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Analyzing Geothermal Power in North & South America

  • March 2013
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 275 pages

The geothermal power market in North & South America is expected to rise at a steady rate in the coming times. While, the United States has been a dominating force in the global geothermal industry, Central America also has huge potential for geothermal power generation. However, only a few Central American countries, such as Mexico, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Guatemala, are currently harnessing geothermal power. With increasing emphasis on renewable sources for power generation around the world and focus on gaining energy independence, many of these countries have started projects to develop geothermal resources. In addition, many other countries not producing geothermal power are also investing in the development of geothermal resources.

However, the cost of generating power from geothermal energy is quite high as for different sources of geothermal energy, different power generating technologies are required. Moreover, no two geothermal sites are exactly alike, thus creating the need for energy conversion systems, which can be adapted to suit the particular site. Furthermore, the technology required for a particular type of site is dependent on the temperature and state of aggregation of the water that is used to extract the heat from the rock. The technologies used for geothermal energy are broadly classified into two categories: conventional steam turbine technology and binary cycle plant technology. The huge untapped potential of geothermal energy provides a great opportunity for government authorities, power generating companies and other players to invest in this sector and meet the growing energy demand. Geothermal power generation has a supreme advantage over other renewable energy sources of a higher capacity factor comparable to fossil fuel plants.

Ormat Technologies, Calpine Corporation, US Geothermal, etc., are some of the major players in market. Geothermal resource exploration and development requires an enormous amount of initial investment and this acts as one of the major restraining factors for companies in this industry. The government agencies in many countries keen to develop their geothermal resources have provided many tax incentives and devised various favorable policies to encourage these companies to invest in the sector. These regulations are going to help the companies to gain the initial investment for their projects - and will spur growth in this sector.

Aruvians Rsearch analyzes the Geothermal Power in North & South America in its latest research offering Analyzing Geothermal Power in North & South America.

The report is a comprehensive coverage of the geothermal industry in many countries in both North and South America, such as the US, Mexico, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Guatemala.

The report begins with an introduction to geothermal power. We analyze the utilization of geothermal energy, the grading of geothermal resources, technologies used in geothermal power generation, emerging technologies, amongst others.

Since geothermal power is a renewable resource, we analyze the global renewable energy industry as well in the report. We look at the industry overview, power generated from renewable energy resources, increase in the renewable power capacity, etc. We also analyze the renewable power industry in North & South America.

Moving on to the analysis of the geothermal power market in North & South America, we first analyze the global geothermal power industry through power generated from geothermal resources worldwide and global geothermal power installed capacity. We further look at the factors impacting the global geothermal power industry such as growth drivers and challenges facing the global geothermal industry.

A cost analysis of geothermal power in included in the report. We analyze the capital cost of geothermal power and the operation & maintenance cost as well.

Geothermal power in North & South America is analyzed through power generated from geothermal resources, installed capacity of geothermal power, regional segmentation of the industry and the major industry deals that have taken place in recent years.

Countries analyzed in this report include Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and the US. For each country's geothermal power market, we analyze the power generated from geothermal resources, geothermal power installed capacity, industry segmentation by renewable energy technologies, regulatory frameworks governing the market, and major industry projects, both existing and upcoming.

Major industry players are analyzed through a corporate profile, an analysis of their major business segments, the presence of these companies in the geothermal market, and a SWOT analysis.

Aruvians Rsearch’s report Analyzing Geothermal Power in North & South America is a complete guide to this rapidly growing industry.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing Geothermal Power in North and South America
A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to Geothermal Power
B.1 The Recognition of Geothermal Energy - Historical Perspective
B.2 Utilization of Geothermal Energy - Current Day
B.3 Source of Geothermal Energy Generation
B.4 Energy from the Earth's Core - Geothermal Systems
B.5 Identifying Geothermal Activity Reservoirs
B.6 Grading Geothermal Resources
B.7 Exploring Geothermal Resources Commercially
B.8 Geothermal Resource Exploration Process
B.9 Geothermal Exploration Programs - Risk vs. Cost
B.10 Technologies Used in Geothermal Power Generation
B.10.1 Binary Cycle Plant Technology
B.10.2 Conventional Steam Turbine Technology
B.11 Emerging Technologies
B.11.1 Enhanced Geothermal System
B.11.2 Mixed Working Fluid Technology
B.12 Geothermal Drilling Technology and Costs

C. Global Renewable Energy Market
C.1 Industry Overview
C.2 Power Generation from Renewable Energy
C.3 Increase in Renewable Power Capacity
C.4 Renewable Power Generation Technologies

D. Global Geothermal Power Industry
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources
D.3 Global Geothermal Power Installed Capacity

E. Factors Impacting the Global Geothermal Power Market
E.1 Industry Growth Drivers
E.1.1 Concerns over Climate Change
E.1.2 Minimum Environmental Damage from Geothermal Energy Conversion
E.1.3 Favorable Regulatory Environment
E.1.4 Easy Storage of Geothermal Energy
E.1.5 Race to Secure Energy Supply
E.1.6 No Impact of Fluctuations in Fuel Price on Geothermal Power
E.2 Challenges Facing the Industry
E.2.1 High Capital Costs
E.2.2 Release of Greenhouse Gases from Geothermal Fluids
E.2.3 Uncertainty of Resource Site Potential
E.2.4 Decline in Energy Production from Site Over Time
E.2.5 Geothermal Resources and Seismically Activity Areas

F. Cost Analysis of Geothermal Power
F.1 Overview
F.2 Capital Cost Analysis
F.3 OandM Cost Analysis
F.4 Levelized Cost of Power Production from Geothermal Plants

G. Research and Development in the Global Geothermal Industry

H. Renewable Energy in North and South America
H.1 Industry Overview
H.2 Power Generation from Renewable Energy in North and South America
H.3 Renewable Power Capacity in North and South America
H.4 Renewable Power Generation Technologies in North and South America

I. Geothermal Power Industry in North and South America
I.1 Industry Overview
I.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in North and South America
I.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in North and South America
I.4 Regional Segmentation of the Industry
I.5 Major Industry Deals

J. Geothermal Power Industry in Costa Rica
J.1 Industry Overview
J.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in Costa Rica
J.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in Costa Rica
J.4 Industry Segmentation
J.5 Industry Regulations
J.6 Major Industry Projects

K. Geothermal Power Industry in El Salvador
K.1 Industry Overview
K.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in El Salvador
K.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in El Salvador
K.4 Industry Segmentation
K.5 Industry Regulations
K.6 Major Industry Projects

L. Geothermal Power Industry in Guatemala
L.1 Industry Overview
L.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in Guatemala
L.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in Guatemala
L.4 Industry Segmentation
L.5 Industry Regulations
L.6 Major Industry Projects

M. Geothermal Power Industry in Mexico
M.1 Industry Overview
M.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in Mexico
M.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in Mexico
M.4 Industry Segmentation
M.5 Industry Regulations
M.6 Major Industry Projects

N. Geothermal Power Industry in Nicaragua
N.1 Industry Overview
N.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in Nicaragua
N.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in Nicaragua
N.4 Industry Segmentation
N.5 Industry Regulations
N.6 Major Industry Projects

O. Geothermal Power Industry in the US
O.1 Industry Overview
O.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in the US
O.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in the US
O.4 Industry Segmentation
O.5 Industry Regulations
O.6 Major Industry Projects

P. Major Industry Players
P.1 Calpine Corporation
P.1.1 Corporate Profile
P.1.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.1.3 Industry Presence
P.1.4 SWOT Analysis
P.2 Comision Federal de Electricidad
P.2.1 Corporate Profile
P.2.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.2.3 Industry Presence
P.2.4 SWOT Analysis
P.3 Ormat Technologies, Inc.
P.3.1 Corporate Profile
P.3.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.3.3 Industry Presence
P.3.4 SWOT Analysis
P.4 Fuji Electric Co Ltd
P.4.1 Corporate Profile
P.4.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.4.3 Industry Presence
P.4.4 SWOT Analysis
P.5 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
P.5.1 Corporate Profile
P.5.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.5.3 Industry Presence
P.5.4 SWOT Analysis
P.6 Toshiba Corporation
P.6.1 Corporate Profile
P.6.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.6.3 Industry Presence
P.6.4 SWOT Analysis
P.7 Nevada Geothermal Power Inc
P.7.1 Corporate Profile
P.7.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.7.3 SWOT Analysis
P.8 Western Geopower Corporation
P.8.1 Corporate Profile
P.8.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.8.3 SWOT Analysis
P.9 U.S. Geothermal Inc.
P.9.1 Corporate Profile
P.9.2 Business Segment Analysis
P.9.3 SWOT Analysis

Q. Appendix
Q.1 Global Geothermal Associations
Q.2 Figures and Tables

R. Research Methodology

S. Glossary of Terms



List of Figures

Figure 1: The Earth's Crust, Mantle, and Core. Top Right: A Section through the Crust and the Uppermost Mantle
Figure 2: Schematic Cross-Section Showing Plate Tectonic Processes
Figure 3: World Pattern of Plates, Oceanic Ridges, Oceanic Trenches, Subduction Zones, and Geothermal Fields
Figure 4: Representation of an Ideal Geothermal System
Figure 5: Model of a Geothermal System
Figure 6: Formation of a Geothermal Reservoir
Figure 7: Diagram Showing the Different Categories of Geothermal Resources
Figure 8: Workings of a Binary Cycle Geothermal Plant
Figure 9: Workings of a Flash/Binary Cycle Geothermal Plant
Figure 10: Workings of a Dry Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Figure 11: Workings of a Flash Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Figure 12: Workings of a Double Flash Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Figure 13: Completed Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Well Costs as a Function of Depth
Figure 14: Power Generated from Renewable Energy Sources (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 15: Installed Capacity in the Global Market for Renewable Power (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 16: Global Renewable Power Market by Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 17: Ring of Fire
Figure 18: Geothermal Electricity Production by Countries, and Installed Capacities (MW), 2011
Figure 19: Global Power Generated from Geothermal Resources (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 20: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power Worldwide (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 21: Power Generated from Renewable Energy Sources in North and South America (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 22: Installed Capacity of Renewable Power in North and South America (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 23: Generation of Renewable Power in North and South America by Technology Type (%), 2011
Figure 24: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in North and South America (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 25: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in North and South America (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 26: Share of Geothermal Power Market in North and South America by Country (%), 2011
Figure 27: Number of Geothermal Project Deals in Recent Times in North and South America
Figure 28: Types of Geothermal Deals in the Industry in Recent Times
Figure 29: Geothermal Deals by Region in Recent Times
Figure 30: Geothermal Fields in Costa Rica
Figure 31: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Costa Rica (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 32: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Costa Rica (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 33: Renewable Power Generation in Costa Rica by Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 34: Geothermal Fields in El Salvador
Figure 35: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in El Salvador (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 36: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in El Salvador (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 37: Renewable Power Generated in El Salvador by Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 38: Geothermal Fields in Guatemala
Figure 39: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Guatemala (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 40: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Guatemala (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 41: Renewable Power in Guatemala by Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 42: Location of Geothermal Fields in Mexico
Figure 43: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Mexico (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 44: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Mexico (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 45: Renewable Power Generation in Mexico by Share of Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 46: Geothermal Fields in Nicaragua
Figure 47: Power Generated from Geothermal Power in Nicaragua (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 48: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Nicaragua (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 49: Renewable Power Generated in Nicaragua by Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 50: States Producing Geothermal Energy in the US, 2011
Figure 51: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in the US (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 52: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in the US (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 53: Renewable Power Generation in the US by Share of Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 54: Conceptual Two-Well Enhanced Geothermal System in Hot Rock in a Low-Permeability Crystalline Basement Formation
Figure 55: Estimated Total Geothermal Resource Base and Recoverable Resource Given in EJ or 1018 Joules
Figure 56: An Atmospheric Exhaust Geothermal Power-Plant
Figure 57: A Condensing Geothermal Power-Plant
Figure 58: A Geothermal Binary Power Plant
Figure 59: Flow Diagram of the Geothermal District Heating System of Reykjavik.
Figure 60: Application of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System
Figure 61: A Heat Pump in Heating Mode
Figure 62: Binary Cycle Plant
Figure 63: Dry Steam Plant
Figure 64: Flashed Steam Plant
Figure 65: Cascade Uses of Geothermal Energy



List of Tables

Table 1: Classification of Geothermal Resources (°C)
Table 2: Different Types of Technologies Used by Geothermal Plants
Table 3: Power Generated from Renewable Energy Sources (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 4: Installed Capacity in the Global Market for Renewable Power (MW), 2002-2022
Table 5: Global Renewable Power Market by Technologies (%), 2011
Table 6: Global Power Generated from Geothermal Resources (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 7: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power Worldwide (MW), 2002-2022
Table 8: Capital Cost of Geothermal Power Plants by Plant Size and Resource Quality, 2011
Table 9: Operation Cost of Geothermal Power Plants by Plant Size (US Cents/KWh), 2011
Table 10: Power Generated from Renewable Energy Sources in North and South America (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 11: Installed Capacity of Renewable Power in North and South America (MW), 2002-2022
Table 12: Generation of Renewable Power in North and South America by Technology Type (%), 2011
Table 13: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in North and South America (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 14: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in North and South America (MW), 2002-2022
Table 15: Share of Geothermal Power Market in North and South America by Country (%), 2011
Table 16: Number of Geothermal Project Deals in Recent Times in North and South America
Table 17: Types of Geothermal Deals in the Industry in Recent Times
Table 18: Geothermal Deals by Region in Recent Times
Table 19: Major Geothermal Deals in North America in Recent Times
Table 20: Major Geothermal Deals in South America in Recent Times
Table 21: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Costa Rica (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 22: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Costa Rica (MW), 2002-2022
Table 23: Renewable Power Generation in Costa Rica by Technologies (%), 2011
Table 24: Geothermal Projects in Costa Rica
Table 25: Upcoming/Under Development Geothermal Projects in Costa Rica
Table 26: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in El Salvador (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 27: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in El Salvador (MW), 2002-2022
Table 28: Renewable Power Generated in El Salvador by Technologies (%), 2011
Table 29: Major Geothermal Projects in El Salvador
Table 30: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Guatemala (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 31: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Guatemala (MW), 2002-2022
Table 32: Renewable Power in Guatemala by Technologies (%), 2011
Table 33: Major Geothermal Projects in Guatemala
Table 34: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Mexico (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 35: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Mexico (MW), 2002-2022
Table 36: Renewable Power Generation in Mexico by Share of Technologies (%), 2011
Table 37: Major Geothermal Projects in Mexico
Table 38: Upcoming Geothermal Projects in Mexico
Table 39: Power Generated from Geothermal Power in Nicaragua (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 40: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Nicaragua (MW), 2002-2022
Table 41: Renewable Power Generated in Nicaragua by Technologies (%), 2011
Table 42: Geothermal Projects in Nicaragua
Table 43: Upcoming/Under Development Geothermal Projects in Nicaragua
Table 44: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in the US (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 45: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in the US (MW), 2002-2022
Table 46: Renewable Power Generation in the US by Share of Technologies (%), 2011
Table 47: State/Federal Renewable Standards
Table 47: Major Geothermal Projects in the US
Table 48: Major Geothermal Projects Under Development in the US (2010-2015)
Table 49: Summary of Nonhydrothermal US Geothermal Resource-Base Estimates
Table 50: Energy and Investment Costs for Electric Energy Production from Renewables
Table 51: Energy and Investment Costs for Direct Heat from Renewables


Companies MentionedCalpine Corporation
Comision Federal de Electricidad
Fuji Electric Co Ltd
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Nevada Geothermal Power Inc
Ormat Technologies, Inc.
Toshiba Corporation
U.S. Geothermal Inc.
Western Geopower Corporation

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