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US Battery & Fuel Cell Materials Market

  • January 2014
  • -
  • Freedonia
  • -
  • 240 pages

US demand to reach $6 billion in 2017

US demand for battery and fuel cell materials is expected to rise more than four percent annually through 2017 to $6.0 billion. Growing motor vehicle production, as well as the motor vehicle industry’s increasing adoption of advanced energy storage technologies to meet government fuel efficiency mandates, will support growth in battery material demand, particularly for polymers and chemicals. Though rising from a much smaller base, fuel cell material demand will rise at a rapid double-digit pace due to the increasing adoption of fuel cells in electrical generation and industrial/motive power applications. However, even faster gains will be limited by the fuel cell industry’s continuing efforts to reduce costs, including through the adoption of less expensive and more efficient alternatives.

Polymer & chemical materials to see above-average growth

The motor vehicle industry’s ongoing efforts to meet increasingly stringent fuel efficiency requirements through the more widespread adoption of alternatives to the traditional flooded lead-acid battery will begin to be felt by the battery material industry over the forecast period. The rising adoption of rechargeable lithiumion batteries in hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles will help drive above average growth in polymer and chemical battery material demand as vehicle manufacturers ramp up domestic production of these batteries to supply their North American operations. In addition, the increasing adoption of startstop ignition technology will lead to the expanded usage of advanced glass mat (AGM) lead-acid batteries, boosting demand for more specialty materials such as glass fibers. More broadly, the ongoing rebound in US motor vehicle production will increase lead-acid battery shipments, which will be the primary driver of rising battery material demand overall.

Fuel cells to post doubledigit annual growth

Robust global demand for fuel cells as alternatives in electricity generation and industrial and motive power applications will support the rapid expansion of the US fuel cell industry, and drive doubledigit growth in fuel cell material demand through 2017. All material types will benefit, though industry efforts to find alternative electrode catalyst materials will limit faster advances in fuel cell metal demand. Even faster growth in fuel cell material demand over the long term will reflect the penetration of fuel cells in motor vehicle and portable device applications.

Performance additive, catalyst materials to pace gains

Among functional categories for battery and fuel cell materials, the most rapid gains will be for performance additive and catalyst materials, and for electrolytes.

Growth will be driven by the ongoing need to improve battery durability and performance, as well as by surging demand for fuel cells, most of which use expensive platinum catalysts. Active materials and electrodes are the leading outlet for materials, but are expected to lag overall market increases in demand through 2017. Battery current collectors are expected to grow at the slowest pace of any function in the 2012-2017 period, as manufacturers continue to increase cost reduction efforts.

Study coverage

Details on these and other findings are contained in the upcoming Freedonia industry study, Battery & Fuel Cell Materials, priced at $5100. It presents historical demand data (2002, 2007 and 2012) plus forecasts for 2017 and 2022 by type, function and application for both material segments. The study also details market environment factors, examines the industry structure, evaluates company market share and profiles 35 US industry players such as Ballard Power Systems, Celanese, OM Group and Umicore.

Table Of Contents

US Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Market
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION x

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

II. MARKET ENVIRONMENT 4

General 4
Economic Environment 5
Durable Goods Manufacturing Outlook 8
Battery Industry Overview 10
Primary Batteries 12
Secondary Batteries 15
Fuel Cell Industry Overview 18
Technology Trends 21
Batteries 21
Basic Technology 22
Recent Developments 24
Fuel Cells 30
Basic Technology 31
Fuel Cell Chemistries 33
Battery and Fuel Cell Nanomaterials 33
Environmental and Regulatory Issues 35
Recycling 36
Health and Safety 38

III. BATTERY and FUEL CELL MATERIALS OVERVIEW 41

General 41
Demand by Type 41
Demand by Function 44
Demand by Application 46

IV. BATTERY MATERIALS 48

General 48
Demand by Type 49
Metals 51
Lead 53
Steel 55
Antimony 56
Zinc 58
Other Metals 59
Chemicals 61
Metallic Chemicals 62
Other Chemicals 67
Polymers 70
Polyolefins 71
Fluoropolymers 72
Other Polymers 73
Carbon/Graphite 73
Other Materials 75
Silica 76
Glass Fibers 77
Ceramics 78
All Other Materials 78
Demand by Function 79
Active Materials 81
Current Collectors 83
Containers 85
Electrolytes 87
Performance Additives 89
Separators 91
Other Functions 93
Terminals 94
Gaskets and Seals 94
Catalysts 95
All Other Functions 95
Demand by Application 96
Primary Batteries 98
Alkaline 100
Primary Lithium 103
Zinc-Air 106
Other Primary 108
Secondary Batteries 109
Lead-Acid 112
Metals 114
Chemicals 115
Polymers 116
Other Materials 117
Rechargeable Lithium 118
Nickel-Metal Hydride 121
Nickel-Cadmium 124
Other Secondary 125

V. FUEL CELL MATERIALS 128

General 128
Demand by Type 129
Metals 131
Platinum 132
Other Metals 133
Ceramics 134
Polymers 135
Fluoropolymers 136
Other Polymers 137
Carbon/Graphite 138
Chemicals and Other 139
Demand by Function 140
Catalysts 142
Electrodes 144
Electrolytes 146
Plates 148
Other Functions 150
Demand by Application 151
Solid-Oxide 154
Proton-Exchange Membrane 155
Molten Carbonate 157
Phosphoric Acid 158
Direct Methanol 159
Other Applications 160

VI. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 162

General 162
Market Share 165
Manufacturing 169
Battery Materials 170
Fuel Cell Materials 171
Acquisitions and Divestitures 173
Competitive Strategies 176
Marketing and Distribution 180
Company Profiles 181
Ames Goldsmith Corporation 182
AMETEK Incorporated 183
Asbury Carbons Incorporated 184
AvCarb LLC 185
Ballard Power Systems Incorporated 186
BASF SE 187
Buick Resource Recycling, see Doe Run Resources
Bulk Molding Compounds, see Citadel Plastics Holdings
Cabot Corporation 191
Celanese Corporation 193
Citadel Plastics Holdings Incorporated 194
CS Energy Materials, see HC Starck
Delta EMD, see Valmont Industries
Doe Run Resources Corporation 196
DuPont (EI) de Nemours 198
East Penn Manufacturing Company Incorporated 201
Eco-Bat Technologies Limited 202
Erachem Comilog, see Eramet
Eramet SA 203
Exide Technologies 206
Fabricated Products, see Doe Run Resources
FMC Corporation 207
Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold Incorporated 209
Glencore Xstrata plc 211
Gopher Resource LLC 212
GrafTech International Limited 213
Hammond Group Incorporated 215
HC Starck GmbH 216
Hollingsworth and Vose Company 218
Horsehead Holding Corporation 220
International Metals Reclamation, see Horsehead Holding
KW Plastics, see Sanders Lead
Mitsui Zinc Powders, see Horsehead Holding
Novolyte Technologies, see BASF
Nyrstar, see Umicore/NV
OM Group Incorporated 222
Ovonic Battery, see BASF
Rockwood Holdings Incorporated 223
RSR, see Eco-Bat Technologies
Sanders Lead Company Incorporated 224
Societe Le Nickel, see Eramet
Southeast Missouri Mining and Milling, see Doe Run
Resources
Styrolution Group, see BASF
Superior Graphite Company 225
Tata Steel Limited 227
3M Company 228
Ticona, see Celanese
Tosoh Corporation 230
Tronox Limited 231
Umicore SA/NV 233
Vale SA 236
Valmont Industries Incorporated 238
Additional Companies Mentioned in the Study 239



LIST OF TABLES

SECTION I -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Summary Table 3

SECTION II -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT

1 Macroeconomic Indicators 8
2 Durable Goods Shipments 10
3 Battery Supply and Demand 12
4 Primary Battery Supply and Demand 15
5 Secondary Battery Supply and Demand 18
6 Fuel Cell Shipments by Type 20

SECTION III -- BATTERY and FUEL CELL MATERIALS OVERVIEW

1 Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type 43
2 Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function 45
3 Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application 47

SECTION IV -- BATTERY MATERIALS

1 Battery Materials Demand by Type 50
2 Metals Demand in Batteries 52
3 Lead Demand in Batteries 55
4 Steel Demand in Batteries 56
5 Antimony Demand in Batteries 57
6 Zinc Demand in Batteries 58
7 Other Metals Demand in Batteries 59
8 Chemicals Demand in Batteries 62
9 Metallic Chemicals Demand in Batteries 63
10 Other Chemicals Demand in Batteries 68
11 Polymers Demand in Batteries 71
12 Carbon/Graphite Demand in Batteries 75
13 Other Materials Demand in Batteries 76
14 Battery Materials Demand by Function 80
15 Battery Active Materials Demand 83
16 Battery Current Collector Materials Demand 85
17 Battery Container Materials Demand 87
18 Battery Electrolyte Materials Demand 89
19 Battery Performance Additive Materials Demand 90
20 Battery Separator Materials Demand 92
21 Battery Materials Demand for Other Functions 93
22 Battery Materials Demand by Application 97
23 Primary Battery Materials Demand 99
24 Alkaline Battery Materials Demand 102
25 Primary Lithium Battery Materials Demand 105
26 Zinc-Air Battery Materials Demand 107
27 Other Primary Battery Materials Demand 109
28 Secondary Battery Materials Demand 111
29 Lead-Acid Battery Materials Demand 114
30 Metals Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries 115
31 Chemicals Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries 116
32 Polymers Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries 117
33 Other Materials Demand in Lead-Acid Batteries 118
34 Rechargeable Lithium Battery Materials Demand 121
35 Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Materials Demand 123
36 Nickel-Cadmium Battery Materials Demand 125
37 Other Secondary Battery Materials Demand 127

SECTION V -- FUEL CELL MATERIALS

1 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type 130
2 Metals Demand in Fuel Cells 132
3 Ceramics Demand in Fuel Cells 135
4 Polymers Demand in Fuel Cells 136
5 Carbon/Graphite Demand in Fuel Cells 139
6 Chemicals and Other Materials Demand in Fuel Cells 140
7 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function 141
8 Fuel Cell Catalyst Materials Demand 144
9 Fuel Cell Electrode Materials Demand 146
10 Fuel Cell Electrolyte Materials Demand 148
11 Fuel Cell Plate Materials Demand 150
12 Fuel Cell Materials Demand for Other Functions 151
13 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application 153

SECTION VI -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

1 US Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Sales by Company, 2012 164
2 Selected Acquisitions and Divestitures 175
3 Selected Cooperative Agreements 179



LIST OF CHARTS

SECTION II -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT

1 Basic Battery Construction 23
2 Basic Fuel Cell Construction 32

SECTION III -- BATTERY and FUEL CELL MATERIALS OVERVIEW

1 Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type, 2012 43
2 Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function, 2012 45
3 Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Demand
by Application, 2002-2022 47

SECTION IV -- BATTERY MATERIALS

1 Battery Materials Demand by Type, 2012 51
2 Battery Materials Demand by Function, 2012 81
3 Battery Materials Demand by Application, 2012 97

SECTION V -- FUEL CELL MATERIALS

1 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Type, 2012 131
2 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Function, 2012 142
3 Fuel Cell Materials Demand by Application, 2012 153

SECTION VI -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

1 US Battery and Fuel Cell Materials Market Share, 2012 166

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