World Hydrogen Market

  • June 2014
  • -
  • Freedonia
  • -
  • 331 pages

World demand to rise 3.5%annually through 2018

Global consumption of merchant andcaptive hydrogen is forecast to increase3.5 percent annually through 2018 to 290billion cubic meters, driven by stronggrowth in petroleum hydrotreating andhydrocracking refining operations. Theseadvances will be particularly robust indeveloping countries as per capita vehicleownership rates rise, and as countriesadopt and enforce more stringentemissions regulations to combat increasinglydifficult air pollution problems.Merchant supply from industrialgas companies will expand rapidly ashydrogen consumption in upgradedpetroleum refineries exceeds the refineries’available captive resources.

Low-sulfur fuel regulationsto continue driving demand

Over the past two decades, the adoptionby many developed countries of motorvehicle emissions regulations has led tothe need for low-sulfur and ultra-lowsulfurgasoline and diesel fuels, greatlyincreasing the consumption of hydrogenin refinery hydrotreating operations. Thistrend will continue to drive demandgoing forward as developing countriesbegin to combat persistently difficult airquality issues by implementing and/orenforcing more stringent fuel sulfurregulations. While tightening motorvehicle fuel sulfur regulations will be onefactor driving refinery hydrogen demandin developing countries, growth will alsobe aided by rising per capita vehicleownership rates and higher demand forfuels. Additionally, the shift in theworld’s crude oil supply toward heaviercrudes and rising demand for distillatefuels globally will support the increaseduse of hydrogen in refinery hydrocrackingprocesses to break down heavierpetroleum fractions into more valuableproducts.Outside of refining, hydrogen is used inthe production of many important chemicals;as well as in the metals, electronics,and thin-film solar industries; edible oilprocessing; and a variety of other applications.Although the chemical industryis the largest of these, more rapid growthis expected in several smaller markets.Additionally, the adoption of hydrogenenergy technologies continues to proceedworldwide, and fuel cells will see greatermainstream adoption. Despite technicaland other challenges, the emergence of ahydrogen market for fuel cell poweredvehicles remains a possibility.

China to claim largest shareof new demand growth

Although the United States will remainthe world’s largest hydrogen consumingcountry, the greatest share of growththrough 2018 is expected to occur inChina. With air pollution in urban areasan increasingly pressing issue, China isexpected to aggressively target motorvehicle emissions by enacting andenforcing tighter fuel sulfur regulations.This will drive hydrogen demand growthas the country’s refining industry increasesits ability to produce low-sulfur fuels.Other emerging markets such as Indiaand Russia will also seek to export ultralow-sulfur fuels, and will see among thefastest gains in hydrogen demand.In most developed countries, demand forhydrogen will grow only modestly, if atall. The refining and chemical industriesof Western Europe and Japan facestagnant domestic markets as well asstrong competition from other areas. TheUS and Canada, however, will benefitfrom relatively plentiful raw materialsupply and the advanced state of theirrefining industries, allowing for healthiergrowth in hydrogen demand.

Study coverage

This upcoming industry study,World Hydrogen, presents historical demand data for 2003,2008 and 2013, plus forecasts for 2018and 2023 by market, world region, andfor 17 countries. The study also considersmarket environment factors, examineshydrogen energy technologies, evaluatescompany market share and profiles keyglobal industry players.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ix
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
II. MARKET ENVIRONMENT 4
General 4
World Economic Overview 5
Recent Historical Trends 6
World Economic Outlook 7
World Population Overview 10
World Manufacturing Overview 12
World Chemical Manufacturing Outlook 15
World Energy Outlook 17
World Petroleum Refining Outlook 21
World Fuel Cell Outlook 23
Environmental and Regulatory Issues 27
General 27
World Fuel Sulfur Regulations 29
III. TECHNOLOGY 33
General 33
Petroleum Refining 34
Conversion Processes 35
Treatment Processes 36
Hydrogen Production Methods 37
Steam Methane Reforming 38
Partial Oxidation 38
Water Electrolysis 39
Byproduct Hydrogen 40
Other Production Methods 41
Hydrogen Energy 43
General 43
Fuel Cells 45
Hydrogen Storage and Transportation 46
IV. OVERVIEW 49
General 49
World Hydrogen Demand by Region 51
World Hydrogen Demand by Market 55
Petroleum Refining 57
Petroleum Refining Hydrogen Demand by Process 59
Chemical Manufacturing 61
Other Markets for Hydrogen 63
Metal Processing 65
Electronics 66
Glass 67
Food Processing 67
All Other 68
Pricing Trends 70
V. NORTH AMERICA 72
Macroeconomic Environment 72
Hydrogen Demand 75
Suppliers and Market Share 78
United States 80
Canada 89
Mexico 95
VI. WESTERN EUROPE 103
Macroeconomic Environment 103
Hydrogen Demand 106
Suppliers and Market Share 110
Germany 112
Italy 118
Netherlands 124
Spain 131
France 137
United Kingdom 143
Other Western Europe 148
VII. ASIA/PACIFIC 156
Macroeconomic Environment 156
Hydrogen Demand 159
Suppliers and Market Share 163
China 166
Japan 175
South Korea 184
India 190
Singapore 197
Taiwan 203
Other Asia/Pacific 208
VIII. OTHER REGIONS 214
Central and South America 214
Macroeconomic Environment 214
Hydrogen Demand 217
Suppliers and Market Share 219
Brazil 221
Other Central and South America 227
Eastern Europe 232
Macroeconomic Environment 232
Hydrogen Demand 236
Suppliers and Market Share 238
Russia 239
Poland 246
Other Eastern Europe 251
Africa/Mideast 256
Macroeconomic Environment 256
Hydrogen Demand 259
Suppliers and Market Share 262
Saudi Arabia 263
Other Africa/Mideast 268
IX. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 274
General 274
Market Share 276
Acquisitions and Divestitures 280
Cooperative Agreements 281
Supply Agreements 284
Distribution 288
On-Site and Pipeline Distribution 289
Liquid and Compressed Gas Distribution 290
Company Profiles 292
Air Liquide Group 293
Air Products and Chemicals Incorporated 299
Airgas Incorporated 307
Hydro Edge, see Iwatani International
INOX Air Products, see Air Products and Chemicals
Iwatani International Corporation 309
Linde Group 311
Matheson Tri-Gas, see Taiyo Nippon Sanso
Messer Group GmbH 318
Praxair Incorporated 320
Showa Denko KK 327
Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation 329


LIST OF TABLES

SECTION I -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 Summary Table 3
SECTION II -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT
1 World Gross Domestic Product by Region 10
2 World Population by Region 12
3 World Manufacturing Value Added by Region 15
4 World Chemical Manufacturing Value Added by Region 17
5 World Energy Production by Type 20
6 World Refined Petroleum Products Production by Region 23
7 World Commercial Fuel Cell Demand by Region 26
SECTION III -- TECHNOLOGY
SECTION IV -- OVERVIEW
1 World Hydrogen Demand 51
2 World Hydrogen Demand by Region 53
3 World Hydrogen Demand by Market 56
4 World Petroleum Refining Market for Hydrogen 59
5 World Petroleum Refining Market for Hydrogen by Application and
Source 61
6 World Chemical Manufacturing Market for Hydrogen 63
7 Other Markets for Hydrogen by Region and Market 64
8 Hydrogen Pricing and Valuation 71
SECTION V -- NORTH AMERICA
1 North America: Market Environment for Hydrogen 75
2 North America: Hydrogen Demand by Market 77
3 United States: Market Environment for Hydrogen 83
4 United States: Hydrogen Demand by Market 85
5 Canada: Market Environment for Hydrogen 91
6 Canada: Hydrogen Demand by Market 93
7 Mexico: Market Environment for Hydrogen 98
8 Mexico: Hydrogen Demand by Market 100
SECTION VI -- WESTERN EUROPE
1 Western Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 106
2 Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 109
3 Germany: Market Environment for Hydrogen 115
4 Germany: Hydrogen Demand by Market 116
5 Italy: Market Environment for Hydrogen 121
6 Italy: Hydrogen Demand by Market 122
7 Netherlands: Market Environment for Hydrogen 127
8 Netherlands: Hydrogen Demand by Market 129
9 Spain: Market Environment for Hydrogen 133
10 Spain: Hydrogen Demand by Market 135
11 France: Market Environment for Hydrogen 139
12 France: Hydrogen Demand by Market 141
13 United Kingdom: Market Environment for Hydrogen 145
14 United Kingdom: Hydrogen Demand by Market 147
15 Other Western Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 151
16 Other Western Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 153
SECTION VII -- ASIA/PACIFIC
1 Asia/Pacific: Market Environment for Hydrogen 159
2 Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Market 162
3 China: Market Environment for Hydrogen 170
4 China: Hydrogen Demand by Market 172
5 Japan: Market Environment for Hydrogen 179
6 Japan: Hydrogen Demand by Market 181
7 South Korea: Market Environment for Hydrogen 186
8 South Korea: Hydrogen Demand by Market 188
9 India: Market Environment for Hydrogen 193
10 India: Hydrogen Demand by Market 195
11 Singapore: Market Environment for Hydrogen 200
12 Singapore: Hydrogen Demand by Market 201
13 Taiwan: Market Environment for Hydrogen 206
14 Taiwan: Hydrogen Demand by Market 207
15 Other Asia/Pacific: Market Environment for Hydrogen 211
16 Other Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Market 212
SECTION VIII -- OTHER REGIONS
1 Central and South America: Market Environment for Hydrogen 217
2 Central and South America: Hydrogen Demand by Market 219
3 Brazil: Market Environment for Hydrogen 224
4 Brazil: Hydrogen Demand by Market 225
5 Other Central and South America: Market Environment for
Hydrogen 229
6 Other Central and South America: Hydrogen Demand by Market 231
7 Eastern Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 235
8 Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 237
9 Russia: Market Environment for Hydrogen 242
10 Russia: Hydrogen Demand by Market 244
11 Poland: Market Environment for Hydrogen 248
12 Poland: Hydrogen Demand by Market 249
13 Other Eastern Europe: Market Environment for Hydrogen 253
14 Other Eastern Europe: Hydrogen Demand by Market 255
15 Africa/Mideast: Market Environment for Hydrogen 259
16 Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand by Market 260
17 Saudi Arabia: Market Environment for Hydrogen 266
18 Saudi Arabia: Hydrogen Demand by Market 267
19 Other Africa/Mideast: Market Environment for Hydrogen 271
20 Other Africa/Mideast: Hydrogen Demand by Market 272
SECTION IX -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
1 Merchant Hydrogen Sales by Company, 2013 276
2 Selected Acquisitions and Divestitures 281
3 Selected Cooperative Agreements 283
4 Selected Supply Agreements 286


LIST OF CHARTS

SECTION X -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
SECTION XI -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT
1 World Energy Production by Type, 2003-2023 20
2 World Commercial Fuel Cell Demand by Region, 2013 27
SECTION XII -- TECHNOLOGY
SECTION XIII -- OVERVIEW
1 World Hydrogen Demand by Region, 2013 54
2 Share of World Hydrogen Market Growth by Region, 2013-2018 54
3 World Hydrogen Demand by Market, 2013 57
SECTION XIV -- NORTH AMERICA
1 North America: Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013 78
2 North America: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 80
SECTION XV -- WESTERN EUROPE
1 Western Europe Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013 110
2 Western Europe: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 112
SECTION XVI -- ASIA/PACIFIC
1 Asia/Pacific: Hydrogen Demand by Country, 2013 163
2 Asia/Pacific: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 166
SECTION XVII -- OTHER REGIONS
1 Central and South America: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013
221
2 Eastern Europe: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 239
3 Africa/Mideast: Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 263
SECTION XVIII -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
1 World Merchant Hydrogen Market Share, 2013 278

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