INTRODUCTION

One of the fastest-growing materials’ sectors in the past four years has been the production of plastics from renewable resources referred to as bioplastics. The main driver is an interest in reducing use of petroleum as a feedstock because of its contribution to climate change, its pricing volatility and its occasional role as a political weapon.

This report explains the various types of bioplastics that are available, indicates key players and trends, and provides detailed forecasts on demand by global region and projected use by type of application, such as packaging, automotive, consumer goods and general industrial.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Goals and objectives of this study include:

Identifying trends that will affect use of bioplastics and their major end-use application markets.
Reviewing, analyzing and forecasting specific end markets for bioplastics by material types, with sections devoted to each type of renewably sourced plastic.
Analyzing and forecasting market developments regarding major applications for bioplastics, including packaging, automotive, electrical/electronic, medical, building and construction.
Profiling many of the most important suppliers of bioplastics, including resin producers and compounders.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The rapid emergence of bioplastics is one of the major materials stories in recent years. Once billed as biodegradable plastics, the theme for renewably sourced plastics has shifted dramatically in recent years to sustainability. To maximize market impact, the growing trend is to compound biobased plastics with oil-based plastics to extend their reach into markets for durable products used in cars and cell phones, among other applications. The focus has shifted away from contribution to the solid waste stream and toward total carbon footprint.

TARGET AUDIENCE OF THE STUDY

Due to the growing concern about climate change and negative health impacts of many existing materials, this report will be of interest to anyone who sells, designs or manufactures products that are or could be made from polymeric materials. This report will also be of value to individuals who are helping to establish public policy concerning issues ranging from limits on use of plastics packaging to potential limits on use of vinyl compounds in medical applications.

This report will be of value to technical and business personnel in the following areas:

Personnel in end-user companies in a wide range of industries, from retail bags to auto manufacturing.
Marketing and management personnel in companies that produce, market and sell any type of plastics.
Companies involved in the design and construction of process plants that manufacture resins and products made from the resins.
Companies that supply or want to supply equipment and services to plastics companies.
Financial institutions that supply money for such facilities and systems, including banks, merchant bankers and venture capitalists.
Investors in both equity and fixed-income markets; the fate of the plastics weighs heavily on the values of the publicly traded stocks of companies such as Eastman, Bayer, DSM and DuPont.
Personnel in government at many levels, ranging from federal to state and local authorities, many of whom are involved in trying to ensure public health and safety; the report also will be of interest to military scientists studying new packaging and equipment.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The focus of this report is on plastics made from renewable resources such as biomass or food crops. There is even some potential development of bioplastics from animal resources. Plastics that may be potentially made from waste carbon dioxide are reviewed because of their potential impact on bioplastics, but their data is not included in the forecasts presented here. Bioplastics are further defined here as polymer materials that are produced by synthesizing—chemically or biologically—materials that contain renewable organic materials. Natural organic materials that are not chemically modified (e.g., wood composites) are excluded. The report includes the use of renewable resources to create monomers that replace petroleum-based monomers, such as feedstocks made from sugarcane that are used to manufacture polyester and polyethylene. Ethanol, a major product in Brazil, is one small chemical step from ethylene.

The focal point is on the following resin chemistries:

Polylactic acid.
Thermoplastic starch.
Bio-polyamides (nylons).
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).
Bio-polyols and polyurethane.
Cellulosics.
Bio-polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT).
Bio-polyethylene.
Bio-polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

Biodegradable and photodegradable polymers made from petrochemical feedstocks are not included. Other renewable resin chemistries are also covered but in less detail, as their roles are not as well-developed. These include collagen and chitosan.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Extensive searches were made of literature and Internet resources, including many of the leading trade publications, as well as technical compendia, government publications and information from trade and other associations. Many background sources were used to develop chemical and property descriptions, but all forecasts are solely attributable to BCC Research.

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS

Douglas A. Smock was the Chief Editor of Plastics World Magazine from 1986 to 1994 at the Cahners Publishing Co. He also served as a Senior Editor of Modern Plastics at the McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Associate Publisher and Editorial Director of Modern Mold and Tooling at the McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. and Chief Editor of Purchasing Magazine at Reed Business Information (RBI) from 2000 to 2004. At RBI, Smock also served as Co-chairman of the Corporate Editorial Board. He is the coauthor of Straight to the Bottom Line and On-Demand Supply Management, two leading books in the field of supply management. He is the former editor of BCC Research’s newsletter High Tech Ceramic News. Smock received a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Oh.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES . 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 1
TARGET AUDIENCE OF THE STUDY 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES. 3
AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 4
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER . 4
CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY 5
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 5
SUMMARY FIGURE USE OF BIOPLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 6
SUMMARY (CONTINUED) 7
CHAPTER THREE: THE BIOPLASTICS INDUSTRY 8
THE BIOPLASTICS INDUSTRY . 8
HISTORY OF BIOPLASTICS 9
HISTORY OF BIOPLASTICS (CONTINUED) . 10
PROS AND CONS OF BIOPLASTICS 11
OVERVIEW 11
CASE FOR BIOPLASTICS 11
Climate Change . 11
Volatility of Oil Pricing and Supply 11
Sustainability. 12
Corporate Environmental Policies 13
Government Involvement 13
Performance Advantages 13
CASE AGAINST BIOPLASTICS . 14
Cost . 14
Collection Infrastructure . 15
Lower Oil Pricing . 15
Food Supply Concerns . 15
Genetic Modification 16
CHAPTER FOUR: BIOPLASTICS BY RESIN TYPE . 17
POLYLACTIC ACID POLYMERS . 17
CHEMISTRY 17
PRODUCERS . 17
TABLE 1 GLOBAL PLA SUPPLIERS 18
TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) . 19
PRODUCTION . 19
TABLE 2 USE OF PLA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 20
FIGURE 1 USE OF PLA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 21
PROPERTIES . 22
PROCESSING 23
Modifications 24
APPLICATIONS . 24
TABLE 3 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR POLYLACTIC ACID BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 25
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR POLYLACTIC ACID BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 25
Food Packaging 26
Thermoformed Packaging . 26
Electronics 27
Bottles 27
Automotive . 28
Other Potential Applications 29
COMPOUNDING . 29
Blends . 29
Additives 30
Additives (Continued) . 31
Other Compounds 32
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 33
Biodegradability 33
Recycling 33
Recycling (Continued) . 34
SELLING PRICES . 35
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 35
STARCH-BASED PLASTICS . 36
CHEMISTRY 36
PRODUCERS . 37
TABLE 4 GLOBAL STARCH POLYMER PRODUCERS . 37
TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) . 38
PRODUCTION . 38
TABLE 5 USE OF STARCH-BASED PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 39
FIGURE 3 USE OF STARCH-BASED PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 39
PROCESSING 40
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 40
Biodegradability 40
Recyclability . 41
APPLICATIONS . 41
TABLE 6 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 41
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BY
APPLICATION, 2009 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 42
PACKAGING 42
Packaging (Continued) 43
Food Serviceware . 44
Furniture 44
TABLE 7 PRODUCTS MADE FROM STARCH POLYMERS . 44
Agriculture . 44
COMPOUNDING . 45
Blends . 45
Polyvinyl Alcohol-starch Blends . 46
POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES . 46
CHEMISTRY 47
PRODUCERS . 47
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PHA SUPPLIERS 48
PRODUCTION . 49
TABLE 9 USE OF PHA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 50
FIGURE 5 USE OF PHA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 51
PROPERTIES . 51
PROCESSING 52
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 52
Biodegradability 52
Recycling 53
APPLICATIONS . 53
TABLE 10 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PHA BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 54
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PHA BY APPLICATION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) 54
Food Packaging 55
Bath Products 55
Compost Bags 55
Other Potential Applications 55
SUBSTITUTION POTENTIAL . 56
COMPOUNDING . 56
Use of Blends . 56
Additives for PHA 56
SELLING PRICES . 57
POLYBUTYLENE SUCCINATE-TYPE POLYESTERS . 57
CHEMISTRY 57
PRODUCERS . 57
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF BIO PBS . 58
Producers (Continued) . 59
DEMAND 60
TABLE 12 USE OF PBS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 60
FIGURE 7 USE OF PBS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 60
PROPERTIES . 61
PROCESSING 61
APPLICATIONS . 61
TABLE 13 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PBS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 62
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PBS BY APPLICATION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) 63
Packaging . 63
Automotive . 64
Furniture 64
BIOBASED POLYAMIDES 64
CHEMISTRY 65
PRODUCERS . 65
TABLE 14 GLOBAL BIO-POLYAMIDE SUPPLIERS . 65
PRODUCTION . 66
TABLE 15 USE OF BIO-POLYAMIDES BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 66
FIGURE 9 USE OF BIO-POLYAMIDES BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 67
PROPERTIES . 68
PROCESSING 69
APPLICATIONS . 69
TABLE 16 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYAMIDES BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 69
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYAMIDES BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 69
Automotive . 70
Electrical/electronic . 70
Sporting Goods . 71
Oil Country Goods . 71
Other Potential Applications 71
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS . 71
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 71
POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE-TYPE POLYESTERS 72
CHEMISTRY 72
PRODUCER . 73
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF PTT-TYPE POLYESTERS 73
PRODUCTION . 73
TABLE 18 USE OF BIO-PTT BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 74
FIGURE 11 USE OF BIO-PTT BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) 74
PROPERTIES . 75
APPLICATIONS . 75
TABLE 19 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-PTT BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 76
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-PTT BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 76
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 77
BIOBASED POLYURETHANE . 77
CHEMISTRY 78
PRODUCERS . 78
Producers (Continued) . 79
TABLE 20 GLOBAL BIO-POLYOL SUPPLIERS 80
PRODUCTION . 81
TABLE 21 USE OF BIO-POLYOLS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 82
FIGURE 13 USE OF BIO-POLYOLS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) 82
PROPERTIES . 83
APPLICATIONS . 84
TABLE 22 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYOLS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 84
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR BIO-POLYOLS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 85
Applications (Continued) . 86
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 87
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 88
CELLULOSICS . 88
CHEMISTRY 88
PRODUCERS . 88
TABLE 23 GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF CELLULOSE PLASTIC 89
PRODUCTION . 89
TABLE 24 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 90
FIGURE 15 USE OF CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 90
PROPERTIES . 91
APPLICATIONS . 91
Applications (Continued) . 92
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 93
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CELLULOSIC PLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 93
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 94
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 95
OTHER TYPES OF BIOPLASTICS . 95
BIOBASED BOTTLE-GRADE POLYESTER . 95
TABLE 26 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS, THROUGH
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 96
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 97
BIOBASED POLYETHYLENE . 98
TABLE 27 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 99
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTIC BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 99
ELASTOMERS . 100
ALIPHATIC POLYETHYLENE CARBONATE . 100
GLOBAL DEMAND . 101
TABLE 28 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS BY
GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) . 101
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR OTHER BIOPLASTICS, 2009-2016
(METRIC TONS) 101
ANIMAL-BASED FEEDSTOCKS . 102
Collagen . 102
Chitosan . 103
CARDANOL-CELLULOSE . 104
NEAT CARDANOL 105
Neat Cardanol (Continued) . 106
CHAPTER FIVE: GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BIOPLASTICS . 107
TABLE 29 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 107
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET, 2009-2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 108
TABLE 30 USE OF PLA BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 109
TABLE 31 USE OF STARCH PLASTICS BY GLOBAL REGION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 110
TABLE 32 USE OF PBS BY GLOBAL REGION, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 111
GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR … (CONTINUED) 112
CHAPTER SIX: EUROPEAN BIOPLASTICS MARKET . 113
GERMANY 113
TOTAL PLASTICS . 113
BIOPLASTICS 113
MAJOR PRODUCERS . 114
TABLE 33 MAJOR GERMAN BIOPLASTICS PRODUCERS . 114
TYPES OF BIOPLASTICS 114
TABLE 34 GERMAN BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 115
FIGURE 21 GERMAN BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 115
APPLICATIONS . 116
TABLE 35 GERMAN DEMAND FOR BIOPLASTICS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 116
ITALY 116
TOTAL PLASTICS . 116
BIOPLASTICS 117
MAJOR PRODUCERS . 117
TABLE 36 MAJOR ITALIAN BIOPLASTICS PRODUCERS 117
TYPES OF BIOPLASTICS 118
TABLE 37 ITALIAN BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 118
FIGURE 22 ITALIAN BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 119
APPLICATIONS . 119
TABLE 38 ITALIAN DEMAND FOR BIOPLASTICS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 120
ELSEWHERE IN EUROPE 120
France 120
The Netherlands 120
The Netherlands (Continued) . 121
CHAPTER SEVEN: BIOPLASTIC PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES . 122
EXTRUSION . 122
COMPOUNDING 122
STARCH POLYMERS . 123
PLA AND PHA . 123
BLENDS WITH OIL-BASED PLASTICS . 123
TABLE 39 EXAMPLES OF BIOPLASTIC EQUIPMENT SPECIALISTS 123
PELLETIZING 124
FOAMING . 124
FOAMING (CONTINUED) 125
STORAGE AND DRYING . 126
USE OF REGRIND . 126
CAST FILM . 127
THERMOFORMING 128
INJECTION MOLDING . 128
INJECTION MOLDING (CONTINUED) 129
CHAPTER EIGHT: MARKET ESTIMATES AND FORECASTS 130
TABLE 40 GLOBAL BIOPLASTICS DEMAND, THROUGH 2016
(METRIC TONS) 130
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY RESIN TYPE, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 131
TABLE 41 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 132
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL BIOPLASTIC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2009-
2016 (METRIC TONS) . 133
CHAPTER NINE: APPLICATIONS 134
OVERVIEW . 134
PACKAGING . 134
MARKET FORECAST . 134
TABLE 42 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN PACKAGING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 134
FIGURE 25 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN PACKAGING APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 135
SNACK FOOD 135
SHOPPING BAGS 136
BOTTLES . 137
THERMOFORMED TRAYS 137
LOOSE-FILL PACKAGING 138
CUPS AND UTENSILS . 138
FOAM PACKAGING 139
RIGID PACKAGING 140
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 140
AUTOMOTIVE 141
TABLE 43 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN AUTOMOTIVE AND
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC
TONS) . 142
FIGURE 26 USE OF BIOPLASTICS IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS,
2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) 142
INTERIOR . 143
FOAMS . 143
COMPONENTS 143
Components (Continued) . 144
Components (Continued) . 145
FUEL COMPONENTS 146
EXTERIOR . 147
NEW DEVELOPMENTS . 148
AGRICULTURE 148
MEDICAL 149
MARKET FORECAST . 149
TABLE 44 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BIOPLASTICS IN MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS) 149
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BIOPLASTICS IN MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS, 2009-2016 (METRIC TONS) . 150
DISPOSABLE DEVICES . 150
ORTHOPEDIC FIXATION DEVICES 151
DRUG DELIVERY . 151
HYDROGELS . 152
MICROSPHERES 153
TISSUE ENGINEERING 153
Tissue Engineering (Continued) . 154
Tissue Engineering (Continued) . 155
STENTS 156
HYGENIC PRODUCTS . 157
MEDICAL PACKAGING . 158
Medical Packaging (Continued) 159
Medical Packaging (Continued) 160
OTHER MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 161
AIRCRAFT 161
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS . 161
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS (CONTINUED) 162
LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAYS . 163
CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS 164
SPORTING GOODS . 165
PHOTOVOLTAICS 165
Photovoltaics (Continued) . 166
CHAPTER TEN: ISSUES FACING BIOPLASTICS . 167
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES . 167
COMPOSTING . 167
RECYCLABILITY 168
FOOD SUPPLY ISSUE 169
CARBON FOOTPRINT 169
GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT 170
Direct Actions 170
U.S. 170
Ohio 170
Seattle, Wash. . 170
Europe . 171
Germany 171
Italy 171
Indirect Actions . 171
Canada 171
Japan . 171
Japan (Continued) . 172
CHAPTER ELEVEN: STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATIONS . 173
BIOBASED 173
ASTM D6866 173
PD CEN/TR 15932:2010 . 173
BIODEGRADABILITY . 174
EN 13432, ASTM D6400 AND ISO 17088 174
CHAPTER TWELVE: COMPANY PROFILES . 175
ALGIX 175
ARKEMA . 175
AVANTIUM . 176
BASF 176
BIOAMBER . 177
BIOLOG BIOTECHNOLOGIE UND LOGISTIK GMBH . 178
BIOBASED CHEM CO. LTD. 178
BIOMATERA 179
BIOME TECHNOLOGIES . 179
BIOMER 180
BIOP BIOPOLYMER TECHNOLOGIES 180
BIOTEC BIOLOGISCHE NATURVERPACKUNGEN GMBH 180
BRASKEM . 181
CARDIA BIOPLASTICS . 181
CARGILL . 182
CEREPLAST . 182
CERES . 183
CHINA GREEN MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES 184
DANIMER SCIENTIFIC/MEREDIAN 184
DOW PLASTICS . 185
DUPONT . 185
DUPONT TATE and LYLE BIO PRODUCTS 186
DSM . 186
DURECT CORP. . 187
EASTMAN CHEMICAL . 187
ENTEK MANUFACTURING INC. 188
FABRI-KAL . 188
FKUR PLASTICS CORP. . 188
FUTERRO . 189
GREEN DAY ECO-FRIENDLY MATERIAL CO. . 189
HUHTAMAKI . 190
INNOVIA FILMS 190
JAPAN CORN STARCH CO. . 190
JSR CORP. 191
KANEKA . 191
KINGFA 192
LAUREL BIOCOMPOSITE 192
METABOLIX . 193
MICROMIDAS 193
MITR PHOL SUGAR CORP. 194
MYRIANT TECHNOLOGIES LLC 194
NATUREWORKS 195
NGAI HING HONG CO. . 195
NOVAMONT . 196
PLANTIC TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 197
PLASTICS ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES 197
PLAXICA . 198
POLYONE . 198
PTT CHEMICAL . 199
PURAC 199
PYRAMID BIOPLASTICS GUBEN . 200
RHEIN CHEMIE RHEINAU . 201
RODENBURG BIOPOLYMERS B.V. 201
RTP CO. . 202
SOLANYL BIOPOLYMERS . 202
SYNBRA TECHNOLOGY 202
SYNTHEZYME . 203
TATE and LYLE . 203
TEKNOR-APEX 203
TEIJIN . 204
TELLES . 204
TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIAL CO. . 204
TIANJIN GREEN BIO-SCIENCE CO. LTD. 205
TORAY . 205
TRELLIS EARTH PRODUCTS 206
URETHANE SOY SYSTEMS CO. . 206
VIRENT ENERGY SYSTEMS . 207
WUHAN HUALI ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY CO. . 207
ZEACHEM INC. 207
ZHEJIANG HISUN BIOMATERIALS CO. . 208
APPENDIX A: LEADING BIOPLASTICS TRADE GROUPS 209
JAPAN BIOPLASTICS ASSOCIATION (JBPA) . 209
EUROPEAN BIOPLASTICS 209
SPI BIOPLASTICS COUNCIL (USA) 209
SPI BIOPLASTICS COUNCIL (USA) (CONTINUED) 210
APPENDIX B: IMPORTANT ACRONYMS RELATED TO BIOPLASTICS . 211
IMPORTANT ACRONYMS … (CONTINUED) 212
APPENDIX C: SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS 213
SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS (CONTINUED) 214
SELECTED GLOSSARY OF TERMS (CONTINUED) 215

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