Analyzing Advanced Biofuels

  • July 2011
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search

Advanced biofuels are the latest trend in the biofuels industry these days. Scientists all over the world are trying to create fuel from the unlikeliest of materials. Waste materials, chicken feathers, plastic bags, wood, and many other sources are being used to create a next generation of biofuels known as advanced biofuels.

Advanced biofuels are being looked at as an alternative to food crops that are being used as biofuels currently. Companies producing advanced biofuels are looking at a low cost option for producing fuel. Some of these options include algae, bacteria, yeast, and cellulose, amongst others.

Aruvian's R'search analyzes the growing industry of advanced biofuels in its research report Analyzing Advanced Biofuels.

We begin with an analysis of the basics of biofuels. In this section we analyze the background of biofuels, major biofuels, uses of biofuels, etc. We also analyze the three types of biofuels, namely, liquid biofuels, solid biofuels, and gas biofuels. The economics of biofuels and the impact of biofuels on various aspects of human life is looked at. Impact on policies, environmental and economic impact, as well as the impact on engines and rural development are analyzed.

Moving to section 2 of the report, we begin an analysis of advanced biofuels with a definition of advanced biofuels. The advantages of advanced biofuels, technical developments, and the developmental challenges facing the industry are discussed.

Technology obviously plays a very important role in this field and we take a look at the technical features of advanced biofuels through an analysis of the manufacturing processes, production of lignocellulosic bioethanol, production of synthetic biofuels, production of biohydrogen, etc.

The economic aspects and environmental effects of advanced biofuels is also looked at.

The emergence of lignocellulosic biofuels as an important segment of advanced biofuels is discussed along with the production of lignocellulosic biomass.

Moving to section 3, we analyze second generation biofuels.

Conversion routes, biomass composition, second generation biofuel technologies, and the GHG emissions from second generation biofuels are analyzed. The different types of second generation biofuels analyzed in this report include bioDME, bioethanol and biobutanol, biohydrogen, biomethanol, DMF, Fischer-Tropsch fuels, hydro thermal upgrading (HTU), mixed alcohols, and wood diesel.

Second generation biofuel feedstocks that are analyzed in this report include bioethanol, black liquor, lignocellulosic energy crops, gas biomatter (methane), and green waste.

We carry out a technological analysis of second generation biofuels that includes a look at biochemistry, co-current fixed bed, counter-current fixed bed, entrained flow gasifier, fluidized bed reactor, and others.

The impact of the economic recession on the market for second generation biofuels is analyzed, followed by an analysis of the factors driving growth of second generation biofuels.

We carry out an in-depth analysis of lignocellulosic biofuels, lignocellulosic ethanol, synthetic biofuels, and biohydrogen in this research offering.

An analysis of next generation biorefineries is also included as without these technologically advanced biorefineries, it will not be possible to boost the growth of advanced biofuels.

Investment is a critical part of any industry and it holds true for second generation biofuels as well. We analyze the investment profile of the second generation biofuels industry and follow it on with a country-wise analysis of the market for second generation biofuels in Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa.

Section 3 analyzes third generation biofuels or algal fuels.

The section explores the technologies involved in the process of converting algae into biofuel, the advantages and disadvantages of algae, the challenges facing the industry in commercializing this technology and much more. A section on algae and carbon capture along with the scenarios of regulated versus unregulated carbon marketplace is further included in this research report.

The section also takes a look at the potential competition that algal development faces in this particular field, that is, from petroleum, unconventional fossil fuels, and other biofuels.

Challenges facing third generation biofuels is also discussed.

Section 4 is a brief profile of fourth generation biofuels as these are still under development and not much information is available at the moment.

Section 5 analyzes the major players in the field of advanced biofuels such as Abengoa Bioenergy, Air Liquide, AlgaeLink, Amyris Biotech, Algaewheel, Archer Daniels, Aquaflow Bionomic, BASF SE, Blue Marble Energy, and many more.

Summing up, Aruvian’s report Analyzing Advanced Biofuels is a complete guide to this lucrative market and is well suited for researchers and investors alike.

Table Of Contents

Executive Summary

Section 1: Understanding Biofuels

A. What are Biofuels?
A.1 History of Biofuels
A.2 Major Biofuels
A.3 Uses of Biofuels
A.4 What are Direct Biofuels?
A.5 Looking at Biobutanol
A.6 Looking at Ethanol and Biodiesel
A.6.1 Ethanol
A.6.2 Biodiesel
A.7 Pros and Cons of Biofuels
A.8 Future of Biofuels

B. What are Liquid Biofuels?
B.1 Overview
B.2 Bioalcohols
B.3 Biodiesel
B.4 Bioethers/Fuel Ethers
B.5 Green Diesel
B.6 Vegetable Oil
B.6.1 Single Tank Conversions
B.6.2 Vegetable Oil Blended Diesel Fuel

C. What are Solid Biofuels?
C.1 Overview
C.2 Characteristics of Solid Biofuels
C.3 Types of Solid Biofuels
C.3.1 Biomass Pellets
C.3.2 Char
C.3.3 Wood Fuel

D. What are Gas Biofuels?
D.1 Biogas
D.2 Biopropane
D.3 Synthetic Natural Gas
D.4 Syngas

E. Economics of Biofuels
E.1 Feedstock Costs
E.2 Processing Costs
E.3 Cost of Sales and Use
E.4 Overall Cost
E.5 Retail Cost and Tax Incentives

F. Impact of Biofuels
F.1 Policy Impact on Biofuels
F.2 Environmental and Economic Impact of Biofuels
F.3 Impact on Engines
F.4 Impact on Rural Development

G. Metamorphosis of the Energy Industry and Biofuels

H. Renewable Feedstocks for Biofuels

Section 2: Advanced Biofuels

A. What are Advanced Biofuels?
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Technology Development
A.3 Advantages of Advanced Biofuels
A.4 Developmental Challenges facing Advanced Biofuels

B. Technical Features of Advanced Biofuels
B.1 Overview
B.2 Manufacturing Processes
B.3 Production of Lignocellulosic Bioethanol
B.4 Production of Synthetic Biofuels
B.5 Production of Biohydrogen
B.6 Biogas
B.7 Economical Aspects
B.8 Environmental Effects
B.9 Technological Characteristics
B.10 Conclusion

C. Potential of Biomass

D. Emergence of Lignocellulosic Biofuels
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Production of Lignocellulosic Biomass
D.2.1 Single Molecule Fuels
D.2.2 Mixture of Fuels

Section 3: Analyzing Second Generation Biofuels

A. What are Second Generation Biofuels?
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Second Generation Biofuel Technologies
A.3 Conversion Routes
A.4 Biomass Composition
A.4.1 Cellulose
A.4.2 Hemicellulose
A.4.3 Lignin
A.4.4 Water
A.4.5 Ash and Other Components
A.4.6 Validation of Surrogate Molecules
A.5 GHG Emissions from Second Generation Biofuels

B. Types of Second Generation Biofuels
B.1 BioDME
B.2 Bioethanol and Biobutanol
B.3 Biohydrogen
B.4 Biomethanol
B.5 DMF
B.6 Fischer-Tropsch Fuels
B.7 Hydro Thermal Upgrading (HTU)
B.8 Mixed Alcohols
B.9 Wood Diesel

C. Second Generation Feedstocks
C.1 Bioethanol
C.2 Black Liquor
C.3 Lignocellulosic Energy Crops
C.4 Gas Biomatter (Methane)
C.5 Green Waste

D. Technological Profile of Second Generation Biofuels
D.1 Biochemistry
D.2 Co-Current Fixed Bed
D.3 Counter-Current Fixed Bed
D.4 Entrained Flow Gasifier
D.5 Fluidized Bed Reactor
D.6 Gasification
D.7 Pyrolysis
D.8 Torrefaction

E. Economic Recession and the Second Generation Biofuels Market

F. Factors Driving Growth of Second Generation Biofuels
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Favorable Regulations
F.3 Blending Mandates Ensuring Proper Consumption
F.4 Trade Opportunities
F.5 Federal Funding
F.6 Foreign Investment
F.7 Production and Trade of Feedstock
F.8 Scientific Cooperation in RandD

G. Analyzing Lignocellulosic Biofuels
G.1 Introduction to Lignocellulosic Biofuels
G.2 Potential of Lignocellulosic Biofuels
G.3 Producing Fuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass
G.4 Types of Biofuels Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass
G.4.1 Single Molecule Fuels or Additives
G.4.2 Classical Fuels
G.5 Lignocellulosic Biomass Structure
G.6 Biomass to Fuel Conversion Process
G.7 Biomass Catalytic Processing
G.8 Upgradation of Next Generation Biorefineries
G.9 Lignocellulosic Biofuels Feedstocks

H. Analyzing Lignocellulosic Ethanol
H.1 Introduction
H.2 Role of Size Reduction
H.3 Purpose of Pre-Treatment
H.4 Role of Hydrolysis
H.4.1 Hydrolysis of the Celluloses
H.4.2 Hydrolysis of the Hemi-Celluloses
H.5 Role of Fermentation
H.6 Role of Distillation
H.7 Process Integration in Lignocellulose Ethanol Production
H.7.1 Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation
H.8 Key Challenges
H.8.1 Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation
H.8.2 Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Current Fermentation
H.8.3 Consolidated BioProcessing

I. Analyzing Synthetic Biofuels
I.1 Introduction
I.2 Role of Gasification
I.2.1 Types of Gasifiers
I.2.2 Fixed-bed Gasifiers: Updraft Gasifier
I.2.3 Fixed-bed Gasifiers: Downdraft Gasifier
I.2.4 Fixed-bed Gasifiers: Other Types
I.2.5 Fluidized-bed Gasifier: Stationery Fluidized Bed (SFB) Gasifier
I.2.6 Fluid-bed Gasifier: Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Gasifier
I.2.7 Fluid-bed Gasifier: Circulating Fluidized Two-Bed Gasifier
I.2.8 Entrained Flow Gasifier
I.3 Main Components of Product Gas
I.3.1 Gasification Temperature
I.3.2 Gasification Pressure
I.3.3 Gasification Agent
I.3.4 Type of Gasification Reactor
I.3.5 Type of Biomass Used as Fuel
I.4 Reasons for Gas Cleaning
I.4.1 Dust and Alkali Metal Compounds
I.4.2 Tar
I.4.3 Sulfur Compounds
I.4.4 Nitrogen and Chloride (Halogenide) Compounds
I.5 Processes for Gas Upgrading
I.5.1 Water-Gas-Shift (WGS) Reaction
I.5.2 Gas Reforming
I.5.3 Removal of Inert Gas Fractions - Mainly CO2
I.6 Fuel Synthesis Pathways
I.6.1 Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Synthesis
I.6.1.1 Synthesis
I.6.1.2 Upgrading of the Raw FT Product
I.6.2 Bio-SNG Production
I.6.2.1 Methanation and Upgrading
I.6.2.2 Drying
I.6.2.3 Removal of Carbon Dioxide (Methane Accumulation)
I.6.2.4 Gas Compression
I.6.3 Production of Ethanol and Higher Alcohols via Gasification
I.6.3.1 Thermo-chemical Production of Alcohols via Gasification
I.6.3.2 Microbiological Production of Alcohols via Gasification

J. Analysis of Biohydrogen
J.1 Introduction
J.2 Process Routes of Hydrogen Production from Biomass
J.3 Gasification Coupled with Water Gas Shift
J.4 Fast Pyrolysis with Reforming of Carbohydrate Fraction of Bio-Oil
J.5 Other Gasification Process
J.6 Hydrogen Production from Gasified Biomass
J.7 Aqueous Conversion of Whole Biomass Under Supercritical Conditions
J.8 Microbial Conversion of Biomass
J.9 Hydrogen Production through Different Process Routes

K. Next Generation Biorefineries
K.1 Introduction
K.2 Challenges Facing Biorefineries
K.3 Role of Advanced Biorefineries
K.4 Types of Advanced Biorefineries

L. Environmental Impact of Second Generation Biofuels
L.1 Introduction
L.2 Impact on Ecosystems and the Carbon Cycle
L.3 Conversion Routes and GHG Balances
L.4 Impact on Soil Organic Matter
L.5 Impact on Water Quality and Availability
L.6 Impact on Biodiversity

M. Growing Role of Genetic Engineering for Second Generation Biofuels

N. Investment in Second Generation Biofuels
N.1 Introduction
N.2 Capital Cost Investments
N.3 Operating Costs
N.4 Targets for Ethanol Cost Reductions

O. Second Generation Biofuels in Brazil
O.1 Introduction
O.2 Brazil’s Policy Target for Biofuels
O.3 Lignocellulosic Feedstock in Brazil
O.4 Second Generation Biofuels Market Overview
O.5 Production Costs
O.6 Conclusion

P. Second Generation Biofuels in China
P.1 Introduction
P.2 China’s Policy Target for Biofuels
P.3 Lignocellulosic Feedstock in China
P.4 Second Generation Biofuels Market Overview
P.5 Production Costs
P.6 Conclusion

Q. Second Generation Biofuels in India
Q.1 Introduction
Q.2 India’s Policy Target for Biofuels
Q.3 Lignocellulosic Feedstock in India
Q.4 Second Generation Biofuels Market Overview
Q.5 Production Costs
Q.6 Conclusion

R. Second Generations Biofuels in Mexico
R.1 Introduction
R.2 Mexico’s Policy Target for Biofuels
R.3 Lignocellulosic Feedstock in Mexico
R.4 Second Generation Biofuels Market Overview
R.5 Production Costs
R.6 Conclusion

S. Second Generation Biofuels in South Africa
S.1 Introduction
S.2 South Africa’s Policy Target for Biofuels
S.3 Lignocellulosic Feedstock in South Africa
S.4 Second Generation Biofuels Market Overview
S.5 Production Costs
S.6 Conclusion

Section 3: Analyzing Third Generation Biofuels

A. Algal Fuels - Third Generation Biofuels
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Algal Fuel - an Alternative to Fossil Fuels
A.3 Fuels Produced from Algae
A.3.1 Biodiesel
A.3.2 Biobutanol
A.3.3 Biogasoline
A.3.4 Methane
A.3.5 Ethanol
A.3.6 Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)
A.3.7 Ethanol from Living Algae
A.3.8 Transport Fuels
A.3.9 Jet Fuel

B. Looking at Basic Biological Hydrogen Production by Algae
B.1 Introduction
B.2 History of Algaculture
B.3 Timeline of Developments
B.4 History of Biohydrogen Production from Algae
B.5 Technological Evolution
B.6 Design Issues related to the Bioreactor
B.7 Principle of Biohydrogen Production from Algae
B.8 Applications
B.9 Ongoing Research and Economics of Biological Hydrogen Production
B.10 Improving the Process by Adding Copper

C. Investment in the Industry

D. Region-wise Market Analysis
D.1 Algal Fuel in the US
D.2 Algal Fuel in Europe

E. Applications of Algae for Transport and Power Generation

F. Producing Fuel from Algae
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Basics of Fuel Production from Algae
F.3 Production Strategies and Technologies
F.3.1 Production Infrastructure
F.4 Products and Co-products
F.4.1 Biodiesel
F.4.2 Ethanol from Algal Biomass
F.4.3 Hydrocarbons
F.4.4 Mixed Alcohols
F.4.5 Co-products
F.5 Advantages of Algae-based Fuel Production
F.6 Challenges Facing the Industry
F.7 Emerging Players in the Market
F.8 Methods to Improve Yield

G. Looking at the Technology Involved
G.1 Looking at the Biological Concepts
G.2 Producing the Algae
G.3 Options for Fuel Production
G.4 Producing Biodiesel from Algae
G.5 Producing Ethanol from Algae
G.6 Producing Hydrocarbons from Algae
G.7 Algal Oil Extraction
G.8 Types of Biofuel Produced

H. Integrated Biodiesel Production for Microalgae
H.1 Environmental Problems

I. Production of Microalgal Biomass

J. Direct Liquefaction of Algae for Biodiesel Production

K. Algae and Carbon Capture
K.1 Overview
K.2 Looking at the Unregulated Carbon Marketplace
K.3 Looking at the Regulated Carbon Marketplace
K.4 Development of Carbon Networks

L. Challenges for Third Generation Biofuels

Section 4: Analyzing Fourth Generation Biofuels

A. Introduction to Fourth Generation Biofuels

Section 5: Leading Industry Contributors

A. A2BE Carbon Capture
B. Abengoa Bioenergy
C. Air Liquide
D. Algae Floating Systems Inc
E. AlgaeLink, N.V.
F. Algaewheel
G. Algenol Biofuels
H. Amyris Biotech
I. Andritz AG
J. Archer Daniels Midland Co.
K. Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation
L. Aurora Biofuels
M. BASF SE
N. BEST Energies
O. Blue Marble Energy
P. BlueFire Ethanol
Q. BP Plc
R. BRI Energy
S. Broin Companies/POET
T. Butamax Advanced Biofuels LLC
U. Cargill Inc
V. Cellana
W. Chemrec
X. Codexis, Inc
Y. Choren
Z. Cobalt Technologies
AA. Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation
BB. Coskata
CC. D1 Oils Plc
DD. Dao Energy, LLC
EE. Diversified Energy Corporation
FF. DuPont Danisco
GG. Dyadic International, Inc
HH. Ecofin LLC/Alltech Inc
II. Enerkem
JJ. Frontier Renewable Resources
KK. Fuel Bio Holdings, LLC
LL. GreenFuel Technologies
MM. GS CleanTech
NN. Gushan Environmental Energy
OO. Imperium Renewables
PP. Infinifuel
QQ. Inventure Chemical
RR. Iogen Corporation
SS. Lignol
TT. Live Fuels Inc
UU. LS9, Inc
VV. Lurgi AG
WW. Mascoma Corporation
XX. Nedalco
YY. NESTE Oil Oyj
ZZ. Novozymes
A1. Pacific Ethanol
B1. Pan Gen Global
C1. PetroAlgae
D1. Petrobras
E1. PetroSun
F1. Range Fuels
G1. Sapphire Energy
H1. Seambiotic
I1. Shell
J1. Solazyme
K1. Solena Group
L1. Solix Biofuels
M1. Süd-Chemie AG
N1. TMO Renewables
O1. Valcent Products Inc
P1. VeraSun Energy Corporation
Q1. Verenium
R1. West Biofuels LLC
S1. Xethanol BioFuels, LLC
T1. XL Renewables

Section 6: Conclusion

A. Appendix

B. Glossary of Terms


Companies Mentioned
A2BE Carbon Capture
Abengoa Bioenergy
Air Liquide
Algae Floating Systems Inc
AlgaeLink, N.V.
Algaewheel
Algenol Biofuels
Amyris Biotech
Andritz AG
Archer Daniels Midland Co.
Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation
Aurora Biofuels
BASF SE
BEST Energies
Blue Marble Energy
BlueFire Ethanol
BP Plc
BRI Energy
Broin Companies/POET
Butamax Advanced Biofuels LLC
Cargill Inc
Cellana
Chemrec
Codexis, Inc
Choren
Cobalt Technologies
Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation
Coskata
D1 Oils Plc
Dao Energy, LLC
Diversified Energy Corporation
DuPont Danisco
Dyadic International, Inc
Ecofin LLC/Alltech Inc
Enerkem
Frontier Renewable Resources
Fuel Bio Holdings, LLC
GreenFuel Technologies
GS CleanTech
Gushan Environmental Energy
Imperium Renewables
Infinifuel
Inventure Chemical
Iogen Corporation
Lignol
Live Fuels Inc
LS9, Inc
Lurgi AG
Mascoma Corporation
Nedalco
NESTE Oil Oyj
Novozymes
Pacific Ethanol
Pan Gen Global
PetroAlgae
Petrobras
PetroSun
Range Fuels
Sapphire Energy
Seambiotic
Shell
Solazyme
Solena Group
Solix Biofuels
Süd-Chemie AG
TMO Renewables
Valcent Products Inc
VeraSun Energy Corporation
Verenium
West Biofuels LLC
Xethanol BioFuels, LLC
XL Renewables

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