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Global Manganese Industry

  • March 2016
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  • Global Industry Analysts
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  • 481 pages

This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Manganese in Metric Tons by the following Alloys and Compounds: Alloys (FeMn, SiMn, Refined FeMn, & Others), and Electrolytic Mn. The market is also analyzed by the following End-use Segments: Steel, Batteries, and Others. The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Rest of World. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 through 2022. Also, a six-year historic analysis is provided for these markets. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 97 companies including many key and niche players such as -

Anglo American Plc
Assmang Proprietary Ltd.
Cegasa USA Inc.
Compania Minera Autlan, S.A.B. De C.V
Consolidated Minerals Limited

Table Of Contents

Global Manganese Industry


I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY and PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations I-1 Disclaimers.............. I-2 Data Interpretation and Reporting Level I-2 Quantitative Techniques and Analytics I-3 Product Definitions and Scope of Study I-3 Manganese Alloys.............. I-3 Ferro Manganese (FeMn)..............I-4 Silico-manganese (SiMn)..............I-4 Refined FeMn.............. I-4 Electrolytic Managanese..............I-4

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW.............. II-1 Manganese - A Prelude..............II-1 Current and Future Analysis..............II-2 Receding Mn Demand in China Dampens Global Supply Demand Balance II-3 Moderate Short-range Prospects for Global Steel Industry Sustains Mid-term Demand..............II-4 Table 1: World Consumption of Finished Steel (2014 through 2020) (In Million Metric Tons) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-5 Developing Countries on the Growth Path II-5 Stable Economic Outlook to Keep Market Sentiment Intact II-6 Table 2: GDP Growth Rates in Select World Economies (2014-2016) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8

Table 3: Global Manufacturing PMI for the Years 2010 through 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-9 Manganese Pricing Dynamics..............II-9 Table 4: World Average Price of Manganese Alloys: March 2014 - March 2015 (In US$/tonne) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-10 Companies Resort to Plant Closures as Mn Prices Drop Further II-10 Competitive Landscape..............II-11 Table 5: Leading Players in the Global Manganese Ore Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production for Anglo, ARM, BHP, Eramet, Vale, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-12 High Grade Manganese Ores..............II-12 Table 6: Leading Players in the Global High Grade Manganese Ores Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Sales for Assmang, South32 Limited, Eramet, Vale, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-12 Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide..............II-13

2. GROWTH DRIVERS, MARKET TRENDS and ISSUES II-14 Steady Volume Growth in Automobile Production Bodes Well for Manganese Market.............. II-14 Opportunity Indicators..............II-14 Table 7: World Production of Passenger Cars: Breakdown of Annual Production Figures in ‘000' Units for Years 2014 and 2018 by Geographic Region/Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-14

Table 8: World Production of Commercial Vehicles: Breakdown of Annual Production Figures in ‘000' Units for Years 2014 and 2018 by Geographic Region/Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-15 Demand for Lighter Weight Vehicles Drives Growth in AHSS Segment II-15 Use of Mn in Twinning Induced Plasticity Steel Drives Market Expansion.............. II-16 Demand for Stainless Steel Sustains Growth in Manganese Market II-17 Expanding Applications Drive Demand for Manganese Oxide II-18 Ferro Manganese Market to Register Growth II-18 Duplex Stainless Steel Drives Demand II-19 Green Energy Boosts Demand for Electrolytic Manganese II-20 Table 9: Worldwide Electrolytic Manganese Metal (EMM) Production (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production Volume by Country - China and South Africa (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-21 Growing Popularity of EV s to Benefit EMD Demand II-21 Emerging End-Use Applications Drives Manganese Carbonate Market II-22 Table 10: Global Manganese Carbonate Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Volume Share by End-Use Applications - Agrochemicals, Chemical Intermediates, Glaze Colorant and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-22 Increasing Global Demand for Batteries to Drive Demand II-23 Austenitic Manganese Steel Finds Use in Railways II-24 Issues.............. II-24 Manganese - The Darker Side..............II-24 Health Issues Related to Manganese Toxicity II-24 Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Manganese II-25 Manganese-Based Gasoline Additive Concerns Auto Manufacturers II-25

3. MANGANESE - FACTS AND FIGURES..............II-26 Worldwide Manganese Resources..............II-26 Reserves.............. II-26 Table 11: Worldwide Manganese Reserves (2015): Breakdown of Total Deposit Volumes in Million Metric Tons by Country - South Africa, Ukraine, Australia, India, Brazil, China, Gabon and Other Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-27 Production Scenario..............II-28 Table 12: Global Manganese Market (2014 and 2015E): Production in Thousand Metric Tons by Country - South Africa, Australia, China, Gabon, Brazil, India, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Malaysia, Mexico, Burma and Other Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-28 Select Manganese Projects..............II-29 Table 13: Global Manganese Ore Market (2013): Production in Million Metric Tons by Country - Australia, Brazil, China, Gabon, Ghana, South Africa , Ukraine, and Rest of World (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-30 Manganese Ore Grades..............II-30 Table 14: Global Mn High Grade (>44%) Market (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-31

Table 15: Global Mn Mid-Grade (>30% and
Table 16: Global Mn Low Grade (
Table 18: World SilicoManganese Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Region/Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-32

Table 19: World Refined Manganese Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Region/Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-33

Table 20: World High-Carbon Ferromanganese (HCFeMn) Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-33

4. TRADE SCENARIO.............. II-34 Exports.............. II-34 Table 21: Global Exports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Exports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-34

Table 22: Global Exports of Manganese Oxides (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Exports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-34

Table 23: Global Exports of Manganese Dioxides (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Exports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-35

Table 24: Global Exports of High Carbon Ferro Manganese (HC FeMn) for 2014: Percentage Share Breakdown of Exports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-35

Table 25: Global Exports of Ferro-Silico-Manganese (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Exports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-36 Imports.............. II-36 Table 26: Global Imports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Imports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-36

Table 27: Global Imports of Manganese Oxides (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Imports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-37

Table 28: Global Imports of Manganese Dioxide (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Imports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-37

Table 29: Global Imports of High Carbon Ferro Manganese (HC FeMn) (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Imports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-38

Table 30: Global Imports of Ferro-Silico-Manganese (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Imports Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-38

5. PRODUCT OVERVIEW.............. II-39 Manganese - A Definition..............II-39 Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Manganese and Select Manganese Compounds..............II-39 Applications of Manganese..............II-40 History.............. II-40 Ore and Concentrates..............II-40 Forms of Mn Consumption..............II-41 Manganese Alloys.............. II-41 Ferro Manganese (FeMn)..............II-41 Silico-manganese (SiMn)..............II-41 Refined FeMn.............. II-41 Grades of Ferromanganese: An Overview II-42 Others.............. II-42 Electrolytic Manganese..............II-42

6. STEEL INDUSTRY - A MAJOR END-USER OF MANGANESE II-44 Steel Industry Accounts for Lion's Share II-44 Table 31: World Steel Demand (2014): Percentage Breakdown of End-Use Sector - Construction, Mechanical Engineering, Metal Goods, Automotive, Oil and Gas, Electrical Engineering and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-44 Steel Industry - Key Facts and Figures II-45 Global Steel Production..............II-45 Steel Production on a Downward Spiral II-45 Table 32: World Crude Steel Production (2005-2015) in Million Tons (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-46

Table 33: Global Crude Steel Market (2013, 2014, and 2015): Breakdown of Volume Production (in Million Tonnes) by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-47

Table 34: World Crude Steel Market (2015): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Region (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-47 Imports/Exports Scenario..............II-48 Table 35: World Steel Exports Scenario (2014): Breakdown of Exports by Leading Exporting Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-48

Table 36: World Steel Imports Scenario (2014): Breakdown of Imports by Leading Importing Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-49

Table 37: World Finished Steel Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production by Category (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-49 Use of Manganese in Construction Steel Benefits Growth II-50 Manganese in Steelmaking..............II-50 Role of Manganese in the Steel Industry II-51 Table 38: Classification of Steel Based on Mn Content (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-52 Carbon Steel.............. II-53 Use of Manganese in Engineering Steel II-54 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel..............II-54 Austenitic Manganese Steel..............II-55 Stainless Steel.............. II-55

7. OTHER END-USE APPLICATIONS..............II-56 Batteries.............. II-56 Chemicals Applications..............II-56 Use of Manganese for Other Metallurgies II-57 Aluminum.............. II-57 Copper.............. II-58 Other Metals.............. II-58 MMT - Manganese Based Fuel Additive II-58 Medical Applications..............II-58 Adequate Intake for Manganese II-59 Role of Manganese in Wound Healing II-59 Manganese Deficiency Leads to Several Diseases II-60 Polysaccharide Krestin Found to Improve MnSOD Activity II-60 Manganese as a Micronutrient in Agriculture II-60 Commercial Fertilizers Comprising Manganese II-61 Animal Feed Grade Manganese Products II-61

8. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY..............II-62 Consolidated Minerals Freezes Operations at Woodie Woodie Manganese Mine.............. II-62 Carus CARUSOL® Liquid Permanganate Secures Certification for Drinking Water Applications..............II-62 Brazil Manganese Corporation Reports Sales of 7,500 Tonnes of Manganese Mineral Products..............II-62 South32 Set to Undertake Major Restructuring and Minimize Cash Costs.............. II-62 Autlán Indefinitely Shuts Down Operations at its Gómez Palacio Plant.............. II-62 American Manganese Inks Finder's Fee Agreement With CPM Group for Licensing Hydrometallurgical Process II-62 American Manganese Inks NDA Agreement with Critical Materials Institute.............. II-63 3M and LG Chem Ink Patent License Agreement for Use of NMC Cathode Materials in Li-On Battery II-63 Ferrex to Develop Nayega Manganese Project by Using Funds from its Acquisition of Chaffers Mining II-63 Star Minerals Extends MOU with Cooperative Mineral Resources II-63 South32 Delays Restarting Three of the Four Deployed HCFeMn Furnaces at Metalloys Manganese Alloy Facility II-63 Excalibur Mining and Pinto Minerals Acquires Majority Stake in a Manganese Deposit..............II-63 OM Holdings Limited Halts Operations at its Bootu Creek Manganese Project Facility..............II-63 BHPB to Demerge Aluminium, Coal, Manganese, Nickel and Silver Assets into New Company..............II-64 Star materials inks MOU with Octopus Technologies and Cooperative Mineral Resources II-64 Otjozondu Mining in Purchase Contract with Noble Resources for Selling Manganese Ore..............II-64 Geovic Mining Agrees to Extend Agreement with Jiangxi Rare Metals Tungsten Holdings Group Company II-64 American Manganese Secures Patent for its Proprietary Manganese Recovery Process..............II-64 Outotec Enters into Operation and Maintenance Service Contract with Kalagadi Manganese..............II-64 American Manganese to Focus on Adoption of Chemical Manganese Dioxide Process.............. II-65 Cancana Takes Control of Eletroligas Ltda'smanganese Processing Plant.............. II-65 Cancana Acquires Stake in Brazil Manganes Corporation II-65 Glencore Xstrata Mulls Sale of ENRC Zhairem Assets II-65 Zamanco Minerals Enters into Agreement with Jazzman Chikwakwa II-65 JMS Divests Stake in Oakover Manganese Project II-65 Japan Oil, Gas and Metals Inks Contract with ISA II-65 Gulf Minerals to Establish Alloy Smelter Unit II-66 Adhunik Group to Sell Minority Stake in Orissa Manganese and Minerals.............. II-66 African Compass International Investments to Take Over Gabon JV Manganese and Niobium Assets II-66 Brighton Mining to Acquire Asia Minerals Corporation II-66 Valmont Industries Decreases Investment in Delta EMD II-66 Tata Steel Introduces Ferro Chrome and Ferro Manganese Brands II-66 Honeywell Launches Novel Copper Manganese Sputtering Targets II-66

9. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS..............II-67 Anglo American Plc (UK)..............II-67 Assmang Proprietary Ltd. (South Africa) II-67 Cegasa USA Inc. (USA)..............II-68 Compania Minera Autlan, S.A.B. De C.V. (Mexico) II-68 Consolidated Minerals Limited (Australia) II-68 ERACHEM Comilog Inc (USA)..............II-69 Eramet SA (France)..............II-70 Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation Limited (UK) II-70 Gulf Manganese Corporation Limited (Australia) II-71 Manganese Metal Company (South Africa) II-71 Mesa Minerals Limited (Australia) II-72 MOIL Limited (India)..............II-72 Nippon Denko Company Ltd. (Japan) II-72 OM Holdings Ltd (Australia)..............II-73 South32 Limited (Australia)..............II-73 Vale (Brazil).............. II-74 Xiangtan Electrochemical Sclentific Ltd. (China) II-74

10. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE..............II-75 Table 39: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-75

Table 40: World Historic Review for Manganese by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-76

Table 41: World 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-77 Manganese Alloys.............. II-78 Table 42: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese Alloys by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-78

Table 43: World Historic Review for Manganese Alloys by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-79

Table 44: World 14-Year Perspective for Manganese Alloys by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-80

Table 45: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese Alloys by Product Segment - Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-81

Table 46: World Historic Review for Manganese Alloys by Product Segment - Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-82

Table 47: World 14-Year Perspective for Manganese Alloys by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-83

Table 48: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Ferro Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-84

Table 49: World Historic Review for Ferro Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-85

Table 50: World 14-Year Perspective for Ferro Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-86

Table 51: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Silico Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-87

Table 52: World Historic Review for Silico Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-88

Table 53: World 14-Year Perspective for Silico Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-89

Table 54: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-90

Table 55: World Historic Review for Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-91

Table 56: World 14-Year Perspective for Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-92

Table 57: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Other Manganese Alloys by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-93

Table 58: World Historic Review for Other Manganese Alloys by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-94

Table 59: World 14-Year Perspective for Other Manganese Alloys by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-95

Table 60: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Electrolytic Manganese by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-96

Table 61: World Historic Review for Electrolytic Manganese by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. II-97

Table 62: World 14-Year Perspective for Electrolytic Manganese by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-98 End-Use Segments.............. II-99 Table 63: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese in Steel Production by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-99

Table 64: World Historic Review for Manganese in Steel Production by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-100

Table 65: World 14-Year Perspective for Manganese in Steel Production by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-101

Table 66: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese in Batteries Production by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-102

Table 67: World Historic Review for Manganese in Batteries Production by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-103

Table 68: World 14-Year Perspective for Manganese in Batteries Production by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-104

Table 69: World Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese in Other Applications by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-105

Table 70: World Historic Review for Manganese in Other Applications by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............II-106

Table 71: World 14-Year Perspective for Manganese in Other Applications by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Latin America and Rest of World Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-107

III. MARKET

1. THE UNITED STATES.............. III-1 A.Market Analysis.............. III-1 Outlook.............. III-1 Market Overview.............. III-1 Product Matrix of Leading Producers of Manganese Products in the US.............. III-2 Table 72: US Consumption of Manganese by End-Use Sector (2015E): Percentage Share Breakdown by End-Use (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-2 A Review of the US Steel Industry III-2 Turnaround in Construction Sector to Bode Well for the Market III-3 Table 73: Residential Construction in the US (2007-2015): Number of Housing Starts by Type - Single-Family Units and Multi-Family Units (in ‘000) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-4 Recovery in the US Automobile Sector Supports Market Prospects for Steel, Bodes Well for Manganese Market III-5 Table 74: US Vehicle Production (2007-2014) (in Million Units) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-5 Import/Export Scenario..............III-6 Table 75: US Imports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-6

Table 76: US Exports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-6

Table 77: US Imports of Manganese Ore, Ferromanganese and Siliconmanganese (2011-2015): Export Value in US$ Million (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-7

Table 78: US Imports of Manganese Oxides (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-7

Table 79: US Exports of Manganese Oxides (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-8

Table 80: US Imports of Ferromanganese (High Carbon) (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-8

Table 81: US Exports of Ferromanganese (High Carbon) (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-9

Table 82: US Imports of Ferro-Silico-Manganese (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-9

Table 83: US Exports of Ferro-Silico-Manganese (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-9

Table 84: US Imports of Manganese Dioxide (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-10

Table 85: US Exports of Manganese Dioxide (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-10 Strategic Corporate Developments III-11 Select Key Players..............III-11 B.Market Analytics..............III-13 Table 86: US Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-13

Table 87: US Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-14

Table 88: US 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-15

Table 89: US Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-16

Table 90: US Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-17

Table 91: US 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-18

2. CANADA.............. III-19 A.Market Analysis.............. III-19 Outlook.............. III-19 Import-Export Scenario..............III-19 Table 92: Canadian Imports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-19

Table 93: Canadian Exports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country III-19

Table 94: Canadian Imports of Manganese Oxides (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-20

Table 95: Canadian Exports of Manganese Oxides (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-20

Table 96: Canadian Imports of Ferromanganese (High Carbon) (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-21

Table 97: Canadian Exports of Ferromanganese (High Carbon) (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-21

Table 98: Canadian Imports of Ferro-Silico-Manganese (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-22

Table 99: Canadian Exports of Ferro-Silico-Manganese (2015): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-22

Table 100: Canadian Imports of Manganese Dioxide (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-23

Table 101: Canadian Exports of Manganese Dioxide (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-23 Strategic Corporate Developments III-23 B.Market Analytics..............III-25 Table 102: Canadian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-25

Table 103: Canadian Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-26

Table 104: Canadian 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-27

Table 105: Canadian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-28

Table 106: Canadian Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-29

Table 107: Canadian 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-30

3. JAPAN.............. III-31 A.Market Analysis.............. III-31 Outlook.............. III-31 Strategic Corporate Development III-31 Select Key Player.............. III-31 B.Market Analytics..............III-33 Table 108: Japanese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-33

Table 109: Japanese Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-34

Table 110: Japanese 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-35

Table 111: Japanese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-36

Table 112: Japanese Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-37

Table 113: Japanese 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-38

4. EUROPE.............. III-39 A.Market Analysis.............. III-39 Outlook.............. III-39 Moderate Outlook for Steel Production Buoys Mn Demand III-39 Steady Recovery of Construction Activity Augurs Well for Manganese Market.............. III-40 Import-Export Scenario..............III-41 Table 114: EU 28 Imports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-41

Table 115: EU 28 Exports of Manganese Ores and Concentrates (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-41

Table 116: EU 28 Imports of Ferro-Alloys (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-42

Table 117: EU 28 Exports of Ferro-Alloys (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-42

Table 118: EU 28 Exports of Ferromanganese (High Carbon) (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-43

Table 119: EU 28 Imports of Ferromanganese (High Carbon) (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-43

Table 120: EU 28 Exports of Manganese Oxides (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-44

Table 121: EU 28 Imports of Manganese Oxides (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-44

Table 122: EU 28 Exports of Manganese Dioxide (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Exports by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-45

Table 123: EU 28 Imports of Manganese Dioxide (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-45 B.Market Analytics..............III-46 Table 124: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-46

Table 125: European Historic Review for Manganese by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-47

Table 126: European 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-48

Table 127: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-49

Table 128: European Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-50

Table 129: European 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-51

Table 130: European Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-52

Table 131: European Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-53

Table 132: European 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-54

4a. FRANCE.............. III-55 A.Market Analysis.............. III-55 Outlook.............. III-55 Eramet SA - A Key Player..............III-55 B.Market Analytics..............III-56 Table 133: French Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-56

Table 134: French Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-57

Table 135: French 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-58

Table 136: French Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-59

Table 137: French Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-60

Table 138: French 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-61

4b. GERMANY.............. III-62 Market Analysis.............. III-62 Table 139: German Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-62

Table 140: German Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-63

Table 141: German 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-64

Table 142: German Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-65

Table 143: German Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-66

Table 144: German 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-67

4c. ITALY.............. III-68 Market Analysis.............. III-68 Table 145: Italian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-68

Table 146: Italian Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-69

Table 147: Italian 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-70

Table 148: Italian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-71

Table 149: Italian Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-72

Table 150: Italian 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-73

4d. THE UNITED KINGDOM..............III-74 A.Market Analysis.............. III-74 Outlook.............. III-74 Select Key Players..............III-74 B.Market Analytics..............III-76 Table 151: UK Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-76

Table 152: UK Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-77

Table 153: UK 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-78

Table 154: UK Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-79

Table 155: UK Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-80

Table 156: UK 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-81

4e. SPAIN.............. III-82 Market Analysis.............. III-82 Table 157: Spanish Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-82

Table 158: Spanish Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-83

Table 159: Spanish 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-84

Table 160: Spanish Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-85

Table 161: Spanish Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-86

Table 162: Spanish 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-87

4f. RUSSIA.............. III-88 A.Market Analysis.............. III-88 Outlook.............. III-88 Market Overview.............. III-88 Russia to Face Deficit in Demand and Supply of Silico-Manganese III-88 Drop in Steel Markets to Impact Mn Demand III-88 Table 163: Crude Steel production in Russia (2009-2015) (In Thousand Tons) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-89 B.Market Analytics..............III-90 Table 164: Russian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-90

Table 165: Russian Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-91

Table 166: Russian 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-92

Table 167: Russian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-93

Table 168: Russian Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-94

Table 169: Russian 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-95

4g. REST OF EUROPE.............. III-96 A.Market Analysis.............. III-96 Outlook.............. III-96 Turkey - A Potential Steel Producer III-96 Manganese Production in Ukraine III-96 Table 170: Ukraine Manganese Production in Metric Tons for the Year 2012 through 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-97 Ukraine - Emerging as a Leading Steel Producing Nation III-97 Strategic Corporate Development III-97 Select Key Players..............III-97 B.Market Analytics..............III-99 Table 171: Rest of Europe Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-99

Table 172: Rest of Europe Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-100

Table 173: Rest of Europe 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-101

Table 174: Rest of Europe Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-102

Table 175: Rest of Europe Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-103

Table 176: Rest of Europe 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-104

5. ASIA-PACIFIC.............. III-105 A.Market Analysis.............. III-105 Outlook.............. III-105 B.Market Analytics..............III-106 Table 177: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Geographic Region - China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-106

Table 178: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Manganese by Geographic Region -China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-107

Table 179: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for China, India and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-108

Table 180: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-109

Table 181: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-110

Table 182: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-111

Table 183: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-112

Table 184: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-113

Table 185: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-114

5a. CHINA.............. III-115 A.Market Analysis.............. III-115 Outlook.............. III-115 Market Overview.............. III-115 Slowdown Construction Sector Impacts Steel Demand III-115 Table 186: Residential Construction Sales Growth (in %) in China: 2007-2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-116 Steel Production Cutbacks Impede Mn Demand III-117 Table 187: Crude Steel Production in China (2007-2015) (in Million Metric Tons) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-117

Table 188: Crude Steel Production in China (2007-2016) (% YoY Growth) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-118 Mn Inventory Piles Up as Steel Production Slows down III-118 Table 189: Chinese Manganese Production in Metric Tons for the Year 2012 through 2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-119 Import Scenario.............. III-119 Table 190: Chinese Imports of Manganese Ore (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Value Imports by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-119

Table 191: Chinese Imports of Manganese Ore (2011-2014): Export Volume in '000 MT (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-120 Strategic Corporate Development III-120 Select Key Players..............III-120 B.Market Analytics..............III-122 Table 192: Chinese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-122

Table 193: Chinese Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-123

Table 194: Chinese 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-124

Table 195: Chinese Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)..............III-125

Table 196: Chinese Historic Review for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Steel, Batteries and Other Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-126

Table 197: Chinese 14-Year Perspective for Manganese by End-Use Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Volume Consumption for Steel, Batteries and Other Markets for Years 2009, 2016 and 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-127

5b. INDIA.............. III-128 A.Market Analysis.............. III-128 Outlook.............. III-128 Market Overview.............. III-128 Competition.............. III-129 Table 198: Leading Players in Indian Manganese Ore Market (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Volume Production of Major Players (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-129 Indial Steel Industry - An Overview III-129 Key Statistics.............. III-130 Table 199: Indian Production of Manganese Ore in Million Tons for the Period 2010-2015 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-130

Table 200: Indian Manganese Market (2014): Percentage Breakdown of Production of Manganese Ore by Region (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-131 Ferro-Manganese.............. III-131 Table 201: Indian Exports of Ferro Manganese in US$ Million for the Period 2010-2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-131

Table 202: Indian Imports of Ferro Manganese in US$ Million for the Period 2010-2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-132 Strategic Corporate Developments III-132 Select Key Players..............III-132 B.Market Analytics..............III-134 Table 203: Indian Recent Past, Current and Future Analysis for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and Electrolytic Manganese Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Consumption in Metric Tons for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart).............. III-134

Table 204: Indian Historic Review for Manganese by Product Segment - Alloys (Ferro Manganese Alloy, Silico Manganese Alloy, Refined Ferro Manganese Alloy, and Other Alloys), and

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