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Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets

  • March 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 252 pages

This BCC Research report provides a unique analysis of the SOFC market. It analyzes components of the solid oxide fuel cell—a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, fuel flexibility and efficiency advantages. Forecast given for the period 2015-2020.

Use this report to:

Receive information about the North American, European, Far Eastern, and Rest-of-World solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) market values.
Gain insight into materials, typical configurations, applications and the impact of legislation.
Learn about the competition to SOFCs from existing and other developing energy generation technologies.

Highlights

The global market for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) totaled $303 million and $622 million in 2008 and 2012, respectively. The market is expected to reach nearly$1.2 billion by 2020 from $662 million in 2015, increasing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.3% from 2015 to 2020.
Generators, remote and APU applications of this market are expected to grow from $260 million in 2015 to $410 million in 2020 at a CAGR of 9.5% for the period 2015-2020.
Combined heat and power (CHP) applications of this market will grow from $240 million in 2015 to $550 million in 2020 at a CAGR of 18% for the period 2015-2020.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for auxiliary power, combined heat and power units, mobile power, stationary distributed or central power and portable product power. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most efficient and cost-effective sources of power. Although relatively high operating temperatures limit the range of applications, stationary, mobile and even portable product configurations are possible. They can also provide a cost-effective and performance-driven rival for other fuel cells, batteries, internal combustion engines and coal- or oil-fired heat engines.
This study analyzes components of the solid oxide fuel cell—a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, fuel flexibility and efficiency advantages. Technology, applications, players and recent commercial developments are described in this study.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

This report provides valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies, and therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy and environmental impact to be of considerable value in understanding the opportunities and problems in the near- to mid-term.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This report discusses the North American, European, Far Eastern and Rest-of-Worldmarket values. Target markets are based on optimistic, pessimistic and consensus alternatives, which are compared to the conventional power generation target and peak shifting opportunities. The current market is emerging with pre-commercial
demos and subsidized pilot projects as well as fast-growing niche markets that are quickly becoming established specialty markets.

Over the next five years these pilots will be expanding into commercial implementations. The 2020 market is also characterized in terms of optimistic, pessimistic and consensus scenarios.

SOFC applications are described and analyzed. The following applications are considered:

Combined heat and power (CHP).
Remote power and auxiliary power units (APUs).
Military.
Portable product power.
Exotic.

SOFC companies are listed and their detailed profiles are discussed in the Company Profiles chapter.






Table Of Contents

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
METHODOLOGY 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATIONS, CONSENSUS
SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET TRENDS BY YEAR, 2008-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATIONS, 2015 (%) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 10
TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF SOFC WITH OTHER FUEL CELLS 10
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 11
SOFC MATERIALS 12
SOFC Electrodes, Electrolytes and Interconnects 12
SOFC Glass Seals 13
SOFC Gaskets 14
TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS 15
Recent SOFC Material Developments 15
Northwestern University 3-D Printing 15
Colorado School of Mine Piezoelectric Materials 16
Stanford University Micro-SOFC Electrolyte Membrane 17
Georgia Tech SOFC Ceramic Material 18
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and
Technology and the Fine Ceramics Research Association
Electrode Compositions
19
UC San Diego's Center for Energy Research Novel Interconnect
Scheme 19
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ceramic
Microreactors 20
Cornell University One-Pot Process 21
West Virginia University Interconnect Coatings 21
Nippon Shokubai Zirconia Sheets 22
TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SOFC SHEET SPECIFICATIONS 22
University of Birmingham Electrode Doping 22
SOFC TECHNOLOGY: CURRENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONFIGURATIONS 23
Generic Planar SOFC Configuration 25
FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 25
Generic Thin-film Configuration 25
FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 25
Generic Tubular Configuration 26
FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 26
Westinghouse Tubular Design 27
Siemens Power Generation Tubular Design 27
Advanced Microtubular Designs 28
FIGURE 4 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH SIEMENS CELLS
CONFIGURATION 28
FIGURE 5 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH A STRAIGHT METAL WIRE AS
CURRENT COLLECTOR 29
FIGURE 6 CURRENT PATH IN RADIAL AND AXIAL DIRECTION WITH A SPRING COIL
AS CURRENT COLLECTOR 31
Micro-tubular Design 31
NanoDynamics Energy Micro-tubular Configuration 33
MIT SOFC Power Plant Design 34
Ceres Power CHP Design 35
Bloom Energy Design 36
TABLE 4 SPECIFICATIONS FOR BLOOM ENERGY SERVER 37
Intermediate-Temperature SOFCs that Use Biogas for Fuel 38
FuelCon SOFC Test Station 38
SOFC Gas Turbine Hybrids 39
FIGURE 7 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDO
CONFIGURATION 39
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES 42
U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 42
U.S. Department of Energy 42
U.S. Office of Science 51
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Interagency Working Group 52
International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy 52
Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-Idling 53
Argonne National Labs JOBS FC Model 53
National Science Foundation 54
Department of Defense 54
State Incentives 56
GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 57
Canadian Subsidies and Incentives 57
European Subsidies and Incentives 57
Japanese Subsidies and Incentives 57
South Korean Subsidies and Incentives 58
Australian Subsidies and Incentives 59
CHAPTER 4 MARKETS BY APPLICATION 61
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER 61
CHP DEVELOPMENTS 62
U.S. DOE EERE CHP Developments 62
TABLE 5 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-KWE TO 10-KWE RESIDENTIAL
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,
2008-2020
62
TABLE 6 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-KWE TO 10-KWE FUEL CELL
AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRALOW SULFUR DIESEL
FUEL, 2008-2020
63
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) CHP
Developments 63
Ceres Power CHP Developments 63
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 65
University of California Control of a SOFC with a Battery for Buildings 67
GENERATORS, REMOTE POWER AND AUXILIARY POWER 67
GENERATORS AND PORTABLE POWER PLANTS 67
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE POWER 69
ANTI-IDLING APUS 69
AIRCRAFT APUS 71
MARINE VESSEL APUS 72
TRUCK APU 72
PORTABLE PRODUCTS 73
MILITARY 74
EXOTIC 74
NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER AIR INDEPENDENT SOFCS FOR MARS
LANDERS AND HABITATS 75
CHAPTER 5 SOFC MARKET SUMMARY 77
SOFC SEGMENTS ANALYZED 77
SOFC MARKET DRIVERS AND BASIS FOR SCENARIOS 78
SOFC APPLICATION MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 79
TABLE 7 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY
APPLICATION 79
SOFC REGIONAL MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 85
TABLE 8 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY REGION 85
SOFC PRODUCT MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 89
TABLE 9 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY SCALE 89
GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION 93
TABLE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 93
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET TRENDS BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS
SCENARIO, 2008-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2015 (%) 94
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 12 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 95
GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION 96
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 96
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2015 (%) 96
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT 98
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2015 (%) 98
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 100
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 102
COMPETITION 102
CONVENTIONAL TURBINE-BASED POWER GENERATION 102
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 103
ULTRACAPACITORS 103
OTHER FUEL CELLS 103
TABLE 19 LIST OF COMPETING FUEL CELLS 104
Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 104
Alkaline Fuel Cells 105
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 105
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 106
Formic Acid-Reforming Fuel Cell 106
BATTERIES 107
TABLE 20 LIST OF BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS 108
Lead-Acid Batteries 109
Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries 109
Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries 110
Metal-Air Batteries 110
Nickel-Hydrogen Secondary Batteries 111
Sodium-Sulfur Batteries 112
Redox and Flow Batteries 112
Nickel-Iron Batteries 113
Nickel-Zinc Batteries 113
INDUSTRY LEADERS 114
TABLE 21 LIST OF SOFC COMPANIES AND CURRENT STATUS 115
TABLE 22 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS 117
MARKET TIERS 118
LEADING CHP SOFC COMPANIES 118
TABLE 23 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES 119
LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 119
TABLE 24 LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 119
LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 120
TABLE 25 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 120
LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 120
TABLE 26 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 120
LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 120
TABLE 27 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 121
SOFC COMPANIES THAT ARE NO LONGER ACTIVE 121
TABLE 28 SOFC COMPANIES NO LONGER ACTIVE 121
CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION 122
TABLE 29 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 122
PURCHASING INFLUENCES 124
PRICE INFLUENCE 124
TABLE 30 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES 124
PRICE TRENDS 124
FIGURE 12 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF MAGNITUDE COST
REDUCTION) 125
EARLY SOFC RESEARCH 126
MANUFACTURING PROCESS 127
FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE 127
FIGURE 14 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW 127
SOFC PATENT ANALYSIS 129
TABLE 31 REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF RECENT U.S. SOFC PATENTS 130
TABLE 32 CIRCA 2015 U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 137
TABLE 33 CIRCA 2013 U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 139
CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 143
ACUMENTRICS HOLDING CORP. 143
ADELAN UK LTD. 146
ACCURON TECHNOLOGIES (ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES) 147
ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS INC. 148
ALPPS FUEL CELL SYSTEMS 148
ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY INC. 149
ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 149
AMERICAN ELEMENTS 149
BLASCH PRECISION CERAMICS 150
BLOOM ENERGY 150
BTU INTERNATIONAL INC. 153
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (CALTECH) 155
CERAMATEC INC 156
CERAMIC FUEL CELLS LTD. 157
CERES POWER HOLDINGS 161
CHAO ZHOU THREE-CIRCLE (GROUP) CO. LTD. 167
CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY INC. 167
CMR PROTOTECH 168
CONVION OY 169
TABLE 34 CONVION SOFC TECHNOLOGY GOALS 169
CUMMINS POWER GENERATION INC. 173
DANA HOLDING CORP. 175
DELPHI CORP. 175
DOMINOVAS ENERGY CORP. 176
DOOSAN FUEL CELL AMERICA 177
EZELLERON INC. 178
EBZ ENTWICKLUNGS 178
ELCOGEN AS 179
EMPRISE CORP. 180
ENERGIENED 180
ENRG INC. 181
FCO POWER INC. 182
FEV MOTORENTECHNIK GMBH 183
FIDERIS 183
TABLE 35 TYPICAL TURN - KEY SOFC FUEL CELL TEST SYSTEMS UTILIZING THE
FIDERIS INNOVATOR SERIES MODULES 184
FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JÃœLICH 185
FUELCELL ENERGY INC. 186
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 191
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY PARK 192
H2E POWER SYSTEMS INC. 193
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S 194
HC STARCK GMBH 194
FIGURE 15 AMPERIT AND AMPERGY POWDERS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 195
HEXIS LTD. 196
TABLE 36 HEXIS GALILEO FUEL CELL SYSTEM 197
HOSOKAWA POWDER TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 199
ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS INC. 199
K-STYLE ADVANCED CERAMICS CO. LTD. 200
KANSAI ELECTRIC POWER CO. INC. 200
KERAFOL (INELTRO HALMER ELECTRONICS GMBH) 201
LG FUEL CELL SYSTEMS INC. (ROLLS-ROYCE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS LTD., STARK
COLLEGE) 201
LILLIPUTIAN SYSTEMS 203
LITHUANIAN ENERGY INSTITUTE 203
LOGANENERGY CORP. 203
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY 204
MATERIALS and SYSTEMS RESEARCH INC. 204
MEIDENSHA CORP. 206
MERIDIAN ENERGY LTD. 206
MERLONI TERMOSANITARI SPA (ARISTON THERMO GROUP) 207
NATIONAL FUEL CELL RESEARCH CENTER 207
NEXCERIS, LLC (NEXTECH MATERIALS LTD.) 208
FUELCELLMATERIALS.COM DIVISION 208
NGIMAT CO. 212
NGK INSULATORS LTD. 213
NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO. LTD. 214
NIPPON TELEGRAPH and TELEPHONE CORP. 214
NOAH TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 215
PLANSEE SE 215
POSCO 216
POINT SOURCE POWER INC. 217
PRECISION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES 217
PRESIDIO COMPONENTS INC. 218
PROTONEX (BALLARD) 218
MESOSCOPIC DEVICES SUBSIDIARY 219
RAGAN TECHNOLOGIES INC. 221
REDOX POWER SYSTEMS 222
RISODTU NATIONAL LABORATORY 223
SAFCELL 225
SAINT-GOBAIN 227
SANDVIK 227
SIENERGY SYSTEMS (ALLIED MINDS) 228
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL RESEARCH GROUP 229
SOLIDPOWER 230
STANFORD MATERIALS CORP. 232
SUMITOMO CORP. 232
SUNFIRE GMBH 232
TABLE 37 MK200 SOFC TECHNICAL DATA 234
TERMINUS ENERGY INC. 235
TOKYO GAS CO. LTD. 235
TOSOH CORP. CERAMICS DIVISION 236
TOTO LTD. 236
FIGURE 16 TOTO FUEL CELL DESIGN 237
TOYOTA (AISIN) 237
TABLE 38 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS 239
ULTRA ELECTRONICS AMI 240
UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE 241
VAILLANT GMBH 241
VIOLET FUEL CELL STICKS 242
WATT FUEL CELL CORP. 242
ZIRCAR ZIRCONIA INC. 244
ZTEK CORP. 244
CHAPTER 8 U.S. PATENTS THAT MENTION SOFCS 246
TABLE 39 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 246

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATIONS, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF SOFC WITH OTHER FUEL CELLS 10
TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS 15
TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SOFC SHEET SPECIFICATIONS 22
TABLE 4 SPECIFICATIONS FOR BLOOM ENERGY SERVER 37
TABLE 5 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-KWE TO 10-KWE RESIDENTIAL
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,
2008-2020
62
TABLE 6 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-KWE TO 10-KWE FUEL CELL
AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRALOW SULFUR DIESEL
FUEL, 2008-2020
63
TABLE 7 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY
APPLICATION 79
TABLE 8 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY REGION 85
TABLE 9 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY SCALE 89
TABLE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 12 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 19 LIST OF COMPETING FUEL CELLS 104
TABLE 20 LIST OF BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS 108
TABLE 21 LIST OF SOFC COMPANIES AND CURRENT STATUS 115
TABLE 22 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS 117
TABLE 23 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES 119
TABLE 24 LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 119
TABLE 25 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 120
TABLE 26 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 120
TABLE 27 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 121
TABLE 28 SOFC COMPANIES NO LONGER ACTIVE 121
TABLE 29 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 122
TABLE 30 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES 124
TABLE 31 REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF RECENT U.S. SOFC PATENTS 130
TABLE 32 CIRCA 2015 U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 137
TABLE 33 CIRCA 2013 U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 139
TABLE 34 CONVION SOFC TECHNOLOGY GOALS 169
TABLE 35 TYPICAL TURN - KEY SOFC FUEL CELL TEST SYSTEMS UTILIZING THE
FIDERIS INNOVATOR SERIES MODULES 184
TABLE 36 HEXIS GALILEO FUEL CELL SYSTEM 197
TABLE 37 MK200 SOFC TECHNICAL DATA 234
TABLE 38 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS 239
TABLE 39 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 246

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET TRENDS BY YEAR, 2008-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATIONS, 2015 (%) 7
FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 25
FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 25
FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 26
FIGURE 4 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH SIEMENS CELLS
CONFIGURATION 28
FIGURE 5 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH A STRAIGHT METAL WIRE AS
CURRENT COLLECTOR 29
FIGURE 6 CURRENT PATH IN RADIAL AND AXIAL DIRECTION WITH A SPRING COIL AS
CURRENT COLLECTOR 31
FIGURE 7 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDO
CONFIGURATION 39
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET TRENDS BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2008-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2015 (%) 94
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2015
(%) 96
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2015 (%) 98
FIGURE 12 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF MAGNITUDE COST
REDUCTION) 125
FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE 127
FIGURE 14 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW 127
FIGURE 15 AMPERIT AND AMPERGY POWDERS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 195
FIGURE 16 TOTO FUEL CELL DESIGN 237

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