Graphene: Technologies, Applications and Markets

  • September 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 145 pages

INTRODUCTION

In October 2010, two University of Manchester (U.K.) scientists, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for their research on graphene. Graphene is a sheet of carbon one atom thick yet its strength, flexibility and electrical conductivity has opened up new horizons for high-energy particle physics research and electronic, optical and energy applications.
Potential electronics applications of graphene include ultrasmall transistors, superdense data storage, touchscreens and wearable electronics. In the energy field, potential applications include ultracapacitors to store and transmit electrical power as well as highly efficient solar cells.
Some researchers argue that the greatest potential for graphene lies in its ability to conduct light as well as electricity. They believe that graphene can improve the efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and aid in the production of next-generation devices like flexible touchscreens, photodetectors and ultrafast lasers.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is an updated version of an earlier BCC Research report published in 2012. Since that time, the graphene field has continued to develop rapidly, and BCC believes that an update that covers the most recent advances in graphene technologies and applications will be useful to readers.
Graphene offers seemingly endless possibilities. However, intuition alone tells us that not all of these possibilities are likely to become reality. The goal of this report is to survey emerging graphene technologies and applications, identify those that are most likely to achieve significant commercial sales in the next five years to ten years and develop quantitative estimates of potential sales.
The report’s specific objectives support this broad goal. These objectives include identifying the graphene technologies and applications with the greatest commercial potential in the time frame of 2013 to 2023, identifying market drivers and evaluating obstacles to their successful commercialization, and projecting future sales.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended especially for marketing executives, entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know where the emerging graphene market is headed over the next five years to ten years. Although the report is organized around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature and coverage. That is, it is concerned less with theory and jargon than with what works, how much of what works the market is likely to purchase and at what price.
The report has not been written specifically for scientists and technologists. However, the report’s findings concerning the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications, should interest this audience as well.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The report addresses emerging global markets for graphene, including the applications listed below:
• Computing/data processing.
• Data storage.
• Communications.
• Thermal management.
• Displays.
• Solar cells.
• Sensing and imaging.
• Capacitors.
• Structural materials.
• Miscellaneous other applications.

The study format includes and/or addresses the following major elements:
• Executive summary.
• Definitions.
• General properties of graphene.
• Historical milestones in the development of graphene.
• Emerging and developmental graphene technologies and applications that have the greatest commercial potential through 2023.
• Detailed market estimates and projections for each application and material during the period from 2013 to 2018.
• General assessment of expected market trends in the longer term (2018 to 2023).
• Companies that are producing or developing commercial graphene applications.
• Patent analysis.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY

Projecting the market for emerging technologies, whose commercial potential has not yet been proven, is a challenging task. Nowhere is this truer than in the graphene field, which may help to explain why many analysts focus on supply-side technology assessments.

However, BCC’s objective in this report is to provide not just a technology assessment but also an initial assessment of the potential commercial market for graphene. To accomplish this objective, BCC used a multiphase approach to identify the graphene applications with the greatest commercial potential and to quantify the related markets.

In the first phase of the analysis, BCC identified a long list of potential graphene applications, including those that are still under development. In the second phase, BCC eliminated those applications that appear to have little likelihood of making it into commercial use in the next five years to ten years, based on a literature review and interviews with industry sources. The result of the second phase was a short list of graphene applications with the greatest commercial potential over the time period covered by this report.

The third phase focused on quantifying the potential market for each application on the resulting list and identifying the main prerequisites for commercial success. Phase three actually had two components:
• The development of near-to-mid-term (2013 to 2018) projections.
• The development of longer-term (2018 to 2023) projections.

The development of such long-term projections is a departure from the usual BCC report format, necessitated by the long time frame for commercialization of many of the technologies analyzed in this report. Obviously the projections for the years beyond 2018 are more tentative than the projections for 2013 to 2018.
The specific assumptions and approaches that BCC used to develop the projections (both near/mid-term and long-term) for each graphene application are documented in detail under the various applications addressed. This way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, test how changing the underlying assumptions would impact the final numbers.
One of the approaches used by BCC deserves special mention here. Particularly in the case of graphene applications that are still under development, BCC used the sales performance of non-graphene applications that share some of the same functions or other characteristics of the graphene application as a benchmark for assessing the latter’s sales potential.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Andrew McWilliams, the author of this report, is a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. He is the author of a number of other BCC Research market opportunity reports on advanced materials technologies, including the previous edition of this report. He is also the author of AVM067B – Metamaterials: Technologies and Global Markets; AVM066C – Superconductors: Technologies and Global Markets; AVM038E – Advanced Structural Carbon Products: Fibers, Foams & Composites; NAN017F – Nanostructured Materials: Electronic/Magnetic/Optoelectronic; AVM050B – Smart and Interactive Textiles; AVM015F – High-Performance Ceramic Coatings: Markets and Technologies; AVM025G – Diamond, Diamond-Like and CBN Films and Coating Products; NAN015F – Advanced Ceramics and Nanoceramic Powders; and NAN036B – Nanotechnology for Photonics: Global Markets.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
• An overview of the global markets for graphene, with coverage of graphene technologies and applications.
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013 and 2018 and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2023.
• Discussion of graphene technologies which are likely to achieve significant commercial sales in the next five to ten years and quantitative estimates of potential sales.
• Information specific to graphene technologies, largely nontechnical in nature.
• Findings concerning the market including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 5
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS 2012-2023
($ MILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GRAPHENE 10
DEFINITION 10
HISTORY 10
OCCURRENCE AND PRODUCTION 11
Established Technologies 11
Scotch Tape Method 11
Epitaxial Method 12
Graphite Oxide Reduction Method 13
Experimental Approaches 13
Metal-Carbon Melt Method 13
Pyrolysis of Sodium Ethoxide Method 14
Production of Graphene from Carbon Nanotubes 14
Production of Graphene from Table Sugar 14
Dissolving Graphite in Chlorosulphonic Acid 14
"Molecular Wedge" Method 15
Radio Frequency Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition 15
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition 15
Carbon Dioxide Reduction 15
Dry Ice-Based Production Processes 16
PROPERTIES 16
TABLE 1 GRAPHENE PROPERTIES 17
Electronic Properties 17
Chemical Properties 17
Thermal Properties 18
Mechanical Properties 18
Optical Properties 18
Other Properties 18
RELATED SUBSTANCES 19
Graphite 19
Graphene Oxide 19
Carbon Nanotubes 20
Fullerenes 20
GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS AND END USES 21
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND END USES OF GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 21
High-Performance Computing 22
Data Storage 22
Communications 22
Thermal Management 23
Photovoltaic Cells 23
Sensors 23
TERAHERTZ IMAGING EQUIPMENT 23
Displays 23
Capacitors 23
Structural Materials 24
Other Applications 24
MARKET SIZE AND SEGMENTATION 24
Market Size and Growth Trends 24
FIGURE 1 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE, 2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 24
Applications 25
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATION THROUGH 2023 ($
MILLIONS) 25
FIGURE 2 GRAPHENE APPLICATION SEGMENTS, 2012-2023 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 26

CHAPTER 4 RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY 29

GENERAL TRENDS 29
TRENDS OVER TIME 29
FIGURE 3 TREND IN NUMBER OF U.S. GRAPHENE PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY, PRE
2003-2013 29
TECHNOLOGY TRENDS 30
FIGURE 4 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE-BASIC AND PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
VERSUS TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATIONS TO AUGUST 6, 2013 (%) 30
FIGURE 5 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS BY TYPE THROUGH
AUGUST 6, 2013 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 30
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS 31
FIGURE 6 MAJOR GRAPHENE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS (NUMBER OF
U.S. PATENTS) 31
TYPES OF ENTITIES 33
FIGURE 7 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT HOLDERS/ASSIGNEES BY TYPE OF ENTITY
THROUGH AUGUST 6, 2013 (% OF PATENTS ISSUED) 33
NATIONALITIES 33
FIGURE 8 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT AND PATENT APPLICATION HOLDERS BY
NATIONALITY, AS OF AUGUST 6, 2013 (%/NUMBER OF PATENTS) 33

CHAPTER 5 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPUTING APPLICATIONS 36

SUMMARY 36
TECHNOLOGIES 36
TRANSISTORS 36
Graphene Switches 36
Quantum Confinement in Graphene Nanoribbons 37
Field-Induced Modification of Graphene Structure 37
Ballistic Transistors 37
Graphene Nanomesh 38
Graphene Barristor 38
Flexible Graphene Transistors 39
Other Types of Graphene Transistor 39
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 39
Graphene Interconnections 39
Graphene-based Integrated Circuits 40
Molecular Electronics 41
PRINTED ELECTRONICS 42
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 43
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 44
COMMERCIAL STATUS 44
MARKET 44
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 45
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES
2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 45
INTERCONNECTS 45
TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 46
PRINTED ELECTRONICS 46

CHAPTER 6 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DATA STORAGE APPLICATIONS 48

SUMMARY 48
TECHNOLOGIES 48
GRAPHENE SPIN VALVE 49
GRAPHENE NANOCABLE MEMORY DEVICE 49
GRAPHENE NANORIBBON MEMORY 49
GRAPHENE OXIDE-BASED MEMORY 49
HYBRID SILICON-GRAPHENE FLASH MEMORY 50
GRAPHENE-MOLYBDENITE FLASH MEMORY 50
TRANSPARENT MEMORY 51
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 51
HIGH DATA DENSITY 51
LARGE ON/OFF POWER RATIO 52
WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE 52
RADIATION RESISTANCE 52
COMMERCIAL STATUS 52
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 52
MARKET 53
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MEMORY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 53

CHAPTER 7 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS 55

SUMMARY 55
TECHNOLOGIES 55
HIGH-SPEED PHOTODETECTORS 55
AMPLIFIERS 55
FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS 56
FREQUENCY MIXERS 56
RECEIVERS 56
ANTENNAS 57
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 57
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 57
COMMERCIAL STATUS 57
MARKET 58
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 58

CHAPTER 8 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS 60

SUMMARY 60
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS,
2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TECHNOLOGIES 61
GRAPHENE NANOPLATELET THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS 61
MULTILAYER GRAPHENE HEAT SPREADERS AND HEAT SINKS 62
COPPER-GRAPHENE COMPOSITE HEAT SPREADER 62
GRAPHENE-GRAPHITE "QUILTS" 63
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 63
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 64
COMMERCIAL STATUS 64
MARKET 64
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 64
HEAT SPREADERS 64
THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS 65
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS (TIMS)
CONTAINING GRAPHENE, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 65

CHAPTER 9 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS 67

SUMMARY 67
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS
2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 67
TECHNOLOGIES 67
FLEXIBLE ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 68
POLYMER PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS BASED ON SOLUTION-PROCESSABLE
GRAPHENE AND POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE) 68
DYE-DOPED GRAPHITE/GRAPHENE SOLAR CELL 69
TRIFLUOROMETHANESULFONYL-AMIDE (TFSA)-DOPED GRAPHENE SOLAR
CELLS 69
GRAPHENE OPV WITH IMPROVED GRAPHENE INTERFACE 70
GRAPHENE CATHODE-BASED ZNO NANOWIRE HYBRID SOLAR CELLS 70
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES COMPARED TO OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 70
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 71
COMMERCIAL STATUS 71
MARKET 72
TABLE 9 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 72

CHAPTER 10 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SENSOR APPLICATIONS 74

SUMMARY 74
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE-BASED SENSORS, 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 74
TECHNOLOGIES 75
CHEMICAL AND GAS SENSORS 75
Electrochemical Sensors 75
Mass Sensors 75
Nanopore Sensors 76
Graphene Foam Sensors 76
Graphene Flake Sensors 77
Selective Gas Sensing with Pristine Graphene 77
RADIATION SENSORS 78
BIOSENSORS 78
DNA-Sensitized Graphene Vapor Sensors 78
IMAGE SENSORS 79
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 79
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 79
COMMERCIAL STATUS 80
MARKET 80
TABLE 10 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SENSING APPLICATIONS THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 80
IMAGE SENSORS 80
TABLE 11 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 81
OTHER SENSORS 81
TABLE 12 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR NON-IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 81

CHAPTER 11 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR TERAHERTZ IMAGING APPLICATIONS 83

SUMMARY 83
TECHNOLOGIES 83
GRAPHENE FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS 83
GRAPHENE-BASED PLASMON AMPLIFIERS 84
GRAPHENE HYPERLENS 84
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 85
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 85
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 85
POTENTIAL THZ IMAGING APPLICATIONS 86
COMMERCIAL STATUS 86
MARKET 87
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED TERAHERTZ (THZ) IMAGING
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 87

CHAPTER 12 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPLAY APPLICATIONS 89

SUMMARY 89
TECHNOLOGIES 89
ROLL-TO-ROLL PRODUCTION 89
SPRAY COATING 89
TRANSFER PRINTING 90
ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION 90
HYBRID GRAPHENE-CARBON NANOTUBE FILM 90
OTHER HYBRID GRAPHENE FILMS 91
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 91
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 92
COMMERCIAL STATUS 92
MARKET 92
TABLE 14 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPLAY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 92

CHAPTER 13 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS 95

SUMMARY 95
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 95
TECHNOLOGIES 96
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 97
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 98
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 98
COMMERCIAL STATUS 98
MARKET 98
TABLE 15 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 99

CHAPTER 14 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIAL APPLICATIONS 101

SUMMARY 101
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES, 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 101
TECHNOLOGIES 101
GRAPHENE-FILLED POLYMER COMPOSITES 102
Graphene-Polystyrene Composites 102
Other Graphene-Polymer Composites 102
TABLE 16 TYPES OF CARBON NANOTUBE AND FULLERENE COMPOSITES AND THEIR
PROPERTIES 103
Shape-Memory Polymers 103
GRAPHENE MATRIX COMPOSITES 104
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 104
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 105
COMMERCIAL STATUS 105
MARKET 106
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 106

CHAPTER 15 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OTHER APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 108

SUMMARY 108
TABLE 18 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OTHER APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 108
HYDROGEN STORAGE 108
TECHNOLOGIES 108
Oxidized Graphene Sheets 109
Corrugated Graphene 109
Graphene Oxide-Carbon Nanotube Composite 110
Other Developments 110
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 111
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 111
COMMERCIAL STATUS 111
MARKET 111
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS/%) 112
ANTIBACTERIALS 112
TECHNOLOGIES 112
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 113
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 113
COMMERCIAL STATUS 113
MARKET 114
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 114
FUEL CELLS AND BATTERIES 114
TECHNOLOGIES 115
Fuel Cells 115
Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported Platinum Catalyst 115
Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoplatelet-Supported Catalyst 115
Graphene Catalyst 116
BATTERIES 116
Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes 116
Improved Lithium-Air Battery 117
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 118
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 118
COMMERCIAL STATUS 118
MARKET 119
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS IN FUEL CELLS AND
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 119
Fuel Cell Catalyst Support Materials 119
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF PLATINUM CATALYST MATERIALS AND
NANOSTRUCTURED SUPPORT MATERIALS USED IN FUEL CELLS, THROUGH 2023 ($
MILLIONS)
120
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE CATALYST SUPPORT MATERIALS
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 120
Battery Electrodes 120
MRI Contrast Agents 121
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
CONTRAST AGENTS, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 121
AUDIO SPEAKERS 121
TECHNOLOGY 121
PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES VERSUS ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 122
APPLICATIONS AND END USES 122
COMMERCIAL STATUS 122
MARKET 122
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE LOUDSPEAKER DIAPHRAGMS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 123

CHAPTER 16 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 125

NUMBER AND SIZE OF COMPANIES 125
FIGURE 15 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES WITH PRODUCTION OR
ACTIVE R andD ACTIVITIES IN GRAPHENE (NO. OF COMPANIES) 125
COMPANY PROFILES 126
ACS MATERIAL LLC 126
ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES 126
AIXTRON S.E. 126
ALLOTROPICA TECHNOLOGIES 127
ANGEWANDTE MIKRO- UND OPTOELEKTRONIK GMBH 127
ANGSTRON MATERIALS INC. 127
ASBURY CARBONS 128
BASF SE 128
CALIFORNIA LITHIUM BATTERY 128
CVD EQUIPMENT CORP. 129
DURHAM GRAPHENE SCIENCE 129
FOCUS GRAPHITE 129
GENERAL MOTORS CO. 130
GLOBAL FOUNDRIES INC. 130
GRAFEN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 130
GRAFOID 130
GRAFTECH INTERNATIONAL LTD. 131
GRANPH NANOTECH, S.A. 131
GRAPHENE DEVICES LTD. 131
GRAPHENE ENERGY INC. 132
GRAPHENE FRONTIERS 132
GRAPHENE INDUSTRIES LTD. 133
GRAPHENE SQUARE, INC. 133
GRAPHENE SUPERMARKET 133
GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 134
GRAPHENE WORKS INC. 134
GRAPHENEA 134
GRAPHENSIC AB 135
GRAPHITE ZERO 135
HARBIN MULAN FOREIGN ECONOMIC AND TRADE CO. 135
HAYDALE 136
HRL LABORATORIES LLC 136
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP. 136
NANOTEK INSTRUMENTS INC. 137
NINGBO MORSH TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. 137
NORTHERN GRAPHITE CORP. 138
QUANTUM MATERIALS CORP. 138
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO. LTD. 138
SINODE SYSTEMS 139
UNIDYM 139
VORBECK MATERIALS 139
XG SCIENCES INC. 140
XOLVE INC. 140
ZS GENETICS INC. 141

CHAPTER 17 APPENDIX: PATENTS 143

TABLE 26 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH AUGUST 6, 2013 FOR
GRAPHENE-RELATED INVENTIONS 143



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 GRAPHENE PROPERTIES 17
TABLE 2 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND END USES OF GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES 21
TABLE 3 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE BY APPLICATION THROUGH 2023 ($
MILLIONS) 25
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 45
TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MEMORY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 58
TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THERMAL INTERFACE MATERIALS (TIMS)
CONTAINING GRAPHENE, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 65
TABLE 9 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 10 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SENSING APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 11 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 12 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR NON-IMAGE SENSING APPLICATIONS
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED TERAHERTZ (THZ) IMAGING
TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 14 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISPLAY APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 15 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 16 TYPES OF CARBON NANOTUBE AND FULLERENE COMPOSITES AND THEIR
PROPERTIES 103
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES THROUGH 2023
($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 18 GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OTHER APPLICATIONS THROUGH 2023 ($
MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS/%) 112
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS IN FUEL CELLS AND
BATTERIES, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF PLATINUM CATALYST MATERIALS AND
NANOSTRUCTURED SUPPORT MATERIALS USED IN FUEL CELLS, THROUGH 2023 ($
MILLIONS)
120
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE CATALYST SUPPORT MATERIALS
THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
CONTRAST AGENTS, THROUGH 2023 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE LOUDSPEAKER DIAPHRAGMS, THROUGH
2023 ($ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 26 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH AUGUST 6, 2013 FOR
GRAPHENE-RELATED INVENTIONS 143



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE-BASED PRODUCTS 2012-2023
($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE, 2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 24
FIGURE 2 GRAPHENE APPLICATION SEGMENTS, 2012-2023 (% OF TOTAL MARKET) 26
FIGURE 3 TREND IN NUMBER OF U.S. GRAPHENE PATENTS ISSUED ANNUALLY, PRE
2003-2013 29
FIGURE 4 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE-BASIC AND PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
VERSUS TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATIONS TO AUGUST 6, 2013 (%) 30
FIGURE 5 U.S. PATENTS FOR GRAPHENE APPLICATIONS BY TYPE THROUGH AUGUST
6, 2013 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 30
FIGURE 6 MAJOR GRAPHENE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PORTFOLIOS (NUMBER OF
U.S. PATENTS) 31
FIGURE 7 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT HOLDERS/ASSIGNEES BY TYPE OF ENTITY
THROUGH AUGUST 6, 2013 (% OF PATENTS ISSUED) 33
FIGURE 8 U.S. GRAPHENE PATENT AND PATENT APPLICATION HOLDERS BY
NATIONALITY, AS OF AUGUST 6, 2013 (%/NUMBER OF PATENTS) 33
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GRAPHENE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES 2012-2023
($ MILLIONS) 45
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS,
2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 60
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS 2012-2023
($ MILLIONS) 67
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE-BASED SENSORS, 2012-2023 ($ MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE CAPACITIVE APPLICATIONS 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 95
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SALES OF GRAPHENE-POLYMER COMPOSITES, 2012-2023 ($
MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 15 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES WITH PRODUCTION OR
ACTIVE R andD ACTIVITIES IN GRAPHENE (NO. OF COMPANIES) 125

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Machine-to-machine (M2M) represents a strong growth market across various industry segments. The market will grow to 3.4 billion connections worldwide by 2024, at a CAGR of 19%. Security and fleet management ...

Photonic Sensors and Detectors: Technologies and Global Markets

Photonic Sensors and Detectors: Technologies and Global Markets

  • $ 6 650
  • Industry report
  • August 2014
  • by BCC Research

This BCC Research report discusses the important elements of the photonic sensor and detector market such as technology, application, geography, major manufacturers and factors influencing demand. It also ...

Nanoparticles in Biotechnology, Drug Development and Drug Delivery

Nanoparticles in Biotechnology, Drug Development and Drug Delivery

  • $ 6 650
  • Industry report
  • August 2014
  • by BCC Research

This BCC Research report provides detailed product analyses within health and wellness subsegments to overall industry trends in order to quantify and qualify the market for drug products for treating ...

Global Markets For Transformers

September 2014 $ 6 650

5 Companies

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