 40
TABLE 3 UNITED STATES HOUSING STARTS, 2009-2014 (THOUSAND UNITS) 40
TABLE 4 TREX ANNUAL SALES DATA, 2009-2013 (THOUSAND DOLLARS) 41
EUROPE 41
ASIA 41
CELLULOSIC PLASTICS 42
OVERVIEW 42
TABLE 5 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 43
FIGURE 2 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2011-2019 (METRIC
TONS) 43
NORTH AMERICA 43
TABLE 6 GLOBAL PRODUCERS OF CELLULOSE PLASTIC 44
EUROPE 44
ASIA 44
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 45
OVERVIEW 45
TABLE 7 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE COMPOUND MARKET, THROUGH
2019 (METRIC TONS) 45
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE COMPOUND MARKET, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 45
NORTH AMERICA 46
EUROPE 46
ASIA 47
PLASTIC LUMBER 47
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 47
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 47
NORTH AMERICA 48
EUROPE 48
ASIA 48
CHAPTER 10 RESINS 50
OVERVIEW 50
TABLE 9 RESINS USED IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES (%) 50
FIGURE 5 RESINS USED IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES (%) 50
POLYETHYLENES 51
BACKGROUND 51
HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) 51
Background 51
POLYETHYLENE PRODUCERS 51
TABLE 10 SELECTED MAJOR HDPE PRODUCERS AND CAPACITIES, 2013 (MILLION
METRIC TONS/YEAR) 52
POLYPROPYLENE 52



BACKGROUND 52
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 52
PROPERTIES 53
PRODUCERS AND CAPACITIES 53
TABLE 11 KEY POLYPROPYLENE PRODUCERS AND CAPACITIES, 2013 (MILLION
METRIC TONS/YEAR) 53
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE 53
BACKGROUND 53
FORMS OF PVC 54
PRODUCERS AND CAPACITIES 54
TABLE 12 KEY PVC PRODUCERS AND THEIR CAPACITIES, 2013 (MILLION METRIC
TONS/YEAR) 54
OVERVIEW OF RESIN CHOICES FOR WPCS, PLASTIC LUMBER AND NATURAL
FIBER COMPOSITES 54
BACKGROUND 54
TABLE 13 PRICES OF MATERIALS USED IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES, JUNE 2014
(DOLLARS PER POUND) 55
RESIN COMPETITIVE SCENARIO 55
TABLE 14 DENSITIES OF MATERIALS USED IN WPCS (G/CM3) 56
CHAPTER 11 FILLERS AND REINFORCEMENTS 59
WOOD FLOUR 59
GLASS FIBERS 60
OVERVIEW 60
SIZING 60
GLASS FIBER TYPES 60
OTHER FILLERS 60
NATURAL FIBERS 61
OVERVIEW 61
PRICING 61
CHAPTER 12 PRODUCTION 63
BACKGROUND 63
PLASTIC LUMBER 63
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 63
WPCS 64
OVERVIEW 64
WOOD FEEDSTOCKS FOR WPCS 65
Overview 65
Wood Feedstocks Suitable For WPCs 65
Quality Issues 66
PLASTIC BINDER MATERIALS 66
WOOD DRYING 66
COMPOUNDING 66
CHAPTER 13 FORMING PROCESSES 69
BACKGROUND 69
CHOICES TO BE MADE 69



TYPES OF EQUIPMENT 69
PHYSICAL PROPERTY PROFILE 70
CHALLENGES TO WPC PROCESSING 70
EXTRUSION 70
INJECTION MOLDING 71
BACKGROUND 71
HISTORY 71
TECHNOLOGY 72
OTHER APPLICATIONS 72
FOAMED PRODUCTS 72
BACKGROUND 72
FOAMING TECHNOLOGIES 73
PHYSICAL PROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS 73
WOOD FIBER PELLET USAGE 74
COMPRESSION MOLDING 74
OTHER FABRICATION PROCESSES 74
CHAPTER 14 ADDITIVES 76
BACKGROUND 76
FUNCTIONS 76
OVERVIEW 76
TABLE 15 OVERVIEW OF WPC/PLASTIC LUMBER/NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE
ADDITIVES 77
LOADING LEVELS 77
USE OF MINERAL FILLERS AS ADDITIVES 77
COLORANTS 78
OVERVIEW 78
COMPANY ACTIVITIES 79
Accel 79
Clariant 79
LUBRICANTS 79
BACKGROUND 79
INTERNAL LUBRICANTS 80
EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS 80
EXAMPLES OF LUBRICANTS USED 80
GENERAL CHEMISTRY OF WPC LUBRICANTS 80
COMPANY PRODUCTS 81
Struktol 81
Lonza 81
Clariant Masterbatches 81
COUPLING AGENTS 81
BACKGROUND 81
MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS 82
Functions 82
Impact 82
CHEMICAL TYPES OF COUPLING AGENTS 82
Acid Anhydrides 82
Organosilanes 83



Methylol Phenolic-Grafted Polyolefins 83
COMPANIES 83
Chemtura Corp. 83
Equistar Chemical 83
DuPont 83
Westlake 83
ANTIOXIDANTS/UV STABILIZERS 84
FLAME RETARDANTS 84
ORGANIC BROMINE COMPOUNDS 85
Antimony Oxide 85
Alumina Trihydrate 85
CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS 85
MOLYBDENUM AND MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS 86
PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS 86
HEAT STABILIZERS 87
COMPANIES 87
FOAMING AGENTS 88
OVERVIEW 88
NATURE OF CFAS 88
COMPANY PRODUCTS 89
Reedy International 89
Clariant Masterbatches 89
Bergen International 89
ANTIMICROBIALS 89
OVERVIEW 89
COMPANY PRODUCTS 90
Lonza 90
BASF 90
OTHER ADDITIVES 90
WPC ADDITIVE SUPPLIERS 90
TABLE 16 SELECTED KEY WPC ADDITIVE SUPPLIERS 91
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 91
TABLE 17 NORTH AMERICAN PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER
COMPOSITE ADDITIVE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 92
FIGURE 6 NORTH AMERICAN PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER
COMPOSITE ADDITIVE MARKET, 2011-2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 92
CHAPTER 15 APPLICATIONS 94
BACKGROUND 94
OVERVIEW 94
BUILDING PRODUCTS 94
INFRASTRUCTURE 95
AUTOMOTIVE 95
OTHER INDUSTRIAL/CONSUMER PRODUCTS 95
OUTDOOR PRODUCTS ARE DOMINANT 95
OTHER APPLICATIONS 96
BROAD COMPETITIVE BACKGROUND OF WPCS AND PLASTIC LUMBER
APPLICATIONS 96



TABLE 18 HOW WPCS AND PLASTIC LUMBER STACK UP 96
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 97
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS, PLASTIC
LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 98
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS, PLASTIC
LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, 2011- 2019 (METRIC TONS) 99
BUILDING PRODUCTS/CONSTRUCTION 99
OVERVIEW 99
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 100
TABLE 20 GLOBAL BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCT, THROUGH
2019 (METRIC TONS) 101
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCT,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 101
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN WPC BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 102
TABLE 22 RECOVERED PLASTIC FILM IN THE U.S., 2008-2012 (POUNDS) 103
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKETS FOR RECOVERED PLASTIC FILM IN 2012 (%) 104
FIGURE 9 U.S. MARKETS FOR RECOVERED PLASTIC FILM IN 2012 (%) 104
TABLE 24 GLOBAL WPC BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET, BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 105
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL WPC BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 105
TABLE 25 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 107
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 107
DECKING 107
Overview 107
Sources of Plastic Portion of Plastic Lumber and WPC Decking 108
Properties of Plastic Lumber and WPC Decking Materials 108
Relative Costs 108
Marketing Aspects 109
WPC/Plastic Lumber Decking Maintenance 109
Market Estimates and Forecasts 110
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 110
FIGURE 12 NORTH AMERICAN WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 110
TABLE 27 GLOBAL WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC
TONS) 111
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 111
TABLE 28 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 112
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 112
WINDOWS/DOORS 113
Overview 113
Product Types 113
RandD Developments 114
Other Factors in the Market 114



Standards 115
Key Manufacturers 115
FENCES 115
Background 115
Technologies 116
Building Codes/Standards 116
New Developments 116
WPC Involvement 117
WINDOW/DOOR PROFILES 117
Overview 117
Types of Window Materials 117
Background 117
Aluminum 117
Plastics 118
Steel 118
Wood 118
Molding/Trim 119
RAILINGS 119
Overview 119
Code Requirements 120
ROOFING 120
SIDING 121
Overview 121
Technology 121
Rigid Cellular (Foamed) PVC 121
Fiber Cement Composites 122
Use of WPCs 122
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 122
TABLE 29 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER AND WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR
MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 122
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER AND WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR
MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 122
TABLE 30 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY
RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 123
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY
RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 123
TABLE 31 GLOBAL WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 124
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY RESIN,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 124
TABLE 32 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER MISCELLANEOUS
BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 125
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER MISCELLANEOUS
BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 125
TABLE 33 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS
MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 126
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS
MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 126
TABLE 34 GLOBAL WPC MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 127



FIGURE 20 GLOBAL WPC MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 127
AUTOMOTIVE 128
OVERVIEW 128
HISTORICAL USAGE 128
NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES 129
Background 129
Objectives 129
Cost 130
Filler Competitive Scenario: Wood vs. Natural Fiber vs. Mineral Fillers 130
Limitations 131
Work with Thermosets 131
Other Developments 132
European Activities 132
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 133
TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE, WPC AND CELLULOSIC PLASTIC
CONSUMPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 133
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, WPC AND CELLULOSIC PLASTIC
CONSUMPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 133
TABLE 36 GLOBAL WPC AND NATURAL FIBER CONSUMPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE
MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 134
RELATED DEVELOPMENTS 135
INFRASTRUCTURE 136
OVERVIEW 136
MARINE 137
Overview 137
CCA Issues 137
Boardwalks 138
RAILROAD 138
Background 138
TABLE 37 WEIGHT COMPARISONS OF COMPETITIVE MATERIALS FOR RAILROAD
TIES (POUNDS PER CUBIC FOOT) 139
Usage by Railroads 139
TABLE 38 GLOBAL PLASTIC RAILROAD TIE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 140
Plastics Used 141
TABLE 39 GLOBAL PLASTIC RAILROAD TIE MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 141
Suppliers 142
BRIDGES 142
HIGHWAY GUARDRAIL BLOCKS AND SOUND BARRIERS 143
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 144
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, AND PLASTIC LUMBER IN
THE INFRASTRUCTURE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 144
MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIAL/CONSUMER APPLICATIONS 144
OVERVIEW 144
PALLETS 145
Overview 145
Role of WPCs 145
Role of Plastic Lumber 145



New Developments 145
Negative Aspects 146
OUTDOOR FURNITURE 146
TABLE 41 EPA'S RECOMMENDED RECOVERED MATERIALS CONTENT LEVELS FOR
PARK BENCHES AND PICNIC TABLES (%) 146
OTHER OUTDOOR PLASTIC LUMBER/WPC APPLICATIONS 147
INTERIOR APPLICATIONS 147
Overview 147
Furniture Products 147
ADDITIONAL MISCELLANEOUS PLASTIC LUMBER/WPC PRODUCTS 147
MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 148
TABLE 42 GLOBAL WPC, PLASTIC LUMBER, NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES AND
CELLULOSICS IN THE MISCELLANEOUS CONSUMER/INDUSTRIAL MARKETS,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS)
148
CHAPTER 16 TECHNOLOGY 150
OVERVIEW 150
BACKGROUND 150
MOISTURE ISSUES 150
ROLE OF COUPLING AGENTS 150
PLASTICS ISSUES 152
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AFFECTED BY PLASTIC-WOOD RATIOS 152
WOOD FIBERS, FLOURS AND CHIPS 152
WOOD TYPES MAKE A DIFFERENCE 152
HANDLING THE WOOD 153
SORTING AND WORKING WITH WOOD 153
SPECIFIC RESINS USED 153
TABLE 43 COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF WPCS BY RESIN 154
TABLE 44 SELECTED WEIGHT COMPARISONS OF WOODS AND WPCS 154
REASONS FOR DELAYS IN COMMERCIALIZATION OF WPCS 154
MOISTURE IS STILL AN IMPORTANT TECHNICAL ISSUE 155
COOLING PROBLEMS 155
TECHNICAL CHALLENGES 156
BACKGROUND 156
MAINTAINING PRODUCT CONSISTENCY 156
INJECTION MOLDING ASPECTS 156
NEW TECHNOLOGIES 156
LONG FIBERS 156
NOVEL NONEXTRUSION PROCESS 157
USE OF POULTRY FEATHERS 157
RAYONIER AND USDA RandD EFFORTS 158
CHAPTER 17 STANDARDS AND TESTING 160
BACKGROUND 160
ASTM STANDARDS 160
WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 160
PLASTIC LUMBER 161
TABLE 45 ASTM STANDARDS FOR PLASTIC LUMBER 162



CHAPTER 18 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 164
OVERVIEW 164
MAJOR COMPANIES INVOLVED 164
COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 164
FOREST PRODUCT COMPANIES' INVOLVEMENT 165
CHAPTER 19 MARKETING 167
OVERVIEW 167
PRODUCTS 167
MARKET DRIVERS 168
BARRIERS TO GROWTH 168
STRATEGIES 168
DISTRIBUTION 169
CHAPTER 20 FUTURE TRENDS 171
CHAPTER 21 COMPANY PROFILES 173
ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL RECYCLING TECHNOLOGIES INC. (AERT) 173
AMERICAN WOOD FIBERS 174
ANDERSEN WINDOWS 174
ARTOWOOD CO. 175
A. SCHULMAN 175
AXION INTERNATIONAL 176
B+C EXTRUSION SYSTEMS (FOSHAN) LTD. 177
BATTENFELD-CINCINNATI 177
BATTENFELD-CINCINNATI USA 177
BandF PLASTICS 178
BEDFORD TECHNOLOGIES 178
BOISE CASCADE 178
BRAMBLES, LTD. 179
CERTAINTEED 179
CPG INTERNATIONAL INC. 180
AZEK BUILDING PRODUCTS INC. 180
CRANE PLASTICS MANUFACTURING 180
DEXX CORP. 181
FASALEX 181
FIBERON 181
FINDOCK 182
FKUR KUNSTSTOFF 182
GUANGZHOU KINDWOOD CO. 182
GREINER EXTRUSION 183
MAS MASCHINEN- UND ANLAGENBAU SCHULZ GMBH 183
NEWTECHWOOD LTD 183
NEWWOOD CORP. 184
RENOLIT AG 184
SOLVAY 184



STRANDEX CORP. 185
STRUCKTOL 185
TAMKO BUILDING PRODUCTS 186
TECH-WOOD NORTH AMERICA 186
TONG XIANG XING LONG FINE CHEMICAL LTD. (XL) 187
TREX CO. 187
UNIVERSAL FOREST PRODUCTS 188
WPC CORP. (WPCC) 188
CHAPTER 22 APPENDIX 191
ACRONYMS 191


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS,
PLASTIC LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 6
TABLE 1 SELECTED PROPERTIES OF GLASS AND NATURAL FIBERS 26
TABLE 2 GLOBAL WPC MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 39
TABLE 3 UNITED STATES HOUSING STARTS, 2009-2014 (THOUSAND UNITS) 40
TABLE 4 TREX ANNUAL SALES DATA, 2009-2013 (THOUSAND DOLLARS) 41
TABLE 5 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 43
TABLE 6 GLOBAL PRODUCERS OF CELLULOSE PLASTIC 44
TABLE 7 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE COMPOUND MARKET, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 45
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 47
TABLE 9 RESINS USED IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES (%) 50
TABLE 10 SELECTED MAJOR HDPE PRODUCERS AND CAPACITIES, 2013 (MILLION
METRIC TONS/YEAR) 52
TABLE 11 KEY POLYPROPYLENE PRODUCERS AND CAPACITIES, 2013 (MILLION
METRIC TONS/YEAR) 53
TABLE 12 KEY PVC PRODUCERS AND THEIR CAPACITIES, 2013 (MILLION METRIC
TONS/YEAR) 54
TABLE 13 PRICES OF MATERIALS USED IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES, JUNE 2014
(DOLLARS PER POUND) 55
TABLE 14 DENSITIES OF MATERIALS USED IN WPCS (G/CM3) 56
TABLE 15 OVERVIEW OF WPC/PLASTIC LUMBER/NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE
ADDITIVES 77
TABLE 16 SELECTED KEY WPC ADDITIVE SUPPLIERS 91
TABLE 17 NORTH AMERICAN PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER
COMPOSITE ADDITIVE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 92
TABLE 18 HOW WPCS AND PLASTIC LUMBER STACK UP 96
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS, PLASTIC
LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 98
TABLE 20 GLOBAL BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCT, THROUGH
2019 (METRIC TONS) 101
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN WPC BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 102
TABLE 22 RECOVERED PLASTIC FILM IN THE U.S., 2008-2012 (POUNDS) 103
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKETS FOR RECOVERED PLASTIC FILM IN 2012 (%) 104
TABLE 24 GLOBAL WPC BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET, BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 105
TABLE 25 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 107
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 110
TABLE 27 GLOBAL WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 111
TABLE 28 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 112
TABLE 29 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER AND WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR
MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 122
TABLE 30 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY
RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 123



TABLE 31 GLOBAL WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH
2019 (METRIC TONS) 124
TABLE 32 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER MISCELLANEOUS
BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 125
TABLE 33 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET
BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 126
TABLE 34 GLOBAL WPC MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 127
TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE, WPC AND CELLULOSIC PLASTIC
CONSUMPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 133
TABLE 36 GLOBAL WPC AND NATURAL FIBER CONSUMPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE
MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 134
TABLE 37 WEIGHT COMPARISONS OF COMPETITIVE MATERIALS FOR RAILROAD TIES
(POUNDS PER CUBIC FOOT) 139
TABLE 38 GLOBAL PLASTIC RAILROAD TIE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 140
TABLE 39 GLOBAL PLASTIC RAILROAD TIE MARKET BY RESIN, THROUGH 2019
(METRIC TONS) 141
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, AND PLASTIC LUMBER IN
THE INFRASTRUCTURE MARKET, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS) 144
TABLE 41 EPA'S RECOMMENDED RECOVERED MATERIALS CONTENT LEVELS FOR
PARK BENCHES AND PICNIC TABLES (%) 146
TABLE 42 GLOBAL WPC, PLASTIC LUMBER, NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES AND
CELLULOSICS IN THE MISCELLANEOUS CONSUMER/INDUSTRIAL MARKETS,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONS)
148
TABLE 43 COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF WPCS BY RESIN 154
TABLE 44 SELECTED WEIGHT COMPARISONS OF WOODS AND WPCS 154
TABLE 45 ASTM STANDARDS FOR PLASTIC LUMBER 162


LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS,
PLASTIC LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 7
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL WPC MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 39
FIGURE 2 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2011-2019 (METRIC
TONS) 43
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITE COMPOUND MARKET, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 45
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 47
FIGURE 5 RESINS USED IN WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES (%) 50
FIGURE 6 NORTH AMERICAN PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER
COMPOSITE ADDITIVE MARKET, 2011-2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 92
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR APPLICATIONS OF WPCS, CELLULOSICS, PLASTIC
LUMBER AND NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, 2011- 2019 (METRIC TONS) 99
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCT, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 101
FIGURE 9 U.S. MARKETS FOR RECOVERED PLASTIC FILM IN 2012 (%) 104
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL WPC BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 105
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 107
FIGURE 12 NORTH AMERICAN WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC
TONS) 110
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL WPC DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 111
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER DECKING MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019
(METRIC TONS) 112
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER AND WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR
MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 122
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY
RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 123
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL WPC FENCING AND WINDOW/DOOR MARKET BY RESIN,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 124
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER, WPC AND NATURAL FIBER MISCELLANEOUS
BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 125
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL PLASTIC LUMBER MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS
MARKET BY RESIN, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 126
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL WPC MISCELLANEOUS BUILDING PRODUCTS MARKET BY RESIN,
2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 127
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES, WPC AND CELLULOSIC PLASTIC
CONSUMPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE MARKET, 2011-2019 (METRIC TONS) 133

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