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Sol-Gel Processing of Ceramics and Glass

  • June 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 191 pages

Sol-gel processing process has been used to produce a wide range of compositions (mostly oxides) in various forms, including powders, fibers, coatings and thin films, monoliths and composites, and porous membranes. This BCC Research report provides a detailed technology review for sol-gel-derived products, including processing methods, properties and applications. Market analyses are provided for each application segment for the U.S. and the world. Estimate of the U.S. and global markets for sol-gel-derived products in 2013 through 2019, along with profiles of companies and other entities involved in the development and commercialization of sol-gel–derived products are also included.

Use this report to:
- Receive an overview of sol-gel technology.
- Receive information on the major competitors in sol-gel research and development.
- Receive information on sol-gel applications and markets.
- Analyse the overall U.S markets of sol-gel.

Highlights
- The total global market for sol-gel products was valued at $1.6 billion in 2013. This market is expected to grow to $1.7 billion in 2014 and $2.5 billion in 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8% from 2014 to 2019.
- The U.S. market is expected to reach $656.6 million in 2014 and about $1.1 billion by 2019, with a CAGR of 9.9% from 2014 to 2019.
- Electronic and biomedical applications are the fastest growing segments of the U.S. market, with 2014 to 2019 CAGRs of 14.9% and 11.3%, respectively.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND
The term sol-gel was coined in the late 1800s. It generally refers to a low-temperature method (“sol” for solution) using chemical precursors that can produce ceramics and
glass with higher purity and better homogeneity than high-temperature conventional processes. This process has been used to produce a wide range of compositions
(mostly oxides) in various forms, including powders, fibers, coatings and thin films, monoliths and composites, and porous membranes. Organic/inorganic hybrids, in which
a gel (usually silica) is impregnated with polymers or organic dyes to provide specific properties, also can be made.

One of the most attractive features of the sol-gel process is that it can produce compositions that cannot be created with conventional methods. Another benefit is that the mixing level of the solution is retained in the final product, often on the molecular scale. The applications for sol-gel-derived products are numerous. One of the largest application areas is for coatings and thin films used in electronic, optical and electro-optic components and devices such as substrates, capacitors, memory devices, infrared (IR) detectors and waveguides. Antireflection coatings also are used for automotive and architectural applications. Protective and decorative coatings have been developed as well for glass, metal and other types of substrates.

Powders of single- and multicomponent compositions can be made with submicron particle size for structural, electronic, dental and biomedical applications. Composite
powders have been patented for use as agrochemicals or herbicides. Fibers also can be spun or drawn from precursor solutions or coated with thin films. Both optical and
refractory fibers are used for fiber optic sensors and thermal insulation. In addition, sol-gel can be used to infiltrate fiber preforms to make composites. Abrasives, used in
a variety of finishing processes, are made using a sol-gel type process.

Glass monoliths/coatings and inorganic/organic hybrids have various potential optical applications including optical filters, chemical sensors, passive and nonlinear active
waveguides, and lasers. Membranes for separation and filtration processes have been developed, as well as catalysts. More recently, biotechnology applications have been
developed in which biomolecules (such as proteins, enzymes, antibodies, etc.) are incorporated into sol-gel matrices. Applications include monitoring of biochemical
processes, environmental testing, food processing and drug delivery for medicine or agriculture. Other biomedical applications include coatings for metal implants and bone
grafting materials. Cosmetic applications include sunscreen lotions and makeup that incorporate UV absorbers.

A previous BCC Research report published in 2012 analyzed potential markets and applications. Since then the industry has continued to develop, as the demand for
existing sol-gel applications has expanded and new applications have been commercialized.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report is an update of the 2012 report, and its goal is to provide the reader with the most current information on the status of and markets for sol-gel technology.
Specific objectives of this report include:
- To provide an overview of the various commercial products made with the sol-gel process and their applications.
- To identify the technological and business issues related to the development and commercial production of sol-gel–derived products.
- To analyze the domestic and foreign competition among companies involved with sol-gel products and competing products.
- To determine the current size and future growth of the total U.S. and worldwide markets for sol-gel products and applications.
- To identify and profile companies and other entities involved in the development and commercialization of sol-gel–derived products.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is directed to producers and users of materials and applications related to sol-gel processing. These include:
- Companies involved in the development, manufacturing and supplying of advanced materials.
- Developers and producers of ceramic powders for electronic and structural applications.
- Companies involved in the development and manufacture of structural ceramic components, including composites.
- Developers and producers of ceramic and glass fibers.
- Producers and suppliers of advanced electronic and optical components and devices.
- Producers and suppliers of sensors and sensing devices.
- Producers and suppliers of medical implants and dental ceramic/glass materials.
- Advanced materials companies interested in diversification.
- Producers and suppliers of glass and glass components.
- Chemical companies supplying alkoxides and other precursor materials.
- Venture capital companies and financial institutions interested in new investments.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
The report provides a detailed technology review for sol-gel– derived products, including processing methods, properties and applications. Market analyses are
provided for each application segment for the U.S. and the world.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. The conclusions of this report are based on information derived from interviews
with experts in the field, including those in industry and academia. Extensive literature, Internet and patent searches were conducted to obtain an overall assessment of the
technology. Other information was obtained from trade publications, technical journals, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S.
Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, European Commission research databases and trade associations. Approximately 120 companies, universities
and other institutions were contacted directly.

Table Of Contents

Sol-Gel Processing of Ceramics and Glass
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. AND WORLD MARKETS FOR SOL-GEL PRODUCTS, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. AND WORLD MARKETS FOR SOL-GEL PRODUCTS, ($
MILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRY AND MARKET OVERVIEW 10
U.S. MARKET 10
TABLE 1 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. SOL-GEL MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
FIGURE 1 U.S. SOL-GEL MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 11
WORLD MARKET 12
TABLE 2 GLOBAL FORECAST FOR THE SOL-GEL PRODUCTS MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 12
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY COUNTRY/REGION, 2013 AND 2019 (%) 12
COMPETITION 13
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 14
U.S. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 15
TABLE 3 U.S. COMPANIES INVOLVED IN SOL-GEL 15

CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 19
HISTORY 19
TABLE 4 CHRONOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF SOL-GEL PRODUCTS 21
TABLE 5 SELECTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS AND APPLICATIONS 23
DESCRIPTION OF THE ALKOXIDE SOL-GEL PROCESS 23
TABLE 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE CONVENTIONAL SOL-GEL
PROCESS 24
ADVANTAGES 25
Lower Processing Temperatures 25
Lower Costs 25
Doping 25
TABLE 7 DOPANTS AND RESULTANT PROPERTIES 25
DISADVANTAGES 26
Long Processing Times 26
Preferential Hydrolysis 27
Cracking 27
Precursors 28
TABLE 8 CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY'S SOLUBLE POLYMERIC METAL ORGANIC
OXOALKOXIDE PRECURSORS 29
Additives 30
THE AQUEOUS SOL-GEL PROCESS 31
THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD 31
Applications 31
OTHER METHODS 32
FIGURE 3 PROCESS FOR WATER-BASED ZIRCONIA SOLS 33
END PRODUCTS 34
FIGURE 4 GENERIC FLOWCHART OF THE SOL-GEL PROCESS 34
TABLE 9 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOL-GEL PRODUCTS 35
POROUS SOLIDS 35
POWDERS 36
TABLE 10 POWDER PRECURSORS AND RESULTANT COMPOSITIONS 37
Oxide Powders 39
FIGURE 5 FLOWCHART FOR THE FLAKE MANUFACTURING PROCESS 39
Pigments 41
FIGURE 6 FLOWCHART FOR MAKING VANADIUM-BASED PIGMENTS 42
FIGURE 7 PROCESS FOR MAKING PINK PIGMENTS 42
FIGURE 8 PROCESS FOR MAKING YELLOW-GREEN PIGMENTS 43
Nonoxide Powders 44
COATINGS AND THIN FILMS 45
TABLE 11 COATING PRECURSORS AND RESULTANT COMPOSITIONS 45
Application Methods 47
Dip-Coating 47
FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC OF DIP-COATING 48
Spin Coating 48
FIGURE 10 SCHEMATIC OF SPIN COATING 48
Meniscus Coating 49
FIGURE 11 SCHEMATIC OF MENISCUS COATING 49
TABLE 12 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOL-GEL COATING METHODS 50
Other Methods 51
Thick Coatings 51
TABLE 13 PROCESSES FOR MAKING THICK COATINGS 51
Heat Treatments 52
TABLE 14 COMPARISON OF COATING METHODS 53
Process Parameters 53
Dense Coatings 54
TABLE 15 COATING THICKNESSES FOR A VARIETY OF COATINGS 54
FIGURE 12 SCHEMATIC OF LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION 55
Porous Coatings 56
Coatings for Plastics 56
Applications 57
TABLE 16 APPLICATIONS OF SOL-GEL FILMS AND COATINGS 57
GLASS 58
TABLE 17 APPLICATIONS OF SOL-GEL GLASSES 58
Silica 59
Type V Silica 59
Type VI Silica 60
Doped Silica 60
Silicates 60
Nonsilicates 61
MONOLITHS 62
Aerogels 63
TABLE 18 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROGELS 64
TABLE 19 APPLICATIONS OF AEROGELS 64
Silica 66
Silica Nanocomposites 67
Other Oxides 67
Carbon Aerogels 67
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF STANDARD AEROGEL PRODUCTS 68
Controlling Properties 68
Limitations 69
Xerogels 69
Controlling Properties 70
Silicate and Ceramic Foams 70
Colloidal Inks That Form Self-Supporting Scaffolds through
Robocasting 71
Hydrogel Nanoparticles for Optically Tunable Photonic Crystals 72
Monolithic Dry Gels Produced Using Sol-Gel Technology 73
FIBERS 74
Compositions 74
FIGURE 13 PROCESS FOR MAKING 3M CERAMIC FIBERS 75
TABLE 21 COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL REINFORCING FIBERS 75
Properties 77
COMPOSITES 77
FIGURE 14 COMPOSITE PROCESS INCORPORATING DIFFERENT 77
FIGURE 15 FLOWCHART FOR MAKING FIBER LAMINATE COMPOSITES 78
Control of Microstructure 78
TABLE 22 TAILORED COMPOSITES USING SOL-GEL 79
TABLE 23 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOL-GEL COMPOSITES 79
Interfacial Coatings 80
TABLE 24 SOL-GEL COATINGS FOR FIBERS 81
Infiltration for Densification 82
TABLE 25 TYPICAL COMPOSITE PROPERTIES MADE FROM FREEZE GELATION 82
Glass Matrix 83
Ceramic Matrix 84
Nanocomposites 85
ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRIDS 86
Ormosils 86
Ormacers 87
Hybrid Systems 87
TABLE 26 ORGANIC/INORGANIC MATERIAL SYSTEMS AND PROPERTIES 88
Control of Properties 88
Other Methods 89
A New Sol-Gel Route to Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials 90

CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 93
OPTICAL/OPTOELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 93
TABLE 27 OPTICAL AND OPTO-ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS AND APPLICATIONS 94
FIGURE 16 SCHEMATIC OF THE EMBOSSING PROCESS 94
COATINGS 95
Antireflection/Solar Reflective Coatings 96
Automotive 97
Lasers 97
Solar Collectors and Solar Cells 98
FIGURE 17 SCHEMATIC OF TITANIA SOLAR CELL 99
Transparent Electronic Conducting Coatings 99
Flat Panel Displays 100
TABLE 28 PROPERTIES OF NHC SERIES FOR PROTECTION OF ELECTRODES 101
Electrochromic Coatings for Smart Windows 101
CHEMICAL SENSORS 102
pH Sensors 104
Metal Ion Sensors 105
Spectroelectrochemical Sensor 105
Biosensors 105
SOLID-STATE DYE LASERS 107
TABLE 29 SUMMARY OF SOL-GEL LASER SYSTEMS 107
HIGH-POWER LASERS 108
NANOMETER-RANGE MEDIA FOR POWDER LASERS 109
OPTICAL FIBERS AND DEVICES 109
Optical Fiber Overcladding 109
FIGURE 18 SCHEMATIC FOR MAKING OPTICAL FIBER 110
Waveguides 111
Fiber Amplifiers 111
Other Developments in Optical Fibers and Devices 112
Simax's Boron Doped Silica Material Reduces Panda Fiber Cost 112
Chemical Solution Gelation/Deposition for Optical Fibers and
Devices 112
PHASIC Technology for Integrated Optics 113
Integrated Sol-Gel Fiber-Optic Sensors 113
LUMINESCENT LIGHT/POWER SOURCES 114
Fluorescent Lighting 114
Carbon-activated Phosphors 115
Phosphors for Flat and Plasma Displays 116
FIGURE 19 FLOW DIAGRAM FOR SRAL2O4: EU, DY VIA SOL-GEL 117
GRADIENT INDEX LENSES 118
TABLE 30 COMPARISON OF GRIN PROCESSING METHODS 119
OPTICAL MARKETS 119
ELECTRONIC/ELECTRO-OPTIC APPLICATIONS 120
FERROELECTRIC THIN FILMS 120
Applications 120
TABLE 31 MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS FOR FERROELECTRIC THIN FILMS 121
Deposition Methods 122
Other Compositions 123
FIGURE 20 FLOWCHART OF SBT FILM PROCESS 124
Thick Films 125
DIELECTRIC THIN FILMS 126
ELECTRONIC POWDERS/COMPONENTS 126
FIGURE 21 METHOD FOR MAKING ZNO POWDERS 128
CAPACITORS 129
SUBSTRATES 129
PACKAGES AND DEVICES 130
MAGNETICS 130
SUPERCONDUCTORS 131
Powders 131
Thin and Thick Films 132
ELECTRODES AND BATTERIES 132
Membranes for Batteries 133
NASICON Thin Films for Batteries 134
Aerogels 134
ELECTRONIC MARKETS 135
STRUCTURAL AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS 135
ABRASIVES 136
3M's Cubitron 136
FIGURE 22 SCHEMATIC OF CUBITRON 321 PROCESS 136
TABLE 32 COMPARISON OF ABRASIVE PROPERTIES 137
Saint-Gobain 138
TABLE 33 ADVANTAGES OF SG WHEELS 138
Other Abrasives 139
PROTECTIVE COATINGS 139
FIGURE 23 PROCESS FOR MAKING SILICA-TITANIA FILMS 142
Other Developments 143
Sol-Gel Techniques Help to Form Hybrid Glass Coatings 143
Sol-Gel Route for the Protection of Carbon in Hot Oxidizing
Atmosphere 144
High-Temperature Insulation of Wires and Thermocouples 144
Pink Colored Film for Automobile Windows Using Sol-Gel Process 145
Sol-Gel-Derived Abrasion-Resistant Coatings with a Long Shelf
Life 145
Abrasion-Resistant Optical Coatings 145
THERMAL INSULATION 146
Aerogel Windows 146
Lumira Insulation 146
Flexible Aerogel Blanket 147
Cryogenic Insulation 147
Solar Collectors 147
TABLE 34 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE OF FLAT SOLAR COLLECTORS 148
Replacement for CFC Insulating Foams 148
REFRACTORY/HIGH TEMPERATURE 148
Fibers 149
TABLE 35 PROPERTIES OF NEXTEL FIBERS 149
TABLE 36 APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS FOR NEXTEL FIBERS 151
Heat Exchangers and Related Applications 152
TABLE 37 STRENGTH OF TECHNIWEAVE COMPOSITES 152
BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 152
DENTAL SEALANTS AND FILLERS 153
BIOACTIVE GLASSES 153
TABLE 38 APPLICATIONS OF BIOACTIVE GLASSES AND GLASS-CERAMICS 154
Bioactive Phosphates 155
Encapsulation of Living Cells 156
Micro-Encapsulation and Delivery 157
COSMETIC APPLICATIONS 158
CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS 158
CATALYSTS 159
TABLE 39 MATERIAL SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS FOR CATALYSTS 161
NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS 162
SEPARATION MEMBRANES AND FILTERS 163
TABLE 40 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF CERAMIC MEMBRANES 163
FIGURE 24 PROCESS FLOWCHARTS FOR MAKING SOL-GEL MEMBRANES 164
OTHER APPLICATIONS 167
DECORATIVE COATINGS 167
TABLE 41 COMPARISON OF DECORATIVE COATINGS 167
INK JET FILM FOR TRANSPARENCIES 169
SOL-GEL COATINGS FOR ART CONSERVATION 169

CHAPTER 6 OVERALL U.S. MARKETS 172
OPTICAL APPLICATIONS 172
TABLE 42 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. OPTICAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 172
ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 173
TABLE 43 U.S. MARKETS FOR SOL-GEL IN ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 173
STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS 173
TABLE 44 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS MARKET,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 174
CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS 174
TABLE 45 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175
BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 175
TABLE 46 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175

CHAPTER 7 FOREIGN COMPETITION 177
JAPAN 177
TABLE 47 SOL-GEL PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZED IN JAPAN 177
EUROPE 178
WORLD MARKETS 180
TABLE 48 GLOBAL FORECAST FOR THE SOL-GEL PRODUCTS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 180

CHAPTER 8 APPENDIX 182
PROFILES OF SELECTED COMPANIES IN THE BUSINESS OF SOL-GEL
TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCTS 182
AJJER, LLC 182
ALBANY INTERNATIONAL TECHNIWEAVE INC. 182
ASPEN AEROGELS INC. 182
CABOT CORP. 183
CALIFORNIA HARDCOATING CO. 183
CERAMEM CORP. 183
CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY INC. 184
CLEVELAND CRYSTALS INC. 184
COOPER BUSSMAN 185
CORNING INC. 186
DOW CORNING CORP. 186
EASTMAN KODAK 186
E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS and CO. INC. 187
FORD MOTOR CO. 187
FUELCELL ENERGY 187
GELEST INC. 188
HYBRID GLASS TECHNOLOGIES 188
LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY 188
LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY 189
LIFE TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 189
LIGHT PATH TECHNOLOGIES INC. 190
MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC. 190
MARKETECH INTERNATIONAL INC. 190
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CTR. 191
MATECH 191
MATERIALS MODIFICATION INC. 192
NANOPORE INCORPORATED 192
NEO MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES 193
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY 193
OCEAN OPTICS 194
PHYSICAL OPTICS CORP. 194
PPG INDUSTRIES INC. 194
RATH INC. 195
READE ADVANCED MATERIALS 195
SAINT-GOBAIN ABRASIVES INC. 195
SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES (SNL) 196
SOL-GEL TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 196
SOLGENE THERAPEUTICS, LLC 197
TAASI CORP. 197
3M COMPANY 197
TPL INC. 198
YTC AMERICA INC. 199


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE U.S. AND WORLD MARKETS FOR SOL-GEL PRODUCTS, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. SOL-GEL MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
TABLE 2 GLOBAL FORECAST FOR THE SOL-GEL PRODUCTS MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 12
TABLE 3 U.S. COMPANIES INVOLVED IN SOL-GEL 15
TABLE 4 CHRONOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHTS OF SOL-GEL PRODUCTS 21
TABLE 5 SELECTED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS AND APPLICATIONS 23
TABLE 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE CONVENTIONAL SOL-GEL
PROCESS 24
TABLE 7 DOPANTS AND RESULTANT PROPERTIES 25
TABLE 8 CHEMAT TECHNOLOGY'S SOLUBLE POLYMERIC METAL ORGANIC
OXOALKOXIDE PRECURSORS 29
TABLE 9 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOL-GEL PRODUCTS 35
TABLE 10 POWDER PRECURSORS AND RESULTANT COMPOSITIONS 37
TABLE 11 COATING PRECURSORS AND RESULTANT COMPOSITIONS 45
TABLE 12 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOL-GEL COATING METHODS 50
TABLE 13 PROCESSES FOR MAKING THICK COATINGS 51
TABLE 14 COMPARISON OF COATING METHODS 53
TABLE 15 COATING THICKNESSES FOR A VARIETY OF COATINGS 54
TABLE 16 APPLICATIONS OF SOL-GEL FILMS AND COATINGS 57
TABLE 17 APPLICATIONS OF SOL-GEL GLASSES 58
TABLE 18 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROGELS 64
TABLE 19 APPLICATIONS OF AEROGELS 64
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF STANDARD AEROGEL PRODUCTS 68
TABLE 21 COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL REINFORCING FIBERS 75
TABLE 22 TAILORED COMPOSITES USING SOL-GEL 79
TABLE 23 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOL-GEL COMPOSITES 79
TABLE 24 SOL-GEL COATINGS FOR FIBERS 81
TABLE 25 TYPICAL COMPOSITE PROPERTIES MADE FROM FREEZE GELATION 82
TABLE 26 ORGANIC/INORGANIC MATERIAL SYSTEMS AND PROPERTIES 88
TABLE 27 OPTICAL AND OPTO-ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS AND APPLICATIONS 94
TABLE 28 PROPERTIES OF NHC SERIES FOR PROTECTION OF ELECTRODES 101
TABLE 29 SUMMARY OF SOL-GEL LASER SYSTEMS 107
TABLE 30 COMPARISON OF GRIN PROCESSING METHODS 119
TABLE 31 MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS FOR FERROELECTRIC THIN FILMS 121
TABLE 32 COMPARISON OF ABRASIVE PROPERTIES 137
TABLE 33 ADVANTAGES OF SG WHEELS 138
TABLE 34 ANNUAL PERFORMANCE OF FLAT SOLAR COLLECTORS 148
TABLE 35 PROPERTIES OF NEXTEL FIBERS 149
TABLE 36 APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS FOR NEXTEL FIBERS 151
TABLE 37 STRENGTH OF TECHNIWEAVE COMPOSITES 152
TABLE 38 APPLICATIONS OF BIOACTIVE GLASSES AND GLASS-CERAMICS 154
TABLE 39 MATERIAL SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS FOR CATALYSTS 161
TABLE 40 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF CERAMIC MEMBRANES 163
TABLE 41 COMPARISON OF DECORATIVE COATINGS 167
TABLE 42 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. OPTICAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 172
TABLE 43 U.S. MARKETS FOR SOL-GEL IN ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 173
TABLE 44 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 174
TABLE 45 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 46 FORECAST FOR THE U.S. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 47 SOL-GEL PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZED IN JAPAN 177
TABLE 48 GLOBAL FORECAST FOR THE SOL-GEL PRODUCTS MARKET, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 180


LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. AND WORLD MARKETS FOR SOL-GEL PRODUCTS, ($
MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 U.S. SOL-GEL MARKET SHARES BY APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 11
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE BY COUNTRY/REGION, 2013 AND 2019 (%) 12
FIGURE 3 PROCESS FOR WATER-BASED ZIRCONIA SOLS 33
FIGURE 4 GENERIC FLOWCHART OF THE SOL-GEL PROCESS 34
FIGURE 5 FLOWCHART FOR THE FLAKE MANUFACTURING PROCESS 39
FIGURE 6 FLOWCHART FOR MAKING VANADIUM-BASED PIGMENTS 42
FIGURE 7 PROCESS FOR MAKING PINK PIGMENTS 42
FIGURE 8 PROCESS FOR MAKING YELLOW-GREEN PIGMENTS 43
FIGURE 9 SCHEMATIC OF DIP-COATING 48
FIGURE 10 SCHEMATIC OF SPIN COATING 48
FIGURE 11 SCHEMATIC OF MENISCUS COATING 49
FIGURE 12 SCHEMATIC OF LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION 55
FIGURE 13 PROCESS FOR MAKING 3M CERAMIC FIBERS 75
FIGURE 14 COMPOSITE PROCESS INCORPORATING DIFFERENT 77
FIGURE 15 FLOWCHART FOR MAKING FIBER LAMINATE COMPOSITES 78
FIGURE 16 SCHEMATIC OF THE EMBOSSING PROCESS 94
FIGURE 17 SCHEMATIC OF TITANIA SOLAR CELL 99
FIGURE 18 SCHEMATIC FOR MAKING OPTICAL FIBER 110
FIGURE 19 FLOW DIAGRAM FOR SRAL2O4: EU, DY VIA SOL-GEL 117
FIGURE 20 FLOWCHART OF SBT FILM PROCESS 124
FIGURE 21 METHOD FOR MAKING ZNO POWDERS 128
FIGURE 22 SCHEMATIC OF CUBITRON 321 PROCESS 136
FIGURE 23 PROCESS FOR MAKING SILICA-TITANIA FILMS 142
FIGURE 24 PROCESS FLOWCHARTS FOR MAKING SOL-GEL MEMBRANES 164

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