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2013 Energy and Resources Research Review

  • December 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 159 pages

FOREWORD

Research Reviews from BCC Research provide market professionals with concise market coverage within a specific research category. These Research Reviews include portions of several market research reports that were published in 2013, and are an efficient way for market professionals to keep up with the general market developments of 2013.
Please note that page references in the text are to pages in the original, complete report, and do not reflect the actual page numbers in this Research Review.

This 2013 Pharmaceuticals Research Review includes excerpts from the following reports:
• EGY045B Global Markets and Technologies for Natural Gas Storage.
• EGY065C Enabling Technologies for the Smart Grid.
• EGY071B Enhanced Oil Recovery: Technologies and Global Markets.
• EGY099A Global Markets and Technologies for Biofuel Enzymes.
• EGY106A Global Markets for Gasifiers.
• FCB035D Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

• Global natural gas storage volume reached 643 million cubic feet in 2011 and 657 million cubic feet in 2012. Total natural gas volume is expected to reach 720 million cubic feet in 2017 for a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.9%.
• The U.S. market for smart grid technologies was worth about $41.6 billion in 2012. The market is projected to decline to $35.4 billion in 2013 due to a temporary disruption of wind turbine sales, but it should rise again to $68.7 billion by 2018, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.2% from 2013 to 2018.
• The global enhanced oil recovery market totaled $21 billion in 2012 and is projected to increase to nearly $22.6 billion in 2013; the market should total $34.4 billion by 2018, with a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.8% from 2013 to 2018.

Table Of Contents

2013 Energy and Resources Research Review
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ABOUT BCC RESEARCH REVIEWS 2

FOREWORD 2

CHAPTER 2 GLOBAL MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE (REPORT EGY045B) 4

INTRODUCTION 4
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 4
SCOPE OF REPORT 5
INTENDED AUDIENCE 5
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 6
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 7
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 8
SUMMARY 8
TABLE 1 NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CLASS OF STORAGE THROUGH 2017
(VOLUME OF STORAGE DISPLACEMENT IN MILLION CUBIC FEET) 8
FIGURE 1 NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CLASS OF STORAGE THROUGH 2017
(VOLUME OF STORAGE DISPLACEMENT IN MILLION CUBIC FEET) 9
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 10
NATURAL GAS PROCESSING: THE CRUCIAL LINK BETWEEN NATURAL GAS
PRODUCTION AND ITS TRANSPORTATION TO MARKET. 10
IMPORTANCE OF THE STORAGE COMPONENT OF THE GAS INDUSTRY 11
INDUSTRY GROWTH IMPETUS 14
TYPES OF MARKETS AND MARKET PROBLEMS 15
GAS STORAGE 16
FIGURE 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DELIVERABLE AND BASE OR CUSHION GAS (%) 18
OVERVIEW 19
DEFINITION 19
CONCEPTS IN THE GAS INDUSTRY 19
GAS PRICING STRUCTURE 21
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY 21
INDICATIONS 22
HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTS, TECHNOLOGIES AND
APPLICATIONS 23
FORESEEABLE DEVELOPMENTS 23
GOVERNMENT REGULATION 23

CHAPTER 3 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SMART GRID (REPORT EGY065C) 26

INTRODUCTION 26
STUDY BACKGROUND 26
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 27
INTENDED AUDIENCE 28
SCOPE AND FORMAT 28
METHODOLOGY 29
AUTHOR CREDENTIALS 29
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 30
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 30
TABLE 2 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 31
FIGURE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 31
"SMART GRIDS": AN OVERVIEW 32
BENEFITS OF SMART GRIDS 32
DIRECT BENEFITS 32
Benefits to Utilities 32
Lower Capital Costs 32
Reduced Operating Costs 33
Benefits to Users 33
Improved Quality and Reliability 33
Lower Costs 34
FIGURE 4 AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE OF ELECTRICITY, 2001-2011 (CENTS/KWH) 34
Greater Consumer Choice 35
INDIRECT BENEFITS 35
Reduced Consumption of Fossil Fuels 35
FIGURE 5 U.S. ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY FUEL TYPE, 2012 (%) 35
TABLE 3 U.S. CONSUMPTION OF FOSSIL FUELS FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION,
THROUGH 2012 37
Improved Balance of Payments Position 37
FIGURE 6 U.S. FOSSIL FUEL IMPORTS, 2011 (PERCENT OF TOTAL FOSSIL FUEL
IMPORTS) 38
Enhanced National Security 39
Job Creation 39
Economic Development 40
Environmental Benefits 40
THE PATH TO A SMART GRID 41
GRID 2030 41
National Electricity "Backbone" 42
Regional Interconnections 42
Local Distribution, Mini- and Micro-Grids 42
NATIONAL ELECTRIC DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES ROADMAP 43
FIGURE 7 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES OVERALL ROADMAP 43
FIGURE 8 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY ROADMAP FOR DEVELOPING CRITICAL
TECHNOLOGIES 44
EARLY ADOPTERS 45
Southern California Edison Co. 46
Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project 47
TXU Energy Broadband over Power Line Smart Grid 48
Xcel Energy Smart Grid City 49
Austin Energy Smart Grid Program 49
Other Projects 50
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SMART GRID 50
TABLE 4 MAJOR CLASSES OF SMART GRID-ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 50
COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES 51
SENSING AND MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 51
ADVANCED COMPONENTS 51
CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 51
INTERFACE AND DECISION-SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES 52
MARKET SUMMARY 52
TABLE 5 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 52
FIGURE 9 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 52
FIGURE 10 U.S. SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES MARKET SHARES, 2012-2018 (%) 53

CHAPTER 4 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS (REPORT EGY071B) 56

INTRODUCTION 56
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 56
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 56
INTENDED AUDIENCE 57
SCOPE OF REPORT AND METHODOLOGY 57
Worldwide Markets 58
TABLE 6 LIST OF GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY 58
Methodology 59
INFORMATION SOURCES 59
TABLE 7 RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES 59
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 60
RELATED REPORTS 60
SUMMARY 61
TABLE 8 GLOBAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 61
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY MARKET BY REGION, 2010-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 62
OVERVIEW 62
WHAT IS ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY? 62
TABLE 9 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES CONSIDERED IN THIS REPORT 64
HISTORY OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY 64
BENEFITS OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY 65
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL CRUDE OIL PROVED RESERVES (2009-2012E) (TRILLION
BARRELS) 66
FIGURE 13 EOR BENEFITS TO ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE: COMPARISON TO
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES AND STRATEGIES 67
DRAWBACKS OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY 68
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 68
GAS FLOODING 69
Major Forms of Gas Flooding 69
Nitrogen 69
Carbon Dioxide 70
Hydrocarbons and Solvents 71
Gas Flooding Operational Methods 72
Standard Gas Flooding 72
Combined Injection 72
Cyclic Gas Stimulation 72
THERMAL PROCESSES 73
Major Thermal Processes 73
Steam Injection 73
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage 74
In Situ Combustion 74
Toe-to-Heel Air Injection 75
Thermal Operational Methods 75
Standard Thermal Flood 75
Cyclic Steam Stimulation 75
CHEMICAL FLOODING 76
Major Chemical Flooding Processes 76
Surfactants 76
Polymers 76
Alkalis 77
Chemical Flooding Operational Methods 77
Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer 77
EOR PRODUCTS AND EQUIPMENT 78
Air Separation Unit 78
Gases and Chemicals for Injection 78
Gas Compressors 79
Injection Pump 79
Specialized Wellheads 79
Injection Well Casing, Tubing and Production Packer 79
Production Treatment and Filtration Equipment 79
Measuring and Monitoring 80
Holding and Maturing Tanks 80
Mixing Equipment 80
Manifolds and Injection Lines 80
Control Room or Control Facilities 80
Power Production Facilities 81
Steam Generators and Boilers 81
Fluid Storage Facilities 81
Water Filtration and Treatment Equipment 81
EOR SERVICES AND CONSULTATIONS 81
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 82
Solar Enhanced Oil Recovery 82
Microbial Flooding 82
Enzyme EOR 83
Flue Gas Flooding 83

CHAPTER 5 GLOBAL MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES (REPORT EGY099A) 86

INTRODUCTION 86
STUDY OBJECTIVES 86
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 86
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 87
SCOPE OF THE STUDY 87
METHODOLOGY 87
INFORMATION SOURCES 87
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 87
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 88
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 88
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 89
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, 2010-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 89
OVERVIEW 90
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES 90
CHEMICAL NATURE OF ENZYMES 91
NOMENCLATURE OF ENZYMES 91
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENZYMES 91
TABLE 11 FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENZYMES 91
MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION 92
ENZYME SPECIFICITY 92
PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES 92
CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES 94
FIGURE 15 CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES 94
BASED ON THEIR STRUCTURE AND PARTS 95
BASED ON CHEMICAL REACTIONS THEY CATALYZE 95
TABLE 12 TYPES OF ENZYMES AND REACTIONS THEY CATALYZE 96
BIOFUELS 96
HISTORY OF BIOFUEL 96
CLASSIFICATION OF BIOFUELS 97
Solid Biofuels 97
Liquid Biofuel 98
TABLE 13 HISTORY OF ETHANOL INDUSTRY 99
Gaseous Biofuels 99
RECENT CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID BIOFUELS 100
TABLE 14 CLASSIFICATION OF BIOFUELS 100
SOURCES OF BIOMASS FUEL 101
BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK 101
Feedstock for Bioethanol Production 102
General Characteristics of Lignocellulosic Feedstock 102
Feedstock for Biodiesel Production 102
TABLE 15 COMMONLY USED FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIODIESEL IN VARIOUS PARTS OF
THE WORLD 102
ROLE OF ENZYMES IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 103
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOFUEL 104
CLASSES OF ENZYMES USED IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 105
LIPASES 105
AMYLASES 106
CELLULASES 106
XYLANASES 107
IMPORTANCE OF THERMOSTABLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES IN THE BIOFUEL
INDUSTRY 107

CHAPTER 6 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR GASIFIERS (REPORT EGY106A) 110

INTRODUCTION 110
WHY JUST THE GASIFIER? 110
THE MOST SIGNIFICANT GASIFIER MARKETS 111
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 113
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 113
SCOPE OF REPORT 114
METHODOLOGY 114
INTENDED AUDIENCE 116
INFORMATION SOURCES 117
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 117
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 117
SUMMARY 118
SUMMARY FORECAST FOR ANNUAL GASIFIER UNITS 119
TABLE 17 WORLD MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 121
FIGURE 16 CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION PLUS
PLASMA ARC, 2011-2017 (LOGARITHMIC SCALE - CUMULATIVE UNITS INSTALLED) 123
OVERVIEW 124
A RELATIVELY QUICK EVOLUTION TO USEFULNESS 125

CHAPTER 7 MATERIALS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES FOR PEM FUEL CELLS (REPORT FCB035D) 128

INTRODUCTION 128
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 128
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 128
INTENDED AUDIENCE 129
SCOPE OF REPORT 130
METHODOLOGY 130
INFORMATION SOURCES 130
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 131
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 131
SUMMARY 131
TABLE 18 GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 132
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW 133
TABLE 19 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS 134
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS 135
FIGURE 18 GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS 137
FUEL AND FUEL REFORMING FUNDAMENTALS 138
Improved Hydrogen Separation 138
Filtering Hydrogen and Oxygen 139
Georgia Tech Analysis of Fuel Cell Failure Modes 140
THE DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL VARIATION 142
FIGURE 19 SCHEMATIC DMFC CHEMISTRY 143
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL COMPANIES 143
TABLE 20 PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS 144
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 145
MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION 146
Portable Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 147
TABLE 21 TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS 147
TABLE 22 IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS 149
TABLE 23 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 150
TABLE 24 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 151
Stationary Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 151
Uninterruptible Power Supplies 151
Combined Heat and Power 152
TABLE 25 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE RESIDENTIAL COMBINED
HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS, 2008-2020 153
TABLE 26 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE FUEL CELL AUXILIARY
POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL FUEL,
2008-2020
153
Utility Load Leveling 154
Stationary Market Drivers 156
TABLE 27 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 156
TABLE 28 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 156
Transportation Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 157
TABLE 29 TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 157
TABLE 30 TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 158
"Other" Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 158
Portable Military Products 158
TABLE 31 SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES 159
Recreational Vehicles 159
Anti-Idling Power 159
"Other" Market Drivers 160
TABLE 32 "OTHER" PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 160
TABLE 33 "OTHER" PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 160
GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET FORECASTS 161
TABLE 34 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 161
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 162
TABLE 35 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 162
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY REGION, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 163
Optimistic and Pessimistic Scenarios 163
Pessimistic Scenarios 163
Optimistic Scenarios 164
TABLE 36 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET SCENARIOS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 165



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CLASS OF STORAGE THROUGH 2017 (VOLUME
OF STORAGE DISPLACEMENT IN MILLION CUBIC FEET) 8
TABLE 2 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 31
TABLE 3 U.S. CONSUMPTION OF FOSSIL FUELS FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION,
THROUGH 2012 37
TABLE 4 MAJOR CLASSES OF SMART GRID-ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 50
TABLE 5 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 52
TABLE 6 LIST OF GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY 58
TABLE 7 RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES 59
TABLE 8 GLOBAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 9 ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES CONSIDERED IN THIS REPORT 64
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 11 FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENZYMES 91
TABLE 12 TYPES OF ENZYMES AND REACTIONS THEY CATALYZE 96
TABLE 13 HISTORY OF ETHANOL INDUSTRY 99
TABLE 14 CLASSIFICATION OF BIOFUELS 100
TABLE 15 COMMONLY USED FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIODIESEL IN VARIOUS PARTS OF
THE WORLD 102
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOFUEL 104
TABLE 17 WORLD MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 121
TABLE 18 GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 19 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS 134
TABLE 20 PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS 144
TABLE 21 TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS 147
TABLE 22 IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS 149
TABLE 23 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 150
TABLE 24 PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 151
TABLE 25 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE RESIDENTIAL COMBINED
HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS, 2008-2020 153
TABLE 26 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE FUEL CELL AUXILIARY
POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL FUEL,
2008-2020
153
TABLE 27 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 156
TABLE 28 STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 156
TABLE 29 TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 157
TABLE 30 TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 158
TABLE 31 SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES 159
TABLE 32 "OTHER" PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS 160
TABLE 33 "OTHER" PEMFC MARKET FACTORS 160
TABLE 34 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 161
TABLE 35 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 162
TABLE 36 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET SCENARIOS, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 165



LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CLASS OF STORAGE THROUGH 2017 (VOLUME
OF STORAGE DISPLACEMENT IN MILLION CUBIC FEET) 9
FIGURE 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DELIVERABLE AND BASE OR CUSHION GAS (%) 18
FIGURE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 31
FIGURE 4 AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE OF ELECTRICITY, 2001-2011 (CENTS/KWH) 34
FIGURE 5 U.S. ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY FUEL TYPE, 2012 (%) 35
FIGURE 6 U.S. FOSSIL FUEL IMPORTS, 2011 (PERCENT OF TOTAL FOSSIL FUEL
IMPORTS) 38
FIGURE 7 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY TECHNOLOGIES OVERALL ROADMAP 43
FIGURE 8 NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DELIVERY ROADMAP FOR DEVELOPING CRITICAL
TECHNOLOGIES 44
FIGURE 9 U.S. MARKET FOR SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 52
FIGURE 10 U.S. SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES MARKET SHARES, 2012-2018 (%) 53
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY MARKET BY REGION, 2010-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL CRUDE OIL PROVED RESERVES (2009-2012E) (TRILLION
BARRELS) 66
FIGURE 13 EOR BENEFITS TO ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE: COMPARISON TO
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES AND STRATEGIES 67
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, 2010-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 89
FIGURE 15 CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES 94
FIGURE 16 CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION PLUS
PLASMA ARC, 2011-2017 (LOGARITHMIC SCALE - CUMULATIVE UNITS INSTALLED) 123
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 18 GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS 137
FIGURE 19 SCHEMATIC DMFC CHEMISTRY 143
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 162
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY REGION, 2012 ($ MILLIONS) 163

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