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Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes

  • June 2015
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  • BCC Research
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  • 476 pages

The primary objectives of this report are threefold: assess the current state-of-the-art in CNT production and technical applications understanding, identify the current players seeking to exploit their unique properties and evaluate actual or impending markets in terms of the technical readiness of CNTs and the projected market revenues.

Use this report to:
- Assess the current state-of-the-art in CNT production and technical applications understanding.
- Identify the current players seeking to exploit the unique properties of CNTs.
- Learn about the challenges and issues confronting the CNT industry.
- Learn about important evolving market segments and some of the key organizations involved in CNT production.

Highlights
- The global market for CNT primary grades was $158.6 million in 2014. This market is projected to reach $167.9 million in 2015 and $670.6 million in 2019, with a compound
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 33.4% from 2014 to 2019.
- The multiwall market totaled $143.6 million in 2014. This market is expected to reach $147 million in 2015 and $270.1 million in 2019, with a CAGR of 13.5% from 2014 to 2019.
- The few wall market is expected to reach $0.3 million in 2015 and $66.7 million in 2019, with a CAGR of 286.1% over the period from 2015 to 2019.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

MOTIVATION
Among the numerous categories in the evolving field of newly synthesized nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are perhaps among the most dynamic and undergoing the most rapid pace of development. The past 15 years have witnessed relentless growth in the research, development, and technological understanding of these remarkable materials. Universities, small businesses, and start-ups, as well as large corporations, have continued to probe and exploit numerous commercial possibilities for these fascinating materials. As a result, the list of product applications is expanding considerably and is projected to do so well into the future. The most tangible evidence for growth and interest is reflected in the emergence of new CNT producers now capable of offering CNTs in commercial-scale quantities—in kilograms, tonnes, and even hundreds of tonnes, depending on the specific grade—at more affordable and increasingly competitive unit pricing. In addition, after several years of incubation, there is a new breed of more mature university spin-offs, or nanotechnology companies, targeting specific application sectors.

Additional evidence of growth is the increasing presence of larger, more established corporations that recognize the future market opportunities offered by CNTs. Finally, the past five years have seen phenomenal growth in CNT-related patent activity. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) analysis during the latest three-year review period (2012 to 2014) revealed that cumulative output exceeded 6,800 issued and 10,000 filed patents, respectively. This represents substantial growth compared with the previous analysis period (2009–2011) and further substantiates the ongoing academic and industrial interest in CNT applications. In view of the technical momentum—representing a multibillion-dollar technology investment—and the enormous business potential, this report provides a timely update on CNTs—their level of technical maturity, where they are starting to penetrate the market place, and when and where the broadening market unravels.

OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT
The primary objectives of this report are threefold:
- Assess the current state-of-the-art in CNT production and technical applications understanding.
- Identify the current players seeking to exploit the unique properties of CNTs.
- Evaluate actual or impending markets in terms of the technical readiness of CNTs and the projected market revenues.

SCOPE OF REPORT
Following the Introduction and Executive Summary chapters, this updated report is then divided into nine major chapters as described below.

Chapter Three, Technology Overview, defines CNTs, outlines their history, describes the production methodology, identifies the unique properties of various forms of CNTs and emphasizes the major application challenges.

Chapter Four, Patent Analysis, provides an extensive search/analysis of U.S. issued and pending patents (along with Canadian, European, and World Patent & Trademark Office databases where there is no USPTO presence) and a collation of the main technical/application sectors and identifies the most active organizations—U.S. and foreign—driving CNT technology.

Chapter Five, Industry Structure and Competitive Analysis, identifies current producers, progress in continuous production scale-up, and market segmentation, and provides
industry profiles of the major players.

Chapter Six, Markets by Application, represents the body of the report, assessing the latest progress and technical readiness in the major application sectors of composites,
electronics, energy storage, membranes, sensors and other applications.

Chapter Seven, Global Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of all notable CNT producers.

Chapter Eight, North American Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of U.S. and Canadian CNT producers.

Chapter Nine, European Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of European CNT producers.

Chapter Ten, Asian Market Analysis, estimates five-year potential revenues of Asian CNT producers.

Chapter Eleven, Market Pull: Prognosis for Global CNT Applications, identifies the most promising applications realizable based on the leading proponents, technical readiness and market interest.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE
This report represents a major update to BCC Research’s report, Carbon Nanotubes:
Technologies and Commercial Prospects (NAN024E) published in July 2012. The most significant revisions in this new edition include the following:
- An extensive patent analysis of the U.S. patent database.
- An in-depth assessment of the unfolding commercial markets.
- Analysis of progress in the synthesis and commercial scale-up of CNTs.
- Extensive compilation of the producers and end users dictating market development.
- A five-year projected market analysis of the emerging CNT industry.

This comprehensive technical and business assessment on the current status of the CNT industry should prove informative to nanomaterials manufacturers, financial
institutions and investors seeking insights into near-term commercialization opportunities, technologists confronted with nanomaterial device integration issues,
and companies interested in exploiting revolutionary nanomaterials for advanced composites, biomedical, electronic, energy storage, membranes/separation, sensing,
security and other emerging applications.

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION
This report is derived primarily from the enormous amount of patent and technical literature relating to CNTs disclosed in the public domain. In addition, complementary
information has been drawn from business community sources, such as company investment news, company profiles, and press releases. Finally, and most importantly,
BCC Research’s project analyst has conducted personal interviews with 12 leading CNT producers shaping the future growth of this industry.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
MOTIVATION 2
OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE 3
METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION 4
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNT PRIMARY GRADES BASED ON
COMMITTED PRODUCTION ESTIMATES, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNT PRIMARY GRADES BASED ON
COMMITTED PRODUCTION ESTIMATES, 2014-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 10
WHAT ARE CNTS? 10
FIGURE 1 FORMATION OF A SWNT STRUCTURE 10
FIGURE 2 CNT STRUCTURES 11
A BRIEF HISTORY OF NANOTUBES 11
TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGY OF SOME CNT LANDMARK DEVELOPMENTS, 1953-2015 12
COMPARISON OF CARBON COMPOUNDS 13
TABLE 2 SOME COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF CARBON ALLOTROPES 13
DIAMOND 14
Diamondoids 14
Nanocrystalline Diamond and CNT Hybrid Films 15
GRAPHITE 16
FULLERENES 17
Spherical Form: Buckminsterfullerene 17
Cylindrical Form: CNTs 17
Hybrid Forms: Carbon Nanobuds, Graphene Nanoribbons, and Carbon
Nanocages 18
Linear Form: Carbynes 18
Other Forms 19
CARBON NANOFIBERS 19
Carbon Nanospheres 20
CARBIDE-DERIVED MESOPOROUS CARBON 20
PROPERTIES OF CNTS 21
TABLE 3 SOME CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF CNTS 22
TABLE 4 COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT CNTS AND CFS 22
APPLICATIONS OF CNTS 22
TABLE 5 DIVERSE RANGE OF INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR CNTS 23
TABLE 6 SOME EXAMPLES OF OPTIMUM FORMS OF CNTS REQUIRED FOR
DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS 23
NAN024F - Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
OTHER TYPES OF NANOTUBE COMPOUNDS 23
SYNTHETIC INORGANIC NANOTUBES 24
TABLE 7 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF SOME INORGANIC NANOTUBES 25
NATURAL INORGANIC NANOTUBES 27
ORGANIC NANOTUBES 28
NANOTUBE PRODUCTION 28
TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF CNT BATCH
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 29
ARC DISCHARGE 30
LASER ABLATION 30
CVD 30
SYNTHETIC PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH 31
TABLE 9 SYNTHETIC PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING CNT GROWTH 31
CONTINUOUS SCALABLE PRODUCTION 31
TABLE 10 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CNT PROCESSES 32
TABLE 11 COMPARISON OF SWNT CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 33
PURIFICATION AND PRODUCT QUALITY CONTROL 43
TABLE 12 COMMON CNT CHEMICAL PURIFICATION PROCESSES, OUTCOMES AND
DISADVANTAGES 44
TABLE 13 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SEPARATION, PURIFICATION, CAPPING,
AND UNCAPPING OF CNTS BASED ON U.S. PATENTS 45
CNT APPLICATION INTEGRATION 46
TABLE 14 LEADING U.S. RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS SPEARHEADING CNT
SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 46
SURFACE CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION 47
TABLE 15 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CNTS
AND POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS 47
TABLE 16 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO CNT CHEMICAL
FUNCTIONALIZATION 48
TABLE 17 ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZED CNT
DISPERSIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 49
SEPARATING ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES 49
TABLE 18 NOTABLE DEVELOPMENTS IN SORTING ELECTRONIC-GRADE CNTS 50
CNT GROWTH AND DEVICE FABRICATION 51
TABLE 19 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO SELF-ASSEMBLY AND
ORGANIZATION OF CNTS 52
TABLE 20 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT SCALABLE DEVICE INTEGRATION 53
OTHER FORM FACTORS 54
TABLE 21 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO THE USE OF CNTS AS
NANOTEMPLATES 55
DWNTS AND BUCKYPAPER 55
TRIPLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES (TWNTS) 56
SWNT-BASED PEAPODS OR NANO TEST TUBES 56
MWNT-BASED MICROCAPSULES 57
OTHER FORMS OF CNTS 57
TABLE 22 RECENT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER CNT VARIANTS 57
DRY SPINNING OF CNT FIBERS AND SHEET-FORMING YARNS 58
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CNT ARCHITECTURES 60
WET SPINNING OF SWNTS 60
CONTINUOUSLY GROWN SWNT FIBERS 62
CONTINUOUSLY GROWN SWNT NONWOVEN TRANSPARENT FILMS 62
CNT-REINFORCED POLYMER FIBERS 62
REFRENCES 63
CHAPTER 4 PATENT ANALYSIS 68
RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY 68
U.S. PATENTS ISSUED 69
CHRONOLOGICAL GROWTH TRENDS IN PATENT ACTIVITY 69
FIGURE 3 CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 1994-2014 (NO. OF PATENTS, CUMULATIVE TOTAL:
14,557) 69
PATENT ACTIVITY CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTOR 70
All Countries 70
FIGURE 4 APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS,
1994-2004 (%) 70
TABLE 23 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND EXEMPLARY APPLICATIONS EMERGING FROM
ISSUED U.S. CNT PATENTS, 1994-2009 71
FIGURE 5 APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 2007
TO JUNE 30, 2009 (%) 72
FIGURE 6 APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS,
2012-2014 (%) 73
U.S. Versus Foreign Assignees 73
FIGURE 7 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED BY APPLICATION SECTORS,
1994-2002 (TOTAL PATENTS = 415) 74
FIGURE 8 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED BY APPLICATION SECTOR,
2003-2004 (TOTAL PATENTS = 480) 75
FIGURE 9 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED BY APPLICATION SECTOR, 2007
TO JUNE 30, 2009 (TOTAL PATENTS = 1,987) 76
COMPARISON OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY WITH ASIAN, EUROPEAN, AND
OTHER COUNTRIES 78
1994 to 2004 78
FIGURE 10 U.S. VERSUS ASIAN CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 1994-2004 (TOTAL PATENTS
= 679) 78
FIGURE 11 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS,
1994-2004 (TOTAL PATENTS = 51) 79
2007 to June 30, 2009 80
FIGURE 12 ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 2007 TO JUNE 30,
2009 (TOTAL PATENTS = 520) 80
FIGURE 13 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED,
2007 TO JUNE 30, 2009 (TOTAL PATENTS = 148) 81
2010 to 2011 82
FIGURE 14 ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 2010-2011 (TOTAL
PATENTS = 938) 82
FIGURE 15 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED,
2010-2011 (TOTAL PATENTS = 292) 83
1994 to 2014 83
FIGURE 16 U.S. VERSUS FOREIGN ASSIGNED CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 1994-2014
(TOTAL PATENTS: 13,855) 84
DOMESTIC PATENT ACTIVITY 85
Most Active States 85
FIGURE 17 LEADING U.S. ASSIGNEE STATES WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, JAN.
3, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS = 3,362) 85
Small Businesses 86
TABLE 24 LEADING SMALL U.S. BUSINESSES WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING
PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 643) 86
TABLE 25 OTHER SMALL U.S. BUSINESSES WITH MULTIPLE CNT ISSUED AND
PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 166) 87
Large Businesses 88
TABLE 26 LEADING LARGE U.S. BUSINESSES WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING
PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 1,620) 89
TABLE 27 OTHER LARGE U.S. BUSINESSES WITH MULTIPLE CNT ISSUED AND
PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012-2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 411) 90
Academic Institutions 90
TABLE 28 LEADING U.S. ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING
PATENT APPLICATIONS, JAN. 3, 2012, TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 943) 91
Government and Other Research Institutions 91
TABLE 29 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS WITH CNT
ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 379) 92
U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY ACCORDING TO FOREIGN OWNERSHIP 92
Leading Japanese Companies 92
TABLE 30 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR LEADING
JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 840) 93
Leading Korean, Taiwanese and Chinese Organizations 93
TABLE 31 LEADING KOREAN, TAIWANESE AND CHINESE ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S.
CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, JAN. 3, 2012, TO DEC. 30, 2014
(TOTAL PATENTS: 1,474) 94
Leading Organizations in European and Other Countries 94
TABLE 32 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENTS FOR LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN
EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES, JAN. 3, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 1,035) 95
U.S. PATENTS PENDING 96
FIGURE 18 GROWTH IN U.S. PATENTS FILED, 2001 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL
PATENTS: 27,061) 96
CHALLENGES IN PATENTING NANOTECHNOLOGY 97
PATENT BACKLOG 97
WHO OWNS WHAT? 97
QUALITY VERSUS QUANTITY 98
A NEW BREED OF PATENT BROKERAGE COMPANIES 98
PATENT TROLL 98
REFRENCES 99
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 101
OVERVIEW 101
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 101
NANOTUBE PRODUCERS 101
TABLE 33 INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN LARGE-SCALE CNT PRODUCTION
AND MARKET EXPLOITATION (TONNES/YEAR) 102
TABLE 34 INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN SMALL-SCALE CNT PRODUCTION
AND/OR SPECIALIZED MARKET EXPLOITATION 103
MARKET SEGMENTATION 104
TABLE 35 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF CNT INDUSTRY 105
COMPANY PROFILES: CNT PRODUCERS 105
TABLE 36 HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN COMMERCIALIZING BAYER
MATERIALSCIENCE MWNTs 115
TABLE 37 SWeNT'S LATEST COMMERCIAL CNT DEVELOPMENTS, 2009-2015 136
TABLE 38 UNIDYM'S COMMERCIAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS, 2010-2011 141
COMPANY PROFILES: CNT SPECIALTY AND ANCILLARY PRODUCTS 144
TABLE 39 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SPECIALIZED CNT MARKET EXPLOITATION 144
TABLE 40 ZYVEX TECHNOLOGIES'[ COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-POLYMER
COMPOSITES, 2007-2014 162
COMPANY PROFILES: LARGE U.S. CORPORATIONS 163
TABLE 41 LARGE U.S. CORPORATIONS LEADING IN U.S. CNT PATENT ACTIVITY
(TOTAL NUMBER OF ISSUED PATENTS: 1,616) 163
COMPANY PROFILES: LARGE FOREIGN CORPORATIONS 168
CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACING THE CNT INDUSTRY 168
INDUSTRY DRIVING FORCES 168
TABLE 42 EXEMPLARY COMPANIES LEADING THE CNT INDUSTRY EVOLUTION 168
NANOTUBE CONSUMERS AND THE EVOLVING GRADE STRUCTURE 169
TABLE 43 DIVERSITY IN CNT CONSUMER MARKET PRODUCTS 169
COST/PERFORMANCE BALANCE 169
COMPETITION 170
TABLE 44 COMPETITIVE MATERIAL ALTERNATIVES TO CNTS FOR CERTAIN
APPLICATIONS 171
CELL TOXICITY 171
TABLE 45 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOR, 2005-2007 172
TABLE 46 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOR, 2007-2011 173
TABLE 47 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL
BEHAVIOR, 2012-2014 175
ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 175
NANOTECHNOLOGY RISKS AND REGULATORY CONTROL 177
ASIAN INITIATIVES 177
AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT 177
CANADIAN GOVERNMENT 177
EUROPEAN COMMISSION 178
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO) 179
U.S.-LED NANOTECHNOLOGY REGULATORY CONTROL INITIATIVES 180
CBEN at Rice University 181
City of Berkeley, Calif., Nanomaterials Ordinance 182
EPA 182
Nanoethics and Social Advocacy Groups 183
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 183
National Science and Technology Council 183
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 183
REFRENCES 185
CHAPTER 6 MARKETS BY APPLICATION 187
COMPOSITES 187
TABLE 48 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CNTS COMPARED WITH OTHER FIBERS 188
TABLE 49 POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF CNT COMPOSITES 188
TABLE 50 PROPERTIES ENDOWED OF CNT COMPOSITES 189
TABLE 51 MECHANICAL PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS IN VARIOUS CNT COMPOSITES 189
CEMENT MATRIX 190
CERAMIC MATRIX 191
TABLE 52 ENHANCEMENTS CLAIMED IN VARIOUS CNT CERAMIC SYSTEMS 192
DIAMOND MATRIX 196
GLASS MATRIX 197
METAL MATRIX 197
TABLE 53 SOME EXAMPLES OF CNT-METAL COMPOSITES 198
POLYMER MATRIX 199
TABLE 54 EXAMPLES OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE MATRIX SYSTEMS AMENABLE
TO COMMERCIAL PROCESSING AND APPLICATION 200
TABLE 55 SOME EXAMPLES OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES 201
TABLE 56 VARIOUS PROCESSING STRATEGIES USED TO MANUFACTURE
POLYMER-CNT COMPOSITES 201
Electrical Conductivity Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites 202
Mechanical Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites 203
TABLE 57 ULTIMATE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER-CNT COMPOSITES 203
TABLE 58 KEY PROPERTIES CONTROLLING ULTIMATE REINFORCING AND
CONDUCTIVITY POTENTIAL OF SWNTs IN A POLYMER MATRIX 203
Thermal Conductivity Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites 204
Commercial Product Applications of Polymer-CNT Composites 204
TABLE 59 POLYMER COMPOSITE CNT PRODUCTS CURRENTLY MANUFACTURED OR
UNDER COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 205
TABLE 60 LEADING COMPANIES INVOLVED IN THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF
CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES 206
TABLE 61 MOST ACTIVE COMPANIES ACCORDING TO CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE
U.S. PATENTS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 (TOTAL PATENTS: 830) 207
TABLE 62 OTHER ACTIVE ORGANIZATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. CNT-POLYMER
COMPOSITE PATENTS, 2007 TO DEC. 30, 2014 208
Automotive Applications 209
TABLE 63 EXAMPLES OF READY-TO-MOLD HYPERION AUTOMOTIVE MWNT-RESIN
COMPOUNDS 209
TABLE 64 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HYPERION CONDUCTIVE AUTOMOTIVE
MWNT-RESIN COMPOUNDS 210
TABLE 65 PROPERTIES AND IMPROVEMENTS OF MWNTs 211
TABLE 66 CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTIVE MOLDED PLASTICS BASED ON FILLER
LOADING AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 211
TABLE 67 APPLICATIONS OF MWNTs IN ELECTROSTATICALLY DISSIPATIVE PLASTIC
AUTO COMPONENTS 212
TABLE 68 ADVANCES IN IMPROVEMENT OF STRENGTH AND CONDUCTIVITY OF
POLYMER-CNT COMPOSITES, 2007-2009 215
Aeronautical Applications 215
TABLE 69 DEVELOPMENTS IN AEROSPACE CF COMPOSITES INDUSTRY 218
Electronic Applications 218
TABLE 70 ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS OF MWNTs IN MOLDED PLASTIC
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 219
Flame-Retardant Applications 220
Military Applications 221
TABLE 71 CNT COMPOSITE COMPANIES ATTRACTING MILITARY AND CIVILIAN
APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 221
Space Applications 222
TABLE 72 FUTURE SPACE APPLICATIONS FOR CNTs 222
Sporting Goods Applications 223
TABLE 73 SPORTING GOODS PROTOTYPES BASED ON MWNT-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 223
Other Applications and Important Property Considerations 224
Biocatalytic Films 224
Biomedical Composites 225
Conventional Adhesives 226
Dry Adhesives 226
TABLE 74 RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT DRY ADHESIVE SYSTEMS* 227
Polymer Composite Coatings and Inks 227
TABLE 75 ORGANIZATIONS EXPLORING CNT-BASED OR OTHER CARBON-BASED
INKS AND SMART COATINGS 227
TABLE 76 COMPARATIVE PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF CONDUCTIVE
TRANSPARENT COMPOSITE COATINGS 229
Sensor Networks for Ongoing Composite Structural
Diagnostics and Repair 233
Surface Chemical Functionalization and Form Factor 234
ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 235
TABLE 77 TOP 10 U.S. ORGANIZATIONS LEADING THE ELECTRONICS SECTOR WITH
CNT PATENTS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 235
TABLE 78 LEADING ASIAN AND EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS HOLDING
ELECTRONICS CNT PATENTS, 2012 TO DEC. 30, 2014 236
NANOELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 237
Emergence of Nanoelectronics 237
TABLE 79 KEY CNT PROPERTIES ATTRACTING FUTURE ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 239
CNT Electronic Components Development 239
Synthesis and Characterization of Electronic-Grade SWNTs 240
Electronic Device Integration and Self-Assembly 243
Competition-Silicon Nanowires 245
Connectivity, Large-Scale Integration, and Potential
Replacement for Copper 246
Thermal Management (Solid-Based) 249
TABLE 80 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CNT ELECTRONIC THERMAL
MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS 250
TABLE 81 LEADING COMPANIES WITH CNTFET PATENT INTEREST 255
FE DISPLAYS AND RELATED DEVICES 258
What is FE? 258
Why are CNTs Attractive Material Candidates? 258
TABLE 82 ADVANTAGES OF A CNT AS A COLD FE CATHODE 259
FE Applications 259
FE Displays 260
Fabrication 260
CNT FEDs Compared with Other Display Technologies 261
TABLE 83 ADVANTAGES OF FE DISPLAYS OVER LCDS 261
Major Factors Dictating CNT FED Development 261
TABLE 84 MAJOR FACTORS DICTATING EMERGENCE OF CNT-BASED TECHNOLOGY
IN FPD MARKETPLACE 261
Leading Organizations/Company Involved FED
Development 262
TABLE 85 LEADING U.S. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT FED-DISPLAY
PATENT ACTIVITY, 2000 TO DEC. 29, 2011 262
TABLE 86 LEADING FOREIGN COUNTRIES INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT FED-DISPLAY
PATENT ACTIVITY, 2000 TO DEC. 29, 2011 263
TABLE 87 MAJOR PLAYERS AND ORGANIZATIONS/COMPANIES INVOLVED IN
CNT-FED HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 263
TABLE 88 ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN CNT-FED PROTOTYPES,
2000-2010 264
TABLE 89 ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES OF MOTOROLA'S CNT-BASED FED
COMPARED WITH EXISTENT FPD TECHNOLOGIES 270
OTHER FED APPLICATIONS 276
TABLE 90 EXAMPLES OF OTHER FED APPLICATIONS 276
Light Bulbs and Light Sources 277
TABLE 91 ADVANTAGES OF FE-CNT FLUORESCENT WHITE LIGHT SOURCE OVER
CONVENTIONAL LAMPS 278
TABLE 92 RATIONALIZING CNT SYNTHESIS WITH END-USE FE PERFORMANCE
REQUIREMENTS 278
Applications of CNT-Based FE Light Sources 279
TABLE 93 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY RELATING TO CNT-BASED
FE LIGHT SOURCES, 2007-2009 279
FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONICS 285
TABLE 94 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE APPLICATION OF CNTS IN
FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS 286
MEMORY APPLICATIONS 294
TABLE 95 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTS FOR MEMORY DEVICE APPLICATIONS 294
TABLE 96 LEADING COMMERCIAL PLAYERS IN CNT MEMORY INITIATIVES BASED ON
U.S. PATENTS, 1997 TO DEC. 29, 2011 296
OTHER ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 299
TABLE 97 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS OF CNTS USED IN
ELECTRONIC DEVICES 299
ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE 299
BATTERIES 300
TABLE 98 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED LITHIUM-ION AND OTHER
BATTERY TECHNOLOGY, 2012-2014 302
Lithium-Polymer Batteries 302
CNT Commercial Battery Developments 303
TABLE 99 LEADING PLAYERS IN CNT-BASED BATTERY TECHNOLOGY ACCORDING
TO U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2004 TO DEC. 29, 2011 304
FUEL CELLS 305
TABLE 100 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTS USED IN FUEL-CELL APPLICATIONS 306
TABLE 101 KEY PROPERTIES AFFECTING FUEL-CELL PERFORMANCE 307
TABLE 102 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS PATENTING U.S. CNT FUEL-CELL
ENHANCEMENTS, 2002 TO DEC. 30, 2006 312
TABLE 103 PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT-BASED FUEL-CELL APPLICATIONS AMONG U.S.
ORGANIZATIONS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011 313
TABLE 104 PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED FUEL-CELL APPLICATIONS AMONG
FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011 314
SUPERCAPACITORS 326
Basic Characteristics 326
TABLE 107 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 326
TABLE 108 ADVANTAGES OF SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRICAL STORAGE DEVICES
COMPARED WITH BATTERIES 327
TABLE 109 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF BATTERIES VERSUS CAPACITORS 327
Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) 327
Early Research Activities in CNT-Based EDLCs 329
Recent Research Activities in CNT-Based EDLCs 335
TABLE 110 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED SUPERCAPACITORS,
2012-2014 335
Early Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based
EDLCs 336
GSI Creos Corp., Asahi Glass, and TDK (Japan) 336
TABLE 111 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED EDL CAPACITORS AND
APPLICATIONS, 1997 TO DEC. 30, 2006 336
Hyperion Catalysis International 337
Iljin Nanotech (Korea) 337
Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based
EDLCs 337
TABLE 112 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT-BASED EDL
CAPACITOR PATENT ACTIVITY, 2007 TO DEC. 30, 2014 337
Arrowhead Research Corp./Agonn Systems Inc. (Pasadena,
Calif.) 338
Kemet Corp. (Greenville, S.C.) 339
Nisshinbo Holdings Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) 339
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan) 339
SOLAR/PV CELLS 340
Basic Characteristics 340
Academic Research 341
TABLE 113 ACADEMIC RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS 341
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TABLE 114 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS, 2010-2012 342
TABLE 115 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS, 2012-2014 343
Commercial Development 343
TABLE 116 CNT PATENT ACTIVITY IN SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS, 1997-DEC. 30,
2006 344
TABLE 117 PATENT ACTIVITY LEADERS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS,
2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011 345
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.) 345
Arrowhead Research Corp./NanoPolaris (Pasadena, Calif.) 346
BP Solar North America (Frederick, Mass.) 346
Dow Corning Corp. (Midland, Mich.) 347
DuPont (Wilmington, Del.) 347
Eikos Inc. (Franklin, Mass.) 348
First Solar LLC (Phoenix, Ariz.) 349
HelioVolt Corp. (Austin, Texas) 349
Innovalight Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) 349
Konarka Technologies (Lowell, Mass.) 350
Miasole (San Jose, Calif.) 351
Nanosolar Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 351
Natcore Technology (Red Bank, N.J.) 352
Plextronics Inc. (Pittsburgh, Pa.) 352
Wakonda Technologies Inc./RIT 352
OTHER ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 353
TABLE 118 PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED APPLICATIONS USED IN OTHER
ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011 353
Mechanical Energy Storage 354
Thermionic Power 354
Thermal Rectifiers 355
Thermocells 355
Thermoelectric Power 355
Thermopower Wave 356
MEMBRANES: FILTRATION AND SEPARATION MEDIA 356
TABLE 119 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTS AS SEPARATION MEMBRANES 357
DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS 357
TABLE 120 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT MEMBRANES,
FILTRATION, AND SEPARATION MEDIA, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011 357
TABLE 121 RESEARCH AND COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS OF
VARIOUS CNT-BASED MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 358
Biosource Inc./Voltea Ltd. (London, U.K.) 359
Clemson University 360
Cnanoz Inc. (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 360
Covalent Industrial Technologies LLC (Hayward, Calif.) 361
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Livermore, Calif.) 362
NanOasis Technologies (Richmond, Calif.) 363
Philip Morris USA Research Center 363
Procter and Gamble Co. 363
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 364
Seldon Laboratories LLC 365
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University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research 365
Velocys Inc. (Plain City, Ohio)/Oxford Catalysts Group plc (Oxford,
U.K.) 366
SENSORS 366
TYPES OF SENSORS 367
TABLE 122 TYPES OF CNT SENSORS 367
Bio/Nanoparticle Sensors 367
TABLE 123 RECENT TYPES OF CNT BIOSENSOR SYSTEMS 367
Chemical Sensors 369
TABLE 124 KEY PROPERTIES OF CNTS EXPLOITED IN SENSOR APPLICATIONS 369
Physical/Mechanical Sensors and Actuators 370
RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY IN SENSORS 372
TABLE 120 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT MEMBRANES,
FILTRATION, AND SEPARATION MEDIA, 2007 TO DEC. 29, 2011 372
Commercial Prototype Developments 373
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas) 373
Enzyme-Coated CNT Sensor 373
Gated Metal Oxide Sensor 373
Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor 374
Photoacoustic Sensor (PAS) 374
OTHER RECENT SENSOR AND DETECTOR-RELATED DEVELOPMENTS 374
Honeywell International Inc. (Morristown, N.J.) 375
Motorola Laboratories (Tempe, Ariz.) 375
Nano Engineered Applications Inc. (Riverside, Calif.) 376
Nanomix Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.) 376
Nanosensors Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.) 378
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Richland, Wash.) 378
YTC America Inc. (Camarillo, Calif.) 379
OTHER APPLICATIONS 380
Biosensors 380
Alpha Szenszor Inc. (Worcester, Mass.) 380
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas) 380
Nanomix Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.)/Mystic MD Inc. (Groton, Conn.) 381
BIOMEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS 381
TABLE 126 POTENTIAL USES OF CNTS IN THE BIOMEDICAL AREA 381
TABLE 127 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS, PRIOR
TO 2007 382
TABLE 128 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS,
2007-2009 383
TABLE 129 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS,
2010-2011 384
Potential Commercial CNT Biomedical Developments 385
Cromoz Inc. (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 385
Ensysce Biosciences Inc. (Houston, Texas) 385
Intel Corp. (Santa Clara, Calif.) 385
XinRay Systems LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 386
INDUSTRIAL CATALYST SUPPORTS 387
Industrial Chemical Process Synthesis 387
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TABLE 130 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY LEADERS IN CNT CATALYST SUPPORTS, 2007 TO
DEC. 29, 2011 388
BTU International Inc. (North Billerica, Mass.) 388
Headwaters Technology Innovation Inc. (Lawrenceville, N.J.) 388
Hyperion Catalysis International Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) 389
Electrocatalysis 389
Photocatalytic Support Systems 389
TABLE 131 APPLICATIONS OF CNTs IN PHOTOCATALYTIC SYSTEMS 389
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY 390
Xerox Corp. (Stamford, Conn.) 390
INSTRUMENTS: ACTUATORS, MANIPULATORS AND PROBES 390
TABLE 132 U.S. CNT PATENT ACTIVITY INVOLVING ACTUATORS, INSTRUMENTS
AND MANIPULATORS, 2009 TO DEC. 29, 2011 390
Commercial Developments in SPM/AFM CNT Probes 391
Carbon Design Innovations (Burlingame, Calif.) 391
Carbon Nanoprobes Inc. (White Plains, N.Y.) 392
Xidex Corp. (Austin, Texas) 393
OIL RECOVERY 393
TABLE 133 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT ENHANCEMENTS IN OIL RECOVERY, 2010
TO DEC. 29, 2011 393
SECURITY 395
TABLE 134 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN VARIOUS CNT-BASED
SECURITY APPLICATIONS 395
Bioterrorism and Explosives Detection 395
Stanford University 396
MIT 396
Body Armor and Smart Textiles 396
National Research Council (NRC) Canada (Ottawa, Ont., Canada) 396
Nanocomp Technologies Inc. (Concord, N.H.) 397
Q-Flo Ltd. (Cambridge, U.K.) 398
Nico Technologies (Ann Arbor, Mich.) 398
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags 398
Alien Technology Corp. (Morgan Hills, Calif.) 399
Ambient Systems BV (Enschede, Netherlands) 399
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.) 400
Nantero Inc. (Woburn, Mass.)/HP Specialty Printing Systems (San
Diego, Calif.) 400
X-Ray Detection 401
American Science and Engineering Inc. (Billerica, Mass.) 401
XinRay Systems LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 401
POLISHING 402
Applied Materials Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.) 402
REFRENCES 403
CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL MARKET ANALYSIS 412
TECHNOLOGY PUSH 412
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES 412
MWNTs 412
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TABLE 135 GLOBAL MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET BY CAPACITY AND
REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS) 413
SWNTs 413
TABLE 136 GLOBAL SWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET BY CAPACITY AND
REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS) 414
Few-Walled Grades (FWNTs) 414
TABLE 137 GLOBAL FWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET BY CAPACITY AND
REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS) 415
MARKET PULL 415
COMPOSITES 416
Polymer 416
TABLE 138 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-POLYMER
COMPOSITES 416
Other Matrix Materials 417
TABLE 139 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER MATRIX
COMPOSITES 417
ELECTRONICS 418
TABLE 140 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTRONICS 418
ENERGY 419
TABLE 141 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN ENERGY 419
OTHER APPLICATIONS 420
TABLE 142 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS 420
CHAPTER 8 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET ANALYSIS 422
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES 422
MWNTS 422
Commodity Grade 422
TABLE 143 U.S. COMMODITY-GRADE MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANIES MARKET,
THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $ MILLIONS) 422
Specialty Grade 423
TABLE 144 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR U.S.
SPECIALTY-GRADE MWNTs TIER 1 COMPANY SWeNT, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC
TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
423
SWNTS 424
TABLE 145 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES OF NORTH
AMERICAN COMMERCIAL SWNT PRODUCERS TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019
(KG/YEAR, $ MILLIONS)
424
FEW-WALLED GRADES (FWNTS) 424
TABLE 146 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR U.S.
SPECIALTY-GRADE FWNTS TIER 1 COMPANY SWENT, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC
TONNES, $ MILLIONS)
425
CHAPTER 9 EUROPEAN MARKET ANALYSIS 427
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES 427
MWNTS 427
TABLE 147 EUROPEAN PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES OF
COMMERCIAL MWNTS TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $
MILLIONS)
427
SWNTS 428
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TABLE 148 EUROPEAN ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR
COMMERCIAL SWNTS AND NANOBUDS TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019
(TONNES/YEAR, $ MILLIONS)
429
CHAPTER 10 ASIAN MARKET ANALYSIS 431
CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES 431
MWNTS 431
TABLE 149 JAPANESE ANNUAL COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND
REVENUES FOR MWNTS TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES, $
MILLIONS)
431
TABLE 150 UNCONFIRMED ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT OF COMMERCIAL
MWNTS TIER 2 ASIAN COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES) 432
SWNTS 432
TABLE 151 UNCONFIRMED ASIAN COMMERCIAL SWNT PRODUCTION COMMITMENT
TIER 2 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 (METRIC TONNES/$ MILLIONS) 433
FEW-WALLED GRADES (FWNTS) 433
TABLE 152 POTENTIAL ASIAN COMMERCIAL FWNT PRODUCTION COMMITMENT
TIER 2 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2019 434
CHAPTER 11 MARKET PULL: PROGNOSIS FOR GLOBAL CNT APPLICATIONS 436
POLYMER COMPOSITES 436
AERONAUTICAL APPLICATIONS 436
AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS 438
ELECTRONIC PACKAGING APPLICATIONS 440
FLAME-RETARDANT APPLICATIONS 440
INDUSTRIAL SEALS 442
MILITARY APPLICATIONS 442
PROSPECTIVE APPLICATIONS OF OTHER COMPOSITE FORMS OF CNTS 444
SPORTS EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS 445
OTHER COMPETITIVE FACTORS AND DEVELOPMENTS 445
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTS IN OTHER MATRIX COMPOSITES 446
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTS IN ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 448
ELECTRONIC/NANOELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 448
FE DISPLAYS 450
TABLE 153 PROS AND CONS FOR CNT FE DISPLAY MARKET 450
Market Challenges: Competition and Manufacturing Cost 450
Commercial Champions—Who's Leading the Chase and When? 451
LIGHT BULBS AND LIGHT SOURCES 453
FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONICS 454
MEMORY APPLICATIONS 457
SENSORS 459
Alpha Szenszor Inc. (Worcester, Mass.) 459
Applied Nanotech Holdings Inc. (Austin, Texas) 459
Nanomix Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.)/Mystic MD Inc. (Groton, Conn.) 460
Nanosense Inc. (Redwood City, Calif.)/Evolved Machines Inc. (Palo
Alto, Calif.) 460
WIRE AND CABLE CONNECTIVITY 461
Minnesota Wire and Cable Co. 461
TE Connectivity 461
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Teijin Aramid 462
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTS IN ENERGY APPLICATIONS 462
BATTERIES 462
Market Prognosis 462
CNT Commercial Battery Developments 462
Contour Energy Systems Inc. (Irwindale, Calif.) 463
Micro Bubble Technologies Inc. (South Korea)/Next
Alternative Inc. (Canada) 463
Molecular Rebar Design LLC (Austin, Texas) 464
SmartEnergi Corp. (Atlanta, Ga.) 464
Vendum Batteries Inc. (El Segundo, Calif.) 464
Potential Flexible Battery Developments 465
CAPACITORS 466
Market Prognosis for Commercial Development of CNT-Based
Supercapacitors 466
Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based
EDLCs 467
Arrowhead Research Corp./Agonn Systems Inc. (Pasadena,
Calif.) 467
Kemet Corp. (Greenville, S.C.) 467
Nisshinbo Holdings Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) 467
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan)/Power Battery Co.
(Paterson, N.J.) 468
FUEL CELLS 468
Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based
Fuel Cells 469
Bing Energy Inc. (Tallahassee, Fla.) 469
Intematix Corp. (Fremont, Calif.) 469
Japan 470
Neah Power Systems Inc. (Bothel, Wash.) 470
Pacific Fuel Cell Corp. (Riverside, Calif.) 470
Showa Denko KK (Japan) 470
UltraCell Corp. (Livermore, Calif.) 471
HYDROGEN STORAGE AND HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES 471
SOLAR/PV CELLS 472
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.) 472
DuPont (Wilmington, Del.) 473
Eikos Inc. (Franklin, Mass.) 473
Konarka Technologies (Lowell, Mass.) 473
Natcore Technology (Red Bank, N.J.) 473
OTHER ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 474
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR CNTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS 474
BIOMEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS 474
CATALYST SUPPORTS 475
INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 475
INSTRUMENTS: ACTUATORS, MANIPULATORS AND PROBES 475
MEMBRANES AND SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY 476
OIL RECOVERY 477
SECURITY 478
NAN024F - Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
Body Armor and Smart Textiles 478
RFID Tags 479
Alien Technology Corp. (Morgan Hills, Calif.) 479
Ambient Systems BV (Enschede, Netherlands) 479
AMBIT Corp. (Ashland, Mass.) 479
Nantero Inc. (Woburn, Mass.)/HP Specialty Printing Systems (San
Diego, Calif.) 479
Paru Co. Ltd. (Sunchon, Korea)/Sunchon National University/Rice
University 480
X-ray Detection 480
XinRay Systems LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 480
REFRENCES 480
CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX 483
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 483
UNITS 487

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