This report covers the full picture of how electric vehicles by land, water and air will be externally charged. They are hugely increasing in number - we give the forecasts by type - and most will have a plug in feature to save money and the planet. Charger market value will increase more than fivefold over the decade but car charging grows much faster and other vehicle charging peaks, for reasons we explain. In this new report with its comprehensive scope, we examine slow, fast and fastest charging stations, including contactless charging and battery swapping with a blunt appraisal of the pros and cons. Each option is illustrated by many supplier profiles.

Energy harvesting to power up the charging station is analysed - solar is not the only option here. The standards situation is holding things up to a lesser or greater extent across the world and the content, timelines and issues involved are examined. Forecasts of charging station numbers, unit value and total value are given, detailed by charging speed and territory.

Analysis is the essence of this report with many figures and tables comparing the pros and cons and giving detailed new forecasts for 2012-2022. Uniquely comprehensive in scope, it appraises work from New Zealand to Canada and Japan. The charging issues and equipment employed with electric land, water and air vehicles are considered, both hybrid and pure electric, and the solutions now and in future. The recent opinions of many interested parties are quoted. The impact of alternatives is considered such as gas turbine and fuel cell charging of on-road vehicle batteries, with no roadside charging, and the declining percentage of hybrids that do not plug in.

The surprisingly large number of companies providing or about to provide solar powered roadside charging and inductive contactless charging, both resonant and conventional, is appraised. The very different standards situations are examined for North America, Europe and East Asia, for both charging stations and their interfaces, and the battle for the global standards.

Electric Vehicle experts IDTechEx have encapsulated over ten years of research and analysis into an easy to digest electric vehicle encyclopedia. All the technologies are covered and supported with over 100 tables and illustrations and over 200 acronyms and terms are explained. This encyclopedia, worth $1,500, is given as a free PDF download when you buy this report.

Table Of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Electrical categories
1.2. Physical categories - Mode, Case and Type
1.3. The most popular level of charging
1.4. Ten year forecasts
1.5. Relative sales by Level
1.6. Charging station sales exceed pure electric cars sales
1.7. Price trends
1.8. A vision for ubiquitous fast charging
1.9. Major impediments to the Level 3 people really want
1.10. Actual charger pricing
1.11. Price sensitivity and opportunity for cost reduction
1.12. Geographical trends
1.13. Primary market
1.14. Favoured locations
1.15. Alternative technologies
1.16. Market leaders
1.17. Market beyond cars
1.18. Vehicle projections by type
1.19. Charging infrastructure situation by category
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Electric vehicle business by value
2.2. The car manufacturers' dilemma
2.2.1. Charging off-road land vehicles is usually easy
2.2.2. On road vehicles are troublesome
2.2.3. Many organisations interested
2.3. Potential setbacks and uncertainty
2.4. Some certainties
2.5. How many charging points are needed?
2.6. Will there be enough charging points?
2.6.1. Flexibility
2.6.2. Part of a coordinated effort
2.7. Can the grid cope?
2.8. Coping with local grid inadequacies - transportable, autonomous charging
2.9. Metering in the vehicle or cable
3. STANDARDS
3.1. Global standards setting in this field
3.1.1. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
3.1.2. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
3.1.3. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
3.1.4. Japan
3.1.5. Level 1,2,3
3.1.6. HomePlug Green Phy
3.2. China
3.3. Europe
3.3.1. Code of practice
3.4. Technical differences between countries
3.5. International strategies
3.5.1. Japan
3.5.2. Korea
3.5.3. North America
4. BATTERY SWAPPING
4.1. Fastest form of recharging
4.2. Battery swapping trials - China, Denmark, Israel, Japan, South Korea
4.3. Battery swapping alternatives
5. ENERGY HARVESTING AND WIRELESS CHARGING
5.1. Energy harvesting
5.1.1. Solar powered charging stations
5.1.2. Alpha Energy USA
5.1.3. Beautiful Earth USA
5.1.4. E-Move Denmark
5.1.5. Envision Solar International USA
5.1.6. EVFuture India
5.1.7. Pininfarina Italy
5.1.8. RRC Germany
5.1.9. Sanyo Japan
5.1.10. Solar Bullet train
5.1.11. Solar Unity Company USA
5.1.12. SunPods USA
5.1.13. Toyota Japan
5.1.14. ULVAC
5.2. Electricity from the road
5.2.1. James Dyson Award UK
5.2.2. Innowattech Israel
5.3. Wireless charging
5.3.1. Conductix-Wampfler Italy
5.3.2. Energy Dynamics Laboratory USA
5.3.3. Evatran USA
5.3.4. Korea Advanced Institute of Technology
5.3.5. Nissan Japan
5.3.6. Presidio Graduate School USA
5.3.7. Qualcomm (HaloIPT) New Zealand
5.3.8. Siemens-BMW
5.3.9. Singapore A*STAR
5.3.10. Volvo and Flanders Drive Sweden, Belgium
5.3.11. WiTricity and Partners USA
6. RECENT PROGRESS BY COMPANY AND COUNTRY, FUTURE ISSUES
6.1. AeroVironment USA
6.2. APplugs Belgium
6.3. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) Switzerland
6.4. Better Place Israel / USA
6.5. Chargemaster UK
6.6. Circontrol Spain
6.7. Coulomb Technologies USA
6.8. CTandT USA
6.9. Diamond Aircraft, Siemens, EADS
6.10. Eaton Corporation USA
6.11. ECOtality USA
6.12. Elektromotive UK
6.13. Epyon Netherlands
6.14. GE USA
6.15. Green Charge Networks USA
6.16. Hasetec Japan
6.17. Ingeteam Spain
6.18. JFE Engineering Corporation USA
6.19. Leviton USA
6.20. Liberty PlugIns USA
6.21. Mitsubishi Japan
6.22. Nation-E Switzerland
6.23. NEC Takasago Japan
6.24. Nexco Japan
6.25. Nissan Japan
6.26. PEP Stations USA
6.27. Robert Bosch Germany
6.28. Schneider Electric France
6.29. Siemens Germany
6.30. SwapPack USA
6.31. Tokyo Electric Power Company
6.32. Toyota Japan
6.33. Voltec USA
7. EXAMPLES OF INFRASTRUCTURE INSTALLATION BY COUNTRY
7.1. Austria
7.2. China
7.3. France
7.4. Germany
7.5. Japan
7.6. Portugal
7.7. Republic of Ireland
7.8. Spain
7.9. Sweden
7.10. United Kingdom
7.11. USA
7.11.1. California
7.11.2. North Carolina
7.11.3. Oregon
7.12. Fear of grid overload
7.13. Electric vehicles and the smart grid
7.13.1. Colliding with the needs of electric vehicles?
7.13.2. Opportunities
APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY
APPENDIX 2: LATEST PROGRESS WITH LITHIUM-ION TRACTION BATTERIES.

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