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Analyzing Geothermal Power in New Zealand

  • March 2013
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 155 pages

New Zealand has one of the biggest geothermal industries in the world, along with the highest geothermal energy production capacity globally. With fossil fuels fast depleting, various countries are incessantly relying on their natural resources for quenching their demand for energy and New Zealand is no different from them. The most recent expansions in geothermal capacity have been partly driven by the rising wholesale electricity price, which has been driven up by rising fossil fuel prices as well as their ongoing shortage. Direct use of geothermal energy in New Zealand is significant. Until now, consumer energy associated with geothermal direct use has exceeded geothermal electricity generation except for brief periods of equality immediately after the commissioning of Wairakei and over the last decade.

About half of that direct use is associated with operations at Kawerau. In turn the Kawerau industrial supply of geothermal steam is equal to the total amount of geothermal industrial direct use at all other locations in the world. It has been estimated that New Zealand’s available geothermal resource base is 2,600 MW. High temperature geothermal fields are principally located in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Ngawha in Northland. Moderate to low and very low temperature systems are more widely scattered.

Some of the major geothermal fields in the country are as under. With the recent successful completion of new geothermal plants in Kawerau, Ngawha, Nga Awa Purua and Te Huka, and the start of construction at Te Mihi and Ngatamariki, the New Zealand geothermal industry is in the midst of an exciting resurgence. A growing range of New Zealand organizations have been key contributors to this recent success providing world class scientific, engineering and construction services.

There is significant potential for expansion of geothermal energy in New Zealand. Of course not all potential will be developed, but even after taking account of environmental and regulatory limitations, it has been estimated that there is approximately another 1000MWe of geothermal potential that could be used for generating electricity. There is also significant potential for the direct use of geothermal heat, for example in industrial use, or in ‘cascading' uses.

Aruvians Rsearch analyzes the Geothermal Power in New Zealand in its latest research offering Analyzing Geothermal Power in New Zealand.

The report is a comprehensive coverage of the geothermal industry in the region as well as in New Zealand.

The report begins with an introduction to geothermal power. We analyze the utilization of geothermal energy, the grading of geothermal resources, technologies used in geothermal power generation, emerging technologies, amongst others.

We analyze the global geothermal power market before the analysis of the geothermal market in New Zealand and in Asia Pacific. We first analyze the global geothermal power industry through power generated from geothermal resources worldwide and global geothermal power installed capacity. We further look at the factors impacting the global geothermal power industry such as growth drivers and challenges facing the global geothermal industry.

Geothermal power in Asia Pacific is analyzed through power generated from geothermal resources, installed capacity of geothermal power, regional segmentation of the industry and the major industry deals that have taken place in recent years.

For the geothermal industry in Indonesia, we analyze the power generated from geothermal resources, geothermal power installed capacity, industry segmentation by renewable energy technologies, regulatory frameworks governing the market in New Zealand, and major industry projects, both existing and upcoming.

Major global industry players are analyzed through a corporate profile, an analysis of their major business segments, the presence of these companies in the geothermal market, and a SWOT analysis.

Aruvians Rsearch’s report Analyzing Geothermal Power in New Zealand is a complete guide to this rapidly growing industry.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing Geothermal Power in New Zealand
A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to Geothermal Power
B.1 The Recognition of Geothermal Energy - Historical Perspective
B.2 Utilization of Geothermal Energy - Current Day
B.3 Source of Geothermal Energy Generation
B.4 Energy from the Earth's Core - Geothermal Systems
B.5 Identifying Geothermal Activity Reservoirs
B.6 Grading Geothermal Resources
B.7 Exploring Geothermal Resources Commercially
B.8 Geothermal Resource Exploration Process
B.9 Geothermal Exploration Programs - Risk vs. Cost
B.10 Technologies Used in Geothermal Power Generation
B.10.1 Binary Cycle Plant Technology
B.10.2 Conventional Steam Turbine Technology
B.11 Emerging Technologies
B.11.1 Enhanced Geothermal System
B.11.2 Mixed Working Fluid Technology
B.12 Geothermal Drilling Technology and Costs

C. Global Geothermal Power Industry
C.1 Introduction
C.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources
C.3 Global Geothermal Power Installed Capacity

D. Geothermal Power Industry in Asia Pacific
D.1 Industry Overview
D.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in Asia Pacific
D.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in Asia Pacific
D.4 Regional Segmentation of the Industry
D.5 Major Industry Deals

E. Geothermal Power Industry in New Zealand
E.1 Industry Overview
E.2 Power Generation from Geothermal Resources in New Zealand
E.3 Geothermal Power Installed Capacity in New Zealand
E.4 Industry Segmentation
E.5 Industry Regulations
E.6 Major Industry Projects

F. Major Industry Players
F.1 Tuaropaki Power Company
F.2 Top Energy
F.3 Contact Energy
F.3.1 Corporate Profile
F.3.2 Business Segment Analysis
F.3.3 SWOT Analysis
F.4 Mighty River Power
F.4.1 Corporate Profile
F.4.2 Business Segment Analysis
F.4.3 SWOT Analysis
F.5 Fuji Electric Co Ltd
F.5.1 Corporate Profile
F.5.2 Business Segment Analysis
F.5.3 Industry Presence
F.5.4 SWOT Analysis
F.6 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
F.6.1 Corporate Profile
F.6.2 Business Segment Analysis
F.6.3 Industry Presence
F.6.4 SWOT Analysis
F.7 Toshiba Corporation
F.7.1 Corporate Profile
F.7.2 Business Segment Analysis
F.7.3 Industry Presence
F.7.4 SWOT Analysis

G. Appendix
G.1 Global Geothermal Associations
G.2 Figures and Tables

H. Research Methodology

I. Glossary of Terms



List of Figures

Figure 1: The Earth's Crust, Mantle, and Core. Top Right: A Section through the Crust and the Uppermost Mantle
Figure 2: Schematic Cross-Section Showing Plate Tectonic Processes
Figure 3: World Pattern of Plates, Oceanic Ridges, Oceanic Trenches, Subduction Zones, and Geothermal Fields
Figure 4: Representation of an Ideal Geothermal System
Figure 5: Model of a Geothermal System
Figure 6: Formation of a Geothermal Reservoir
Figure 7: Diagram Showing the Different Categories of Geothermal Resources
Figure 8: Workings of a Binary Cycle Geothermal Plant
Figure 9: Workings of a Flash/Binary Cycle Geothermal Plant
Figure 10: Workings of a Dry Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Figure 11: Workings of a Flash Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Figure 12: Workings of a Double Flash Steam Geothermal Power Plant
Figure 13: Completed Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Well Costs as a Function of Depth
Figure 14: Ring of Fire
Figure 15: Geothermal Electricity Production by Countries, and Installed Capacities (MW), 2011
Figure 16: Global Power Generated from Geothermal Resources (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 17: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power Worldwide (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 18: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Asia Pacific (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 19: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Asia Pacific (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 20: Share of Geothermal Power Market in Asia Pacific by Country (%), 2011
Figure 21: Number of Geothermal Project Deals in Recent Times in Asia Pacific
Figure 22: Types of Geothermal Deals in the Industry in Recent Times
Figure 23: Geothermal Fields in New Zealand
Figure 24: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in New Zealand (GWh), 2002-2022
Figure 25: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in New Zealand (MW), 2002-2022
Figure 26: Renewable Power Generation in New Zealand by Technologies (%), 2011
Figure 27: Conceptual Two-Well Enhanced Geothermal System in Hot Rock in a Low-Permeability Crystalline Basement Formation
Figure 28: Estimated Total Geothermal Resource Base and Recoverable Resource Given in EJ or 1018 Joules
Figure 29: An Atmospheric Exhaust Geothermal Power-Plant
Figure 30: A Condensing Geothermal Power-Plant
Figure 31: A Geothermal Binary Power Plant
Figure 32: Flow Diagram of the Geothermal District Heating System of Reykjavik
Figure 33: Application of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System
Figure 34: A Heat Pump in Heating Mode
Figure 35: Binary Cycle Plant
Figure 36: Dry Steam Plant
Figure 37: Flashed Steam Plant
Figure 38: Cascade Uses of Geothermal Energy



List of Tables

Table 1: Classification of Geothermal Resources (°C)
Table 2: Different Types of Technologies Used by Geothermal Plants
Table 3: Global Power Generated from Geothermal Resources (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 4: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power Worldwide (MW), 2002-2022
Table 5: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in Asia Pacific (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 6: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in Asia Pacific (MW), 2002-2022
Table 7: Share of Geothermal Power Market in Asia Pacific by Country (%), 2011
Table 8: Number of Geothermal Project Deals in Recent Times in Asia Pacific
Table 9: Types of Geothermal Deals in the Industry in Recent Times
Table 10: Major Geothermal Deals in Asia Pacific in Recent Times
Table 11: Power Generated from Geothermal Resources in New Zealand (GWh), 2002-2022
Table 12: Installed Capacity of Geothermal Power in New Zealand (MW), 2002-2022
Table 13: Renewable Power Generation in New Zealand by Technologies (%), 2011
Table 14: Geothermal Projects in New Zealand
Table 15: Upcoming/Under Development Geothermal Projects in New Zealand
Table 16: Summary of Nonhydrothermal US Geothermal Resource-Base Estimates
Table 17: Energy and Investment Costs for Electric Energy Production from Renewables
Table 18: Energy and Investment Costs for Direct Heat from Renewables



Companies Mentioned

Tuaropaki Power Company
Top Energy
Contact Energy
Mighty River Power
Fuji Electric Co Ltd
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Toshiba Corporation

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