INTRODUCTION

One of the fastest-growing materials’ sectors in the past four years has been the production of plastics from renewable resources referred to as bioplastics. The main driver is an interest in reducing use of petroleum as a feedstock because of its contribution to climate change, its pricing volatility and its occasional role as a political weapon.

This report explains the various types of bioplastics that are available, indicates key players and trends, and provides detailed forecasts on demand by global region and projected use by type of application, such as packaging, automotive, consumer goods and general industrial.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Goals and objectives of this study include:

Identifying trends that will affect use of bioplastics and their major end-use application markets.
Reviewing, analyzing and forecasting specific end markets for bioplastics by material types, with sections devoted to each type of renewably sourced plastic.
Analyzing and forecasting market developments regarding major applications for bioplastics, including packaging, automotive, electrical/ electronic, medical, building and construction.
Profiling many of the most important suppliers of bioplastics, including resin producers and compounders.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The rapid emergence of bioplastics is one of the major materials stories in recent years. Once billed as biodegradable plastics, the theme for renewably sourced plastics has shifted dramatically in recent years to sustainability. To maximize market impact, the growing trend is to compound biobased plastics with oil-based plastics to extend their reach into markets for durable products used in cars and cell phones, among other applications. The focus has shifted away from contribution to the solid waste stream and toward total carbon footprint.

TARGET AUDIENCE OF THE STUDY

Due to the growing concern about climate change and negative health impacts of many existing materials, this report will be of interest to anyone who sells, designs or manufactures products that are or could be made from polymeric materials. This report will also be of value to individuals who are helping to establish public policy concerning issues ranging from limits on use of plastics packaging to potential limits on use of vinyl compounds in medical applications.

This report will be of value to technical and business personnel in the following areas:

Personnel in end-user companies in a wide range of industries, from retail bags to auto manufacturing.
Marketing and management personnel in companies that produce, market and sell any type of plastics.
Companies involved in the design and construction of process plants that manufacture resins and products made from the resins.
Companies that supply or want to supply equipment and services to plastics companies.
Financial institutions that supply money for such facilities and systems, including banks, merchant bankers and venture capitalists.
Investors in both equity and fixed-income markets; the fate of the plastics weighs heavily on the values of the publicly traded stocks of companies such as Eastman, Bayer, DSM and DuPont.
Personnel in government at many levels, ranging from federal to state and local authorities, many of whom are involved in trying to ensure public health and safety; the report also will be of interest to military scientists studying new packaging and equipment.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The focus of this report is on plastics made from renewable resources such as biomass or food crops. There is even some potential development of bioplastics from animal resources. Plastics that may be potentially made from waste carbon dioxide are reviewed because of their potential impact on bioplastics, but their data is not included in the forecasts presented here. Bioplastics are further defined here as polymer materials that are produced by synthesizing—chemically or biologically—materials that contain renewable organic materials. Natural organic materials that are not chemically modified (e.g., wood composites) are excluded. The report includes the use of renewable resources to create monomers that replace petroleum-based monomers, such as feedstocks made from sugarcane that are used to manufacture polyester and polyethylene. Ethanol, a major product in Brazil, is one small chemical step from ethylene.

The focal point is on the following resin chemistries:

Polylactic acid.
Thermoplastic starch.
Bio-polyamides (nylons).
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).
Bio-polyols and polyurethane.
Cellulosics.
Bio-polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT).
Bio-polyethylene.
Bio-polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Biodegradable and photodegradable polymers made from petrochemical feedstocks are not included. Other renewable resin chemistries are also covered but in less detail, as their roles are not as well-developed. These include collagen and chitosan.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Extensive searches were made of literature and Internet resources, including many of the leading trade publications, as well as technical compendia, government publications and information from trade and other associations. Many background sources were used to develop chemical and property descriptions, but all forecasts are solely attributable to BCC Research.

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS

Douglas A. Smock was the Chief Editor of Plastics World Magazine from 1986 to 1994 at the Cahners Publishing Co. He also served as a Senior Editor of Modern Plastics at the McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Associate Publisher and Editorial Director of Modern Mold and Tooling at the McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. and Chief Editor of Purchasing Magazine at Reed Business Information (RBI) from 2000 to 2004. At RBI, Smock also served as Co-chairman of the Corporate Editorial Board. He is the coauthor of Straight to the Bottom Line and On-Demand Supply Management, two leading books in the field of supply management. He is the former editor of BCC Research’s newsletter High Tech Ceramic News. Smock received a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES . 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 1
TARGET AUDIENCE OF THE STUDY 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES. 3
AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 4
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER . 4
CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY 5
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 5
SUMMARY FIGURE USE OF BIOPLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 6
SUMMARY (CONTINUED) 7
CHAPTER THREE: THE BIOPLASTICS INDUSTRY 8
THE BIOPLASTICS INDUSTRY . 8
HISTORY OF BIOPLASTICS 9
HISTORY OF BIOPLASTICS (CONTINUED) . 10
PROS AND CONS OF BIOPLASTICS 11
OVERVIEW 11
CASE FOR BIOPLASTICS 11
Climate Change . 11
Volatility of Oil Pricing and Supply 11
Sustainability. 12
Corporate Environmental Policies 13
Government Involvement 13
Performance Advantages 13
CASE AGAINST BIOPLASTICS . 14
Cost . 14
Collection Infrastructure . 15
Lower Oil Pricing . 15
Food Supply Concerns . 15
Genetic Modification 16
CHAPTER FOUR: BIOPLASTICS BY RESIN TYPE . 17
POLYLACTIC ACID POLYMERS . 17
CHEMISTRY 17
PRODUCERS . 17
TABLE 1 GLOBAL PLA SUPPLIERS 18
TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) . 19
PRODUCTION . 19
TABLE 2 USE OF PLA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 20
FIGURE 1 USE OF PLA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 21
PROPERTIES . 22
PROCESSING 23
Modifications 24
APPLICATIONS . 24
TABLE 3 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR POLYLACTIC ACID BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 25
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR POLYLACTIC ACID BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 25
Food Packaging 26
Thermoformed Packaging . 26
Electronics 27
Bottles 27
Automotive . 28
Other Potential Applications 29
COMPOUNDING . 29
Blends . 29
Additives 30
Additives (Continued) . 31
Other Compounds 32
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 33
Biodegradability 33
Recycling 33
Recycling (Continued) . 34
SELLING PRICES . 35
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 35
STARCH-BASED PLASTICS . 36
CHEMISTRY 36
PRODUCERS . 37
TABLE 4 GLOBAL STARCH POLYMER PRODUCERS 37
TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) . 38
PRODUCTION . 38
TABLE 5 USE OF STARCH-BASED PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 39
FIGURE 3 USE OF STARCH-BASED PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 39
PROCESSING 40
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 40
Biodegradability 40
Recyclability . 41
APPLICATIONS . 41
TABLE 6 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 41
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BY
APPLICATION, 2009 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 42
PACKAGING 42
Packaging (Continued) 43
Food Serviceware . 44
Furniture 44
TABLE 7 PRODUCTS MADE FROM STARCH POLYMERS 44
Agriculture . 44
COMPOUNDING . 45
Blends . 45
Polyvinyl Alcohol-starch Blends . 46
POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES . 46
CHEMISTRY 47
PRODUCERS . 47
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PHA SUPPLIERS 48
PRODUCTION . 49
TABLE 9 USE OF PHA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 50
FIGURE 5 USE OF PHA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 51
PROPERTIES . 51
PROCESSING 52
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 52
Biodegradability 52
Recycling 53
APPLICATIONS . 53
TABLE 10 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PHA BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 54
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PHA BY APPLICATION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) . 54
Food Packaging 55
Bath Products 55
Compost Bags 55
Other Potential Applications 55
SUBSTITUTION POTENTIAL . 56
COMPOUNDING . 56
Use of Blends . 56
Additives for PHA 56
SELLING PRICES . 57
POLYBUTYLENE SUCCINATE-TYPE POLYESTERS . 57
CHEMISTRY 57
PRODUCERS . 57
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF BIO PBS 58
Producers (Continued) . 59
DEMAND 60
TABLE 12 USE OF PBS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 60
FIGURE 7 USE OF PBS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 60
PROPERTIES . 61
PROCESSING 61
APPLICATIONS . 61
TABLE 13 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PBS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 62
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PBS BY APPLICATION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) . 63
Packaging . 63
Automotive . 64
Furniture 64
BIOBASED POLYAMIDES 64
CHEMISTRY 65
PRODUCERS . 65
TABLE 14 GLOBAL BIO-POLYAMIDE SUPPLIERS . 65
PRODUCTION . 66
TABLE 15 USE OF BIO-POLYAMIDES BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 66
FIGURE 9 USE OF BIO-POLYAMIDES BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 67
PROPERTIES . 68
PROCESSING 69
APPLICATIONS . 69
TABLE 16 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYAMIDES BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 69
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYAMIDES BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 69
Automotive . 70
Electrical/electronic . 70
Sporting Goods . 71
Oil Country Goods . 71
Other Potential Applications 71
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS . 71
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 71
POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE-TYPE POLYESTERS 72
CHEMISTRY 72
PRODUCER . 73
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF PTT-TYPE POLYESTERS . 73
PRODUCTION . 73
TABLE 18 USE OF BIO-PTT BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 74
FIGURE 11 USE OF BIO-PTT BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) . 74
PROPERTIES . 75
APPLICATIONS . 75
TABLE 19 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-PTT BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 76
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-PTT BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 76
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 77
BIOBASED POLYURETHANE . 77
CHEMISTRY 78
PRODUCERS . 78
Producers (Continued) . 79
TABLE 20 GLOBAL BIO-POLYOL SUPPLIERS 80
PRODUCTION . 81
TABLE 21 USE OF BIO-POLYOLS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 82
FIGURE 13 USE OF BIO-POLYOLS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) . 82
PROPERTIES . 83
APPLICATIONS . 84
TABLE 22 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYOLS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 84
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYOLS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 85
Applications (Continued) . 86
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 87
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 88
CELLULOSICS . 88
CHEMISTRY 88
PRODUCERS . 88
TABLE 23 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF CELLULOSE PLASTIC . 89
PRODUCTION . 89
TABLE 24 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 90
FIGURE 15 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 90
PROPERTIES . 91
APPLICATIONS . 91
Applications (Continued) . 92
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 93
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 93
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 94
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 95
OTHER TYPES OF BIOPLASTICS . 95
BIOBASED BOTTLE-GRADE POLYESTER . 95
TABLE 26 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 96
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 97
BIOBASED POLYETHYLENE . 98
TABLE 27 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 99
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTIC BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 99
ELASTOMERS . 100
ALIPHATIC POLYETHYLENE CARBONATE . 100
GLOBAL DEMAND . 101
TABLE 28 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS BY
GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 101
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) . 101
ANIMAL-BASED FEEDSTOCKS . 102
Collagen . 102
Chitosan . 103
CARDANOL-CELLULOSE . 104
NEAT CARDANOL 105
Neat Cardanol (Continued) . 106
CHAPTER FIVE: GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BIOPLASTICS . 107
TABLE 29 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 107
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET, 2009-2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 108
TABLE 30 USE OF PLA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 109
TABLE 31 USE OF STARCH PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 110
TABLE 32 USE OF PBS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 111
GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR … (CONTINUED) 112
CHAPTER SIX: BIOPLASTICS IN THE AMERICAS 113
U.S. 113
TOTAL PLASTICS . 113
BIOPLASTICS 113
MAJOR PRODUCERS . 113
TABLE 33 MAJOR U.S. BIOPLASTICS PRODUCERS 114
TYPES OF BIOPLASTICS 114
TABLE 34 U.S. BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 115
FIGURE 21 U.S. BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) . 116
APPLICATIONS . 116
TABLE 35 U.S. DEMAND FOR BIOPLASTICS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 117
BRAZIL 117
TOTAL PLASTICS . 117
BIOPLASTICS 118
MAJOR PRODUCERS . 118
TABLE 36 MAJOR BRAZILIAN BIOPLASTICS PRODUCERS* 119
TYPES OF BIOPLASTICS 120
TABLE 37 BRAZILIAN BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 120
FIGURE 22 BRAZILIAN BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 121
APPLICATIONS . 121
TABLE 38 BRAZILIAN DEMAND FOR BIOPLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 122
ELSEWHERE IN THE AMERICAS . 122
Canada . 122
Canada (Continued) 123
CHAPTER SEVEN: BIOPLASTIC PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES . 124
EXTRUSION . 124
COMPOUNDING 124
STARCH POLYMERS . 125
PLA AND PHA . 125
BLENDS WITH OIL-BASED PLASTICS . 125
TABLE 39 EXAMPLES OF BIOPLASTIC EQUIPMENT SPECIALISTS . 125
PELLETIZING 126
FOAMING . 126
FOAMING (CONTINUED) 127
STORAGE AND DRYING . 128
USE OF REGRIND . 128
CAST FILM . 129
THERMOFORMING 130
INJECTION MOLDING . 130
INJECTION MOLDING (CONTINUED) 131
CHAPTER EIGHT: MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 132
TABLE 40 GLOBAL BIOPLASTICS DEMAND, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) . 132
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 133
TABLE 41 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 134
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 135
CHAPTER NINE APPLICATIONS . 136
OVERVIEW . 136
PACKAGING . 136
MARKET FORECAST . 136
TABLE 42 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN PACKAGING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 136
FIGURE 25 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN PACKAGING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 137
SNACK FOOD 137
SHOPPING BAGS 138
BOTTLES . 139
THERMOFORMED TRAYS 139
LOOSE-FILL PACKAGING 140
CUPS AND UTENSILS . 140
FOAM PACKAGING 141
RIGID PACKAGING 142
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 142
AUTOMOTIVE 143
TABLE 43 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN AUTOMOTIVE AND
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 144
FIGURE 26 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN AUTOMOTIVE
APPLICATIONS, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 144
INTERIOR . 145
FOAMS . 145
COMPONENTS 145
Components (Continued) . 146
Components (Continued) . 147
FUEL COMPONENTS 148
EXTERIOR . 149
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 150
AGRICULTURE 150
MEDICAL 151
MARKET FORECAST . 151
TABLE 44 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BIOPLASTICS IN MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 151
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BIOPLASTICS IN MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 152
DISPOSABLE DEVICES . 152
ORTHOPEDIC FIXATION DEVICES 153
DRUG DELIVERY . 153
HYDROGELS . 154
MICROSPHERES 155
TISSUE ENGINEERING 155
Tissue Engineering (Continued) . 156
Tissue Engineering (Continued) . 157
STENTS 158
HYGENIC PRODUCTS . 159
MEDICAL PACKAGING . 160
Medical Packaging (Continued) 161
Medical Packaging (Continued) 162
OTHER MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 163
AIRCRAFT 163
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS . 163
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS (CONTINUED) 164
LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAYS . 165
CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS 166
SPORTING GOODS . 167
PHOTOVOLTAICS 167
Photovoltaics (Continued) . 168
CHAPTER TEN: ISSUES FACING BIOPLASTICS . 169
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES . 169
COMPOSTING . 169
RECYCLABILITY 170
FOOD SUPPLY ISSUE 171
CARBON FOOTPRINT 171
GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT 172
Direct Actions 172
U.S. 172
Ohio 172
Seattle, Wash. . 172
Europe . 173
Germany 173
Italy 173
Indirect Actions . 173
Canada 173
Japan . 173
Japan (Continued) . 174
CHAPTER ELEVEN: STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATIONS . 175
BIOBASED 175
ASTM D6866 175
PD CEN/TR 15932:2010 . 175
BIODEGRADABILITY . 176
EN 13432, ASTM D6400 AND ISO 17088 176
CHAPTER TWELVE: COMPANY PROFILES . 177
ALGIX 177
ARKEMA . 177
AVANTIUM . 178
BASF 178
BIOAMBER . 179
BIOLOG BIOTECHNOLOGIE UND LOGISTIK GMBH . 180
BIOBASED CHEM CO. LTD. 180
BIOMATERA 181
BIOME TECHNOLOGIES . 181
BIOMER 182
BIOP BIOPOLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 182
BIOTEC BIOLOGISCHE NATURVERPACKUNGEN GMBH 182
BRASKEM . 183
CARDIA BIOPLASTICS . 183
CARGILL . 184
CEREPLAST . 184
CERES . 185
CHINA GREEN MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES 186
DANIMER SCIENTIFIC/MEREDIAN 186
DOW PLASTICS . 187
DUPONT . 187
DUPONT TATE and LYLE BIO PRODUCTS 188
DSM . 188
DURECT CORP. . 189
EASTMAN CHEMICAL . 189
ENTEK MANUFACTURING INC. 190
FABRI-KAL . 190
FKUR PLASTICS CORP. . 190
FUTERRO . 191
GREEN DAY ECO-FRIENDLY MATERIAL CO. . 191
HUHTAMAKI . 192
INNOVIA FILMS 192
JAPAN CORN STARCH CO. . 192
JSR CORP. 193
KANEKA . 193
KINGFA 194
LAUREL BIOCOMPOSITE 194
METABOLIX . 195
MICROMIDAS 195
MITR PHOL SUGAR CORP. 196
MYRIANT TECHNOLOGIES LLC 196
NATUREWORKS 197
NGAI HING HONG CO. . 197
NOVAMONT . 198
PLANTIC TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 199
PLASTICS ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES 199
PLAXICA . 200
POLYONE . 200
PTT CHEMICAL . 201
PURAC 201
PYRAMID BIOPLASTICS GUBEN . 202
RHEIN CHEMIE RHEINAU . 203
RODENBURG BIOPOLYMERS B.V. 203
RTP CO. . 204
SOLANYL BIOPOLYMERS . 204
SYNBRA TECHNOLOGY 204
SYNTHEZYME . 205
TATE and LYLE . 205
TEKNOR-APEX 205
TEIJIN . 206
TELLES . 206
TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIAL CO. . 206
TIANJIN GREEN BIO-SCIENCE CO. LTD. 207
TORAY . 207
TRELLIS EARTH PRODUCTS 208
URETHANE SOY SYSTEMS CO. . 208
VIRENT ENERGY SYSTEMS . 209
WUHAN HUALI ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY CO. . 209
ZEACHEM INC. 209
ZHEJIANG HISUN BIOMATERIALS CO. . 210
APPENDIX A: LEADING BIOPLASTICS TRADE GROUPS 211
JAPAN BIOPLASTICS ASSOCIATION (JBPA) . 211
EUROPEAN BIOPLASTICS 211
SPI BIOPLASTICS COUNCIL (USA) 211
SPI BIOPLASTICS COUNCIL (USA) (CONTINUED) 212
APPENDIX B: IMPORTANT ACRONYMS RELATED TO BIOPLASTICS . 213
IMPORTANT ACRONYMS … (CONTINUED) 214
APPENDIX C: SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS 215
SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS (CONTINUED) 216
SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS (CONTINUED) 217

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