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Graphene: Technologies, Applications and Markets

  • February 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 142 pages

Use this report to:
- Learn about the most recent advances in graphene technologies and applications.
- Identify emerging graphene technologies and applications with the greatest commercial potential in the time frame between 2015 to 2025.
- Gain information about the companies that are producing or developing commercial graphene applications.
- Identify market drivers and evaluate obstacles to their successful commercialization.

Highlights
- BCC Research estimates the global graphene-based products market to be worth $1.5 million in 2015. The market should continue to grow from $310.4 million in 2020 to $2.1 billion by 2025, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46.3%.
- Capacitors dominate the graphene market and are expected to grow from $50.0 million in 2020 to $625 million by 2025, a CAGR of 65.7% through 2025.
- Structural materials as a segment should reach $68.4 million by 2020 and $340 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 37.8% for the eriod of 2020-2025.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION
In October 2010, two University of Manchester (U.K.) scientists, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for their research on graphene. Graphene is a sheet of carbon one atom thick yet its strength, flexibility and electrical conductivity have opened up new horizons for high-energy particle physics research and electronic, optical and energy applications. Potential electronics applications of graphene include ultra small transistors, superdense data storage, touchscreens and wearable electronics. In the energy field, potential applications include ultracapacitors to store and transmit electrical power as
well as highly efficient solar cells. Some researchers argue that the greatest potential for graphene lies in its ability to conduct light as well as electricity. They believe that graphene can improve the efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and aid in the production of next-generation devices like flexible touchscreens, photodetectors and ultrafast lasers.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report is an updated version of an earlier BCC Research report published in 2013. Since that time, the graphene field has continued to develop rapidly, and BCC Research believes that an update that covers the most recent advances in graphene technologies and applications will be useful to readers. Graphene offers seemingly endless possibilities. However, intuition alone tells us that not all of these possibilities are likely to become reality. The goal of this report is to survey emerging graphene technologies and applications, identify those that are most likely to achieve significant commercial sales in the next five years to ten years and
develop quantitative estimates of potential sales. The report’s specific objectives support this broad goal. These objectives include identifying the graphene technologies and applications with the greatest commercial
potential in the time frame of 2015 to 2025, identifying market drivers and evaluating obstacles to their successful commercialization, and projecting future sales.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended especially for marketing executives, entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know where the emerging graphene market is headed over the next five to 10 years. Although the report is organized around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature and coverage. That is, it is concerned less with theory and jargon than with what works, how much of what works the market is likely to purchase and at what price. The report has not been written specifically for scientists and technologists. However, the report’s findings concern the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications, should interest this audience as well.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
The report addresses emerging global markets for graphene, including the applications listed below:
- Computing/data processing.
- Data storage.
- Communications.
- Thermal management.
- Displays.
- Solar cells.
- Sensing and imaging.
- Capacitors.
- Structural materials.
- Miscellaneous other applications.

The study format includes and/or addresses the following major elements:
- Executive summary.
- Definitions.
- General properties of graphene.
- Historical milestones in the development of graphene.
- Emerging and developmental graphene technologies and applications that have the greatest commercial potential through 2025.
- Detailed market estimates and projections for each application and material during the period from 2015 to 2020.
- General assessment of expected market trends in the longer term (2020 to 2025).
- Companies that are producing or developing commercial graphene applications.
- Patent analysis.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY
Projecting the market for emerging technologies, whose commercial potential has not yet been proven, is a challenging task. Nowhere is this truer than in the graphene field, which may help to explain why many analysts focus on supply-side technology assessments. However, BCC Research’s objective in this report is to provide not just a technology assessment but also an initial assessment of the potential commercial market for graphene. To accomplish this objective, BCC Research used a multiphase approach to identify the graphene applications with the greatest commercial potential and to quantify the related markets.

In the first phase of the analysis, BCC Research identified a long list of potential graphene applications, including those that are still under development. In the second phase, BCC Research eliminated those applications that appear to have little likelihood of making it into commercial use in the next five years to 10 years, based on a literature review and interviews with industry sources. The result of the second phase was a short list of graphene applications with the greatest commercial potential over the time period covered by this report. The third phase focused on quantifying the potential market for each application on the resulting list and identifying the main prerequisites for commercial success. Phase three actually had two components:

1. The development of near-to-mid-term (2015 to 2020) projections.
2. The development of longer-term (2020 to 2025) projections.

The development of such long-term projections is a departure from the usual BCC Research report format, necessitated by the long time frame for commercialization of many of the technologies analyzed in this report. Obviously the projections for the years beyond 2020 are more tentative than the projections for 2015 to 2020. The specific assumptions and approaches that BCC Research used to develop the projections (both near/mid-term and long-term) for each graphene application are documented in detail under the various applications addressed. This way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, test how changing the underlying assumptions would impact the final numbers. One of the approaches used by BCC Research deserves special mention here. Particularly in the case of graphene applications that are still under development, BCC Research used the sales performance of non-graphene applications that share some of the same functions or other characteristics of the graphene application as a benchmark
for assessing the latter’s sales potential.

Table Of Contents

Graphene: Technologies, Applications and Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS, THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GRAPHENE 10
DEFINITION 10
HISTORY 10
OCCURRENCE AND PRODUCTION 11
Established Technologies 11
Scotch Tape Method 12
Epitaxial Method 12
Graphite Oxide Reduction Method 13
Developmental Approaches 13
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 13
Metal-Carbon Melt Method 15
Pyrolysis of Sodium Ethoxide Method 15
Production of Graphene from Carbon Nanotubes 15
Production of Graphene from Table Sugar 16
Dissolving Graphite in Chlorosulphonic Acid 16
''Molecular Wedge'' Method 16
Carbon Dioxide Reduction 17
Dry Ice-Based Production Processes 17
Roll-to-Roll Production 17
TYPES OF GRAPHENE AND THEIR PROPERTIES 18
TABLE 1 GRAPHENE PROPERTIES 18
Electronic Properties 18
Chemical Properties 19
Thermal Properties 19
Mechanical Properties 19
Optical Properties 20
Other Properties 20
RELATED SUBSTANCES 21
Graphite 21
Graphene Oxide 21
Carbon Nanotubes 22
Fullerenes 22
GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS AND END USES 22
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND END USES OF GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 23
High-Performance Computing 23
Data Storage 24
Communications 24
Thermal Management 24
Photovoltaic Cells 24
Sensors 25
Terahertz Imaging Equipment 25
Displays 25
Capacitors 25
Structural Materials 25
Other Applications 26
MARKET SIZE AND SEGMENTATION 26
Market Size and Growth Trends 26
Applications 27
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2025 ($
MILLIONS) 27
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025
($ MILLIONS) 27
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND END USES OF GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 29
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025
(% OF TOTAL MARKET) 30
CHAPTER 4 RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY 32
GENERAL TRENDS 32
TRENDS OVER TIME 32
FIGURE 3 TREND FOR U.S. GRAPHENE PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY, PRE
2005-2015 (NO. OF PATENTS) 32
TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 33
FIGURE 4 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE-BASIC AND PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
VERSUS TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATIONS, NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (%) 33
FIGURE 5 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS BY TYPE, THROUGH
NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (NUMBER) 33
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS 34
FIGURE 6 MAJOR GRAPHENE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS, THROUGH
NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS) 34
TYPES OF ENTITIES 36
FIGURE 7 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT HOLDERS/ASSIGNEES BY TYPE OF ENTITY,
THROUGH NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (% OF PATENTS ISSUED) 36
NATIONALITIES 36
FIGURE 8 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT AND PATENT APPLICATION HOLDERS BY
NATIONALITY, NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (%) 36
CHAPTER 5 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPUTING APPLICATIONS 39
SUMMARY 39
TECHNOLOGIES 39
TRANSISTORS 39
Graphene Switches 39
Quantum Confinement in Graphene Nanoribbons 40
Field-Induced Modification of Graphene Structure 40
Ballistic Transistors 40
Graphene Nanomesh 41
Graphene-Boron Nitride Nanotube Switch 41
Graphene Barristor 42
Flexible Graphene Transistors 42
Other Types of Graphene Transistor 42
''Negative Resistance'' Graphene Switches 43
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 43
Graphene Interconnections 43
Graphene-based Integrated Circuits 44
Molecular Electronics 45
PRINTED ELECTRONICS 46
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 47
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 48
COMMERCIAL STATUS 48
MARKET 48
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 48
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 49
INTERCONNECTS 49
TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 49
PRINTED ELECTRONICS 50
CHAPTER 6 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DATA STORAGE APPLICATIONS 52
SUMMARY 52
TECHNOLOGIES 52
GRAPHENE SPIN VALVE 53
GRAPHENE NANOCABLE MEMORY DEVICE 53
GRAPHENE NANORIBBON MEMORY 53
GRAPHENE OXIDE-BASED MEMORY 53
HYBRID SILICON-GRAPHENE FLASH MEMORY 54
GRAPHENE-MOLYBDENITE FLASH MEMORY 54
TRANSPARENT MEMORY 55
GRAPHENE QUANTUM DOT FLASH MEMORY 55
GRAPHENE PHASE-CHANGE MEMORY 55
''DATASTICKIES'' 55
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 56
HIGH DATA DENSITY 56
LARGE ON/OFF POWER RATIO 56
WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE 57
RADIATION RESISTANCE 57
COMMERCIAL STATUS 57
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 57
MARKET 57
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MEMORY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2025
($ MILLIONS)` 58
CHAPTER 7 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS 60
SUMMARY 60
TECHNOLOGIES 60
HIGH-SPEED PHOTODETECTORS 60
AMPLIFIERS 60
FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS 61
FREQUENCY MIXERS 61
RECEIVERS 62
ANTENNAS 62
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 63
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 63
COMMERCIAL STATUS 63
MARKET 63
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 64
CHAPTER 8 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS 66
SUMMARY 66
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT
APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TECHNOLOGIES 67
GRAPHENE NANOPLATELET THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS 67
MULTILAYER GRAPHENE HEAT SPREADERS AND HEAT SINKS 68
COPPER-GRAPHENE COMPOSITE HEAT SPREADER 69
GRAPHENE-GRAPHITE "QUILTS" 69
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 69
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 70
COMMERCIAL STATUS 70
MARKET 70
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 70
HEAT SPREADERS 70
THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS 71
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS (TIMS)
CONTAINING GRAPHENE, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 71
CHAPTER 9 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS 73
SUMMARY 73
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE PHOTOVOLTAIC
APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TECHNOLOGIES 73
FLEXIBLE ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 74
GRAPHENE OPV WITH IMPROVED GRAPHENE INTERFACE 74
POLYMER PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS BASED ON SOLUTION-PROCESSABLE
GRAPHENE AND POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE) 75
DYE-DOPED GRAPHITE/GRAPHENE SOLAR CELL 75
TITANIUM OXIDE/PEROVSKITE/GRAPHENE SOLAR CELLS 76
GRAPHENE CATHODE-BASED ZNO NANOWIRE HYBRID SOLAR CELLS 76
GRAPHENE AND MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE BASED SOLAR CELLS 76
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES COMPARED TO OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 77
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 77
COMMERCIAL STATUS 77
MARKET 78
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 78
CHAPTER 10 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SENSOR APPLICATIONS 80
SUMMARY 80
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE-BASED SENSORS, 2014-2025
($ MILLIONS) 80
TECHNOLOGIES 81
CHEMICAL AND GAS SENSORS 81
Electrochemical Sensors 81
Mass Sensors 81
Nanopore Sensors 82
Graphene Foam Sensors 82
Graphene Flake Sensors 83
Selective Gas Sensing with Pristine Graphene 83
RADIATION SENSORS 83
BIOSENSORS 84
DNA-Sensitized Graphene Vapor Sensors 84
IMAGE SENSORS 84
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 85
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 85
COMMERCIAL STATUS 86
MARKET 86
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE SENSING APPLICATIONS THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 86
IMAGE SENSORS 86
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 87
OTHER SENSORS 87
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE NON-IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 87
CHAPTER 11 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING APPLICATIONS 89
SUMMARY 89
TECHNOLOGIES 89
GRAPHENE FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS 89
GRAPHENE-BASED PLASMON AMPLIFIERS 90
GRAPHENE HYPERLENS 90
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 91
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 91
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 91
POTENTIAL THZ IMAGING APPLICATIONS 92
COMMERCIAL STATUS 92
MARKET 92
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED TERAHERTZ (THZ) IMAGING
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 93
CHAPTER 12 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPLAY APPLICATIONS 95
SUMMARY 95
TECHNOLOGIES 95
ROLL-TO-ROLL PRODUCTION 95
SPRAY COATING 96
TRANSFER PRINTING 96
ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION 96
HYBRID GRAPHENE-CARBON NANOTUBE FILM 97
OTHER HYBRID GRAPHENE FILMS 97
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 98
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 98
COMMERCIAL STATUS 98
MARKET 99
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPLAY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 99
CHAPTER 13 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS 101
SUMMARY 101
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TECHNOLOGIES 101
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 103
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 104
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 104
COMMERCIAL STATUS 104
MARKET 105
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CAPACITIVE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 105
CHAPTER 14 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIAL APPLICATIONS 107
SUMMARY 107
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TECHNOLOGIES 107
GRAPHENE-FILLED POLYMER COMPOSITES 108
Graphene-Polystyrene Composites 108
Other Graphene-Polymer Composites 108
TABLE 16 TYPES AND PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE AND FULLERENE
COMPOSITES 108
Shape-Memory Polymers 109
GRAPHENE MATRIX COMPOSITES 109
GRAPHENE-CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES 110
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES 110
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 110
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 111
COMMERCIAL STATUS 112
MARKET 112
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 112
CHAPTER 15 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OTHER APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 114
SUMMARY 114
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OTHER
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 114
HYDROGEN STORAGE 114
TECHNOLOGIES 115
Oxidized Graphene Sheets 115
Corrugated Graphene 115
Graphene Oxide-Carbon Nanotube Composite 116
Other Developments 116
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 117
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 117
COMMERCIAL STATUS 117
MARKET 117
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS%) 118
ANTIBACTERIALS 118
TECHNOLOGIES 119
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 119
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 120
COMMERCIAL STATUS 120
MARKET 120
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 120
FUEL CELLS AND BATTERIES 121
TECHNOLOGIES 121
Fuel Cells 121
Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported Platinum Catalyst 121
Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoplatelet-Supported Catalyst 122
Graphene Catalyst 122
Fuel Cell Membrane 122
BATTERIES 123
Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 123
Improved Lithium-Air Battery 124
Improved Sodium Ion Battery 125
3D Printed Batteries 125
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 125
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 126
COMMERCIAL STATUS 126
AVM075D - Graphene: Technologies, Applications and Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
MARKET 126
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS IN FUEL CELLS AND
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 127
Fuel Cell Catalyst Support Materials 127
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MATERIALS USED IN FUEL CELLS BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE CATALYST SUPPORT MATERIALS
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 128
Battery Electrodes 128
MRI CONTRAST AGENTS 128
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
CONTRAST AGENTS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 129
AUDIO SPEAKERS 129
TECHNOLOGY 129
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 129
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 130
COMMERCIAL STATUS 130
MARKET 130
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MICRO-SPEAKER DIAPHRAGMS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 131
LIQUID AND GAS FILTRATION/SEPARATION 131
TECHNOLOGY 131
Nanoporous Membranes 131
Graphene Oxide Foam 132
Other Technologies 133
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 133
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 133
COMMERCIAL STATUS 134
MARKET 134
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE FILTRATION AND SEPARATION
MEMBRANES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 134
WATERPROOFING 134
TECHNOLOGY 135
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 135
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 135
COMMERCIAL STATUS 135
MARKETS 135
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED WATERPROOF MATERIALS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 136
LIGHT EMITTING DIODES 136
TECHNOLOGY 136
Energy-Efficient LEDs 136
Tunable-Color LEDs 136
Atomic Level LEDs 137
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 137
APPLICATIONS 137
COMMERCIAL STATUS 138
MARKETS 138
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED LED TECHNOLOGIES,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 138
LUBRICANTS 139
TECHNOLOGY 139
Solid Lubricants 139
Liquid Lubricants 139
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 140
APPLICATIONS 140
COMMERCIAL STATUS 140
MARKETS 140
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED LUBRICANT MATERIALS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 141
CHAPTER 16 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 143
NUMBER AND SIZE OF COMPANIES 143
FIGURE 15 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES WITH PRODUCTION OR
ACTIVE R andD ACTIVITIES IN GRAPHENE (NO. OF COMPANIES) 143
COMPANY PROFILES 144
ACS MATERIAL LLC 144
ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES 144
AIXTRON S.E. 144
ALLOTROPICA TECHNOLOGIES 145
ANGEWANDTE MIKRO- UND OPTOELEKTRONIK GMBH 145
ANGSTRON MATERIALS INC. 145
APPLIED GRAPHENE MATERIALS PLC 146
ASBURY CARBONS 146
BASF SE 146
CALIFORNIA LITHIUM BATTERY 147
CVD EQUIPMENT CORP. 147
FOCUS GRAPHITE 147
GENERAL MOTORS CO. 148
GLOBAL FOUNDRIES INC. 148
GRAFEN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 148
GRAFOID 149
GRAFTECH INTERNATIONAL LTD. 149
GRANPH NANOTECH, S.A. 149
GRAPHENE DEVICES LTD. 150
GRAPHENE FRONTIERS 150
GRAPHENE INDUSTRIES LTD. 150
GRAPHENE LIGHTING PLC 151
GRAPHENE SQUARE, INC. 151
GRAPHENE SUPERMARKET 151
GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 152
GRAPHENE WORKS INC. 152
GRAPHENEA 152
GRAPHENSIC AB 153
GRAPHITE ZERO 153
HAYDALE 153
HRL LABORATORIES LLC 154
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP. 154
NANOTEK INSTRUMENTS INC. 154
NINGBO MORSH TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. 155
NORTHERN GRAPHITE CORP. 155
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD. 155
SINODE SYSTEMS 156
UNIDYM 156
VORBECK MATERIALS 156
XG SCIENCES INC. 157
XOLVE INC. 157
ZHONGTUO MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY 158
ZS GENETICS INC. 158

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS, THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 GRAPHENE PROPERTIES 18
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND END USES OF GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 23
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2025 ($
MILLIONS) 27
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND END USES OF GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 29
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 48
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MEMORY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2025
($ MILLIONS)` 58
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS (TIMS)
CONTAINING GRAPHENE, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE SENSING APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2025
($ MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 11 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE NON-IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED TERAHERTZ (THZ) IMAGING
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 93
TABLE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPLAY
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CAPACITIVE
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 16 TYPES AND PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE AND FULLERENE
COMPOSITES 108
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES THROUGH 2025
($ MILLIONS) 112
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OTHER
APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS%) 118
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS IN FUEL CELLS AND
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MATERIALS USED IN FUEL CELLS BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE CATALYST SUPPORT MATERIALS
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
CONTRAST AGENTS, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MICRO-SPEAKER DIAPHRAGMS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 131
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE FILTRATION AND SEPARATION
MEMBRANES, THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED WATERPROOF MATERIALS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 136
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED LED TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH
2025 ($ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED LUBRICANT MATERIALS,
THROUGH 2025 ($ MILLIONS) 141
AVM075D - Graphene: Technologies, Applications and Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025
($ MILLIONS) 27
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025 (%
OF TOTAL MARKET) 30
FIGURE 3 TREND FOR U.S. GRAPHENE PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY, PRE 2005-2015
(NO. OF PATENTS) 32
FIGURE 4 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE-BASIC AND PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
VERSUS TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATIONS, NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (%) 33
FIGURE 5 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS BY TYPE, THROUGH
NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (NUMBER) 33
FIGURE 6 MAJOR GRAPHENE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS, THROUGH
NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS) 34
FIGURE 7 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT HOLDERS/ASSIGNEES BY TYPE OF ENTITY,
THROUGH NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (% OF PATENTS ISSUED) 36
FIGURE 8 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT AND PATENT APPLICATION HOLDERS BY
NATIONALITY, NOVEMBER 10, 2015 (%) 36
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 49
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT
APPLICATIONS, 2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 66
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 73
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE-BASED SENSORS, 2014-2025
($ MILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS FOR GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES,
2014-2025 ($ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 15 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES WITH PRODUCTION OR
ACTIVE R andD ACTIVITIES IN GRAPHENE (NO. OF COMPANIES) 143

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