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Global Markets for Friction Products and Materials

  • June 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 215 pages

This BCC Research report covers both original equipment (OE) markets and the aftermarket. Its objectives include a thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the friction products and materials business, as well as assessments of new and potential products that companies are developing. Forecasts provided through 2020.

Use this report to:
- Gain information about potential business opportunities in the future for global friction products markets
- Receive information on social, political, and regulatory issues.
- Review the friction materials and products industry and its structure, and the many companies involved in providing these materials and technologies
- Gain information about the underlying economic issues driving the friction products and materials business

Highlights
- The global friction products and materials market was valued at $17.2 billion in 2014. This market is projected to grow from $18.0 billion in 2015 to $23.3 billion in 2020, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3% from 2015 to 2020.
- The ground transportation sector is expected to increase from $8.8 billion in 2015 to $11.4 billion in 2020, a CAGR of 5.4% from 2015 to 2020.
- Industrial and other, as a sector, is expected to increase from $7.4 billion in 2015 to nearly $9.4 billion in 2020 with a CAGR of 4.9% from 2015 to 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report is an updated edition of a study published by BCC Research in 2013. Its goal is to provide a detailed and comprehensive study of the global market for friction products and materials in light vehicles, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, aircraft and other industrial applications, as well as potential business opportunities in the future. The report covers both original equipment (OE) markets and the aftermarket. Its
objectives include a thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the friction products and materials business, as well as assessments of new and potential products that companies are developing. Social, political and regulatory issues are also covered, as are international markets. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for friction products and materials.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
BCC Research’s last technical market study on friction products and materials, was published in mid-2013. Since then, the friction material market has continued to evolve as a result of the slow and uneven recovery from the 2008 to 2009 recession in most of the developed markets and the faltering growth of customer industries in emerging markets such as China and India. The friction materials industry is still relatively secretive and as such it is very difficult to obtain solid information on how much of these materials are being sold and where. There are very few sources concerning friction materials, and they present a most
incomplete picture. Estimates for the size of the friction materials market are scarce, although a number of companies have shown interest in the market. This report is designed to meet the need for up-to-date intelligence on the size and structure of the global friction products industry.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
The potential audience for this study includes marketing executives, business unit managers and other decision-makers for friction products and materials companies. Technology suppliers, suppliers of plastic resins and other materials, and other companies involved in this business also represent a key audience.

SCOPE OF REPORT
The scope of this report is comprehensive, covering the present status of and future prospects for OE/aftermarket friction materials and products in North America (i.e., the United States and Canada), Western Europe, Japan, China, India and other global markets. The North American market is covered in the greatest detail. The report covers diverse segments such as light vehicles, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, the automotive aftermarket, aircraft/aerospace, construction and other off-road equipment and various industrial applications. These segments are analyzed in detail are technology developments, market conditions and opportunities, and five-year forecasts. The role of new technologies is reviewed in this comprehensive report. In order to generate the information necessary to construct a reasonable future market for friction materials, it is necessary to undertake an examination of the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of materials. In particular, environmental concerns are very significant for some types of friction materials. This report covers two types of friction materials:
- Dry friction materials such as non-asbestos organic (NAO), semi-metallic, low-metallic and asbestos friction materials.
- Wet-friction materials such as paper products.

In addition to various friction materials and products, the report also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the business, including corporate strategies, technologies and the means for providing these products and service offerings. It also covers in detail the social, political, regulatory and economic issues that so many regard as critical to the industry’s current state of change. The report provides a review of the friction materials and products industry and its structure, and the many companies involved in providing these materials and technologies. The competitive position of the main players in the market and the strategic options they face are also discussed, as well as competitive factors such as marketing, distribution and operations.

The values presented in the forecast tables represent the value of the friction products purchased by the OE manufacturers and other industrial companies. These measure value at the point of apparent consumption, regardless of where the friction product was manufactured. For materials, the values represent those paid by the friction product manufacturers. The volume data represent the consumption of these materials
by the friction product manufacturers at the point of manufacture for these products, regardless of where the product is sold and used.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Initially, a comprehensive and exhaustive search of the literature on friction materials and products was conducted. These secondary sources included automotive and related journals and books, trade literature, marketing literature, other product/promotional literature, annual reports, security analyst reports and other publications. In a second phase, a series of semi-structured interviews was conducted with
marketing executives, engineers, business unit managers, design engineers and other personnel at the friction materials and products companies. Other sources included academics, technology and materials suppliers, technical experts, trade association officials, government officials and consulting companies.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets for Friction Products and Materials
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET
OUTLOOK BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET
OUTLOOK BY SECTOR, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 12
OVERVIEW 12
HISTORY OF FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS 12
TABLE 1 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY SHOWED LITTLE
CHANGE BEFORE THE MID-1960S 13
TABLE 2 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY CHANGED IN THE
MID-1960 13
WHAT IS A FRICTION MATERIAL? 14
THE SCIENCE OF FRICTION 15
TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE FRICTIONAL COEFFICIENT 16
TESTING 17
PRODUCTION OF FRICTION MATERIALS 17
SOFT BATCH 17
MOLDING 18
TRUCK BLOCK 18
CURING 18
BONDING 18
SCORCHING 18
INTEGRALLY MOLDED BRAKES 19
BRAKE INGREDIENTS 19
FIBERS IN COMPOSITES 19
EMPHASIS ON REDUCING COSTS 20
TABLE 3 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF NAO FRICTION MATERIALS 21
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 21
REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS 22
HEALTH EFFECTS OF ASBESTOS 23
HISTORY OF ASBESTOS LEGISLATION 24
TABLE 4 PRODUCTS THAT CANNOT CONTAIN ASBESTOS AFTER 1996 25
TABLE 5 LIST OF PRODUCTS THAT CAN STILL CONTAIN ASBESTOS 25
USE OF ASBESTOS IN MATERIALS 26
REGULATIONS DEALING WITH THE ENVIRONMENT 27
REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRIES 29
Increased Calls for Regulation of the Automotive Aftermarket 29
Threat of Litigation 30
ROLE OF ASSOCIATIONS 30
Friction Materials Standards Institute 31
Brake Manufacturers Council 31
ASBESTOS LITIGATION AND LIABILITY 32
CHAPTER 4 FRICTION MATERIALS 34
OVERVIEW 34
TABLE 6 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET*, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 7 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET*, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION LBS) 35
FRICTION PRODUCTS CONSTRUCTION 35
DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 36
TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE FOUR TYPES OF DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 36
NAO Friction Products 37
TABLE 9 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL NAO FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 37
TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF FIBERS USED IN NAO BRAKE PADS 38
TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NAO BRAKE PADS AND BLOCKS 39
Semi-metallic Friction Products 40
TABLE 12 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A SEMI-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 40
TABLE 13 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORDINARY SEMI-METALLIC PADS AND
HEAVY-DUTY SEMI-METALLIC PADS 41
TABLE 14 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SEMI-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH NAO FRICTION PRODUCTS 42
Low-Metallic Products 42
TABLE 15 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A LOW-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 43
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LOW-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS 44
Friction Modifiers 44
TABLE 17 TYPES OF MATERIALS USED FOR FRICTION MODIFIERS (%) 44
Resins 46
WET FRICTION PRODUCTS 46
Paper Friction 46
TABLE 18 COMMONLY USED RAW MATERIALS IN PAPER-BASED FRICTION
PRODUCTS (RANKED IN APPROXIMATE ORDER OF USE) 47
TABLE 19 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WET PAPER FRICTION
MATERIALS COMPARED WITH DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 47
TABLE 20 REASONS WHY WET FRICTION MATERIALS ARE MORE DURABLE THAN
DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 48
TABLE 21 REASONS WHY THE WET PAPER FRICTION PRODUCTS MARKET SHOULD
NOT INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY 49
Sintered Metal 49
TABLE 22 REASONS WHY SINTERED METAL FRICTION PRODUCTS ARE NOT USED IN
TRUCK BRAKING APPLICATIONS 49
ARAMID FIBERS 50
TABLE 23 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS 51
TABLE 24 REASONS AGAINST USING ADDITIONAL ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
MATERIALS 52
TABLE 25 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 53
GLASS FIBERS 53
TABLE 26 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-GLASS IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS 55
TABLE 27 DISADVANTAGES OF THE SMOOTHNESS OF E-GLASS FIBERS 56
TABLE 28 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GLASS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 56
METAL FIBERS 57
TABLE 29 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR METAL FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 57
CARBON FIBERS 58
TABLE 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES 58
TABLE 31 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 59
OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS 60
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE FIBERS 61
TABLE 32 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR MMC FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 61
PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBERS 62
TABLE 33 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POA FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 62
OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS 63
TABLE 34 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 63
Carbon-Silicon Carbide 64
Miscellaneous Advanced Fibers 64
ASBESTOS FIBERS 65
TABLE 35 PROPERTIES OF ASBESTOS FIBERS 65
TABLE 36 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL ASBESTOS-BASED FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 66
TABLE 37 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 68
PHENOLIC RESINS 68
TABLE 38 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PHENOLIC RESIN 69
TABLE 39 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR PHENOLIC RESINS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 70
GRAPHITIC MATERIALS 71
TABLE 40 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GRAPHITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 72
WOLLASTONITE 73
TABLE 41 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR WOLLASTONITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 73
OTHER MATERIALS 74
TABLE 42 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER MATERIALS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 74
CHAPTER 5 FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MARKETS 78
OVERVIEW 78
TABLE 43 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 78
TRUCK DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 79
TRUCK INDUSTRY DYNAMICS 79
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2005-2020
(THOUSAND UNITS) 80
TRUCK BRAKE SELECTION 80
TRUCK BRAKE FRICTION MATERIALS 81
TABLE 44 APPLICATIONS OF FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN TRUCKS 81
FIGURE 2 AVERAGE PRICES FOR THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS IN
STANDARD APPLICATIONS ($/LB) 82
FIGURE 3 MARKET SHARES OF THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS (%) 83
Safety Considerations 83
Brake Block vs. Lining 84
Jacob's Brake 85
CLUTCH FACINGS 85
MEDIUM TRUCK BRAKES 86
TABLE 45 PROBLEMS WITH AVAILABLE FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM TRUCK
DRUM BRAKES 86
FIGURE 4 MEDIUM TRUCK BRAKES BY TYPE (%) 87
TABLE 46 FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN MEDIUM TRUCK APPLICATIONS 88
HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS 89
OUTLOOK 91
TABLE 47 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR DRY FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM- AND
HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS BY MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 91
SUPPLIERS 91
Foundation Brakes 92
FIGURE 5 MARKET SHARE OF NORTH AMERICAN TRAILER AXLE PRODUCERS, 2014
(%) 93
Medium Trucks 93
Large Trucks 94
AUTOMOTIVE DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 94
BRIEF HISTORY OF FRICTION PRODUCTS IN AUTOMOBILES 95
TABLE 48 FACTORS NECESSITATING IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMOBILE BRAKES 95
TABLE 49 AUTOMOBILE BUYERS' REQUIREMENTS FOR BRAKES 96
DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE BRAKING 97
Market Forces Affecting Longevity of Brake Pads 98
Noise in Brake Pads 99
TABLE 50 REASONS THAT BRAKE PADS CAUSE NOISE 99
TYPES OF BRAKES 99
TABLE 51 COMPARISON OF DISC VERSUS DRUM BRAKES 100
Disc Brakes 100
TABLE 52 DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING FORCE IN AUTOMOBILES (%) 101
Drum Brakes 101
AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE OUTLOOK 102
TABLE 53 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION UNITS) 102
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 1995-2020 (MILLION UNITS) 102
TABLE 54 LIGHT-VEHICLE OEM DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL
AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/MILLION UNITS) 103
AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET IN BRAKE PADS 104
Aftermarket Brake Use Patterns 104
TABLE 55 EXPECTED LIFETIME DISTANCES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FRICTION
MATERIALS (MILES) 105
Aftermarket Materials Selection 105
Light-Vehicle Ownership Trends 106
Aftermarket Brake Outlook 108
TABLE 56 LIGHT-VEHICLE DRY FRICTION AFTERMARKET OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL
AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE SUPPLIERS 109
Automotive OE Brakes 109
Automotive Aftermarket Brakes 110
TABLE 57 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET AND OE
FRICTION MANUFACTURERS 111
AVIATION/AEROSPACE DRY FRICTION 112
BRAKE CONSTRUCTION 112
AEROSPACE MARKET DYNAMICS 113
FIGURE 7 LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2014-2020 (NUMBER) 113
MARKET OUTLOOK 115
TABLE 58 AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE DRY FRICTION OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 115
SUPPLIERS 116
INDUSTRIAL DRY FRICTION 116
TABLE 59 INDUSTRIAL DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY APPLICATION AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 117
RAILWAY 117
OIL WELLS 118
CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY 119
APPLIANCES 120
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY 121
WET FRICTION 122
AUTOMOTIVE WET FRICTION 122
TABLE 60 FRICTION MATERIAL COMPONENTS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS ($) 123
TABLE 61 AUTOMOTIVE WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 124
CONSTRUCTION WET FRICTION 125
TABLE 62 CONSTRUCTION WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 125
OTHER WET FRICTION 126
TABLE 63 COMPARISON OF MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS 126
TABLE 64 OTHER WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF CLUTCH BUTTONS BY MARKET SHARE,
2014 (%) 128
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF MEDIUM TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS BY
MARKET SHARE, 2014 (%) 128
AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCHES 130
TABLE 65 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NEW VERSUS REBUILT
CLUTCHES IN THE AFTERMARKET 131
CHAPTER 6 INTERNATIONAL MARKETS 133
OVERVIEW 133
TABLE 66 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS OUTLOOK BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 133
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCT MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%) 134
NORTH AMERICA 135
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
WESTERN EUROPE 136
TABLE 68 ADVANCES IN BRAKING SYSTEMS MADE POPULAR IN EUROPE 136
TABLE 69 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN
MARKETS 137
FIGURE 11 WESTERN EUROPE FRICTION PRODUCT MARKETS BY NATION, 2014 (%) 138
TABLE 70 WESTERN EUROPEAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 140
JAPAN 140
TABLE 71 JAPANESE FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 141
CHINA 141
TABLE 72 CHINA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 142
INDIA 142
TABLE 73 INDIA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 143
REST OF THE WORLD 143
TABLE 74 REST OF THE WORLD'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 144
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND STRATEGIC CHANGES 147
OVERVIEW 147
INDUSTRY HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 147
TABLE 75 STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION MATERIALS
MARKET 148
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF INNOVATION 149
TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES 149
FUNDING OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 149
UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CENTERS 150
FUTURE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN FRICTION MATERIALS 151
MANUFACTURING STRATEGIES 152
SCALE ECONOMIES AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION 152
LABOR 153
COST STRUCTURE 153
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE 154
MARKETING 154
PRICING AND BARGAINING POWER 154
MARKET SEGMENTATION 155
DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES 155
RELATIONS WITH OEM CUSTOMERS 156
GLOBAL MARKETING 157
DISTRIBUTION 158
OTHER MARKETING 159
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 160
TYPES OF COMPANIES 161
CONCENTRATION 161
CONSOLIDATION 162
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 165
NORTH AMERICAN COMPANIES 165
ABS FRICTION CORP. 165
ALL FRICTIONS CO. 165
ALTO PRODUCTS CORP. 166
AUSCO PRODUCTS INC. 166
BORGWARNER INC. 166
CARLISLE BRAKE AND FRICTION 167
CECO FRICTION PRODUCTS INC. 168
CHAMPION TECHNOLOGIES INC. 168
CLEVELAND OAK INC. 168
COOK BONDING and MANUFACTURING CO. INC. 169
DANA HOLDING CORP. 169
DELTA FRICTION 169
EATON AIRFLEX 170
FDP FRICTION SCIENCE 170
FEDERAL-MOGUL CORP. 171
FEROTEC FRICTION 172
FORMSPRAG CLUTCH 172
GMP FRICTION PRODUCTS 172
GREAT LAKES FRICTION PRODUCT INC. 173
HAWKHEAD AUTOMOTIVE INC. 173
HIBBING INTERNATIONAL FRICTION 173
HITCO CARBON COMPOSITES INC. 174
INDUSTRIAL BRAKE and SUPPLY 174
ITT CORP. 174
LOGAN CLUTCH CORP. 175
MACH III CLUTCH INC. 175
MATERIAL SCIENCES CORP. 176
MEGGITT AIRCRAFT BRAKING SYSTEMS 176
MERITOR INC. 177
MIDWEST BRAKE 178
NUCAP INDUSTRIES INC. 178
OE QUALITY FRICTION INC. 179
PERFORMANCE FRICTION CORP. 179
PHOENIX FRICTION PRODUCTS INC. 179
PROTEC FRICTION GROUP 180
PT TECH 180
QUALITOR INC. 180
REDCO MANUFACTURING CO. INC. 181
REXNORD INDUSTRIAL SERVICES. 181
THE ROWLAND CO. 182
SCAN-PAC MANUFACTURING INC. 182
SEPAC INC. 183
STARFIRE SYSTEMS INC. 183
TEK-MOTIVE INC. 183
THERMOSET FRICTION MATERIAL SPECIALISTS 184
TRIBCO INC. 184
UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 185
WABTEC CORP. 185
WESTROCK CO. 186
WHEELING BRAKE AND CLUTCH 186
ZF TRW AUTOMOTIVE 187
WESTERN EUROPEAN COMPANIES 187
BECORIT GMBH 188
ROBERT BOSCH GMBH 188
BREMBO S.P.A. 189
BREMSKERL REIBBELAGWERKE EMMERLING GMBH and CO. KG 189
CONTINENTAL AG 190
EUROPEAN FRICTION INDUSTRIES LTD. 191
FENNER PRECISION 191
FRENOS SAULEDA S.A. 192
HALDEX AB 192
ICER BRAKES S.A. 192
INDUSTRIAL CLUTCH PARTS LTD. 193
KNORR-BREMSE AG 193
LUK GMBH and CO. OHG 194
MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY 195
METELLI SPA 195
MIBA AG 196
ORTLINGHAUS-WERKE GMBH 196
ROULUNDS BRAKING HOLDINGS APS 196
SGL CARBON SE 197
SIMER SRL 197
STS FRICTION GMBH 198
TARONI and C. S.A.S. 198
TMD FRICTION HOLDING GMBH 198
UTIL INDUSTRIES 199
WINNARD LTD. 200
JAPANESE COMPANIES 200
ADVICS CO. LTD. 200
AISIN SEIKI CO. LTD. 201
AKEBONO BRAKE INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 201
ASKTECHNICA CO. LTD. 202
FUJI BRAKE INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 202
HOSEI BRAKE INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 203
JAPAN BRAKE INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD. 203
MK KASHIYAMA CORP. 204
NISSHINBO HOLDINGS INC. 204
VESRAH CO. INC. 205
CHINESE COMPANIES 205
ASIMCO MELIAN BRAKING SYSTEMS (LANDFANG) CO. LTD. 205
CIXI ORIENTAL FRICTION PRODUCTS CO. LTD. 205
DANAHER AUTO SPARE PART CO. LTD. 206
DONGYING XINYI AUTO FITTING CO. LTD. 206
FANGTIAN INDUSTRIES CO. LTD. 206
FUJIAN GUANLEAN AUTOMOTIVE PARTS INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 207
HANGZHOU CHANGMING FRICTION MATERIAL CO. LTD. 207
HANGZHOU FEIYANG AUTOPARTS CO. LTD. 207
HANGZHOU HANGCHENG FRICTION MATERIAL CO. LTD. 207
HANGZHOU QIANJIANG FRICTION MATERIAL CO. LTD. 208
HANGZHOU YUHANG AUTO PARTS CO. LTD. 208
HENGSHUI LONGXIN FRICTION MATERIALS CO. LTD. 208
HUBEI FEILONG FRICTION AND SEALING MATERIALS CO. LTD. 209
NINGBO XIANGSHENG FRICTION MATERIAL CO. LTD. 209
SHANDONG DOUBLE LINK BRAKE MATERIAL CO. LTD. 209
SHANDONG GOLD PHOENIX GROUP CO. LTD. 210
SHANDONG LONGJI GROUP CO. LTD. 210
SHENZHEN YUEXINCHI TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. 210
ZAOYANG FU XING FRICTION MATERIAL CO. LTD. 211
INDIAN COMPANIES 211
ANAND AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS LTD. 211
ASK AUTOMOTIVE PVT. LTD. 212
AVS BRAKE LININGS PVT. LTD. 212
BIC AUTO PVT LTD. 213
BRAKEWEL AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS INDIA LTD. 213
CO-EFF FRICTION BANDS LTD. 213
HINDUSTAN COMPOSITES LTD. 214
MASU BRAKES PVT. LTD. 214
RANE BRAKE LINING LTD. 214
SUNDARAM BRAKE LININGS LTD. 215
SUPER CIRCLE AUTO LTD. 215
OTHER COMPANIES 215
DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING LTD. LLC. 216
EGAR S.A. 216
FBK AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS MALAYSIA SDN BHD 216
FERMIT S.A. 217
FRAS-LE S.A. 217
FRENO SA 217
FRICCION S.R.L. 218
FRICCION Y TECNOLOGIA S.A. DE C.V. 218
GUNG LUN ENTERPRISE CO. LTD. 218
HUAN DAH INTERNATIONAL CO. LTD. 219
INCOLBESTOS S.A. 219
INDUBAL S.A.C. 219
KOREA BERAL CO. LTD. 220
LUMAG SP. Z.O.O. 220
MAMUSA 220
MINTYE INDUSTRIES BHD. 221
NAN HOANG TRAFFIC INSTRUMENT CO. LTD. 221
REPUESTOS COLOMBIANOS S.A. 221
SB SANGSIN BRAKE 222
S.C.H. INDUSTRY CO. LTD. 222
TAIWAN BRAKE TECHNOLOGY CORP. 222
ZF SACHS SLOVAKIA A.S. 223

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET OUTLOOK
BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY SHOWED LITTLE
CHANGE BEFORE THE MID-1960S 13
TABLE 2 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY CHANGED IN THE
MID-1960 13
TABLE 3 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF NAO FRICTION MATERIALS 21
TABLE 4 PRODUCTS THAT CANNOT CONTAIN ASBESTOS AFTER 1996 25
TABLE 5 LIST OF PRODUCTS THAT CAN STILL CONTAIN ASBESTOS 25
TABLE 6 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET*, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 7 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET*, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION LBS) 35
TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE FOUR TYPES OF DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 36
TABLE 9 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL NAO FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 37
TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF FIBERS USED IN NAO BRAKE PADS 38
TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NAO BRAKE PADS AND BLOCKS 39
TABLE 12 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A SEMI-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 40
TABLE 13 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORDINARY SEMI-METALLIC PADS AND
HEAVY-DUTY SEMI-METALLIC PADS 41
TABLE 14 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SEMI-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH NAO FRICTION PRODUCTS 42
TABLE 15 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A LOW-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 43
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LOW-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS 44
TABLE 17 TYPES OF MATERIALS USED FOR FRICTION MODIFIERS (%) 44
TABLE 18 COMMONLY USED RAW MATERIALS IN PAPER-BASED FRICTION PRODUCTS
(RANKED IN APPROXIMATE ORDER OF USE) 47
TABLE 19 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WET PAPER FRICTION MATERIALS
COMPARED WITH DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 47
TABLE 20 REASONS WHY WET FRICTION MATERIALS ARE MORE DURABLE THAN DRY
FRICTION PRODUCTS 48
TABLE 21 REASONS WHY THE WET PAPER FRICTION PRODUCTS MARKET SHOULD
NOT INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY 49
TABLE 22 REASONS WHY SINTERED METAL FRICTION PRODUCTS ARE NOT USED IN
TRUCK BRAKING APPLICATIONS 49
TABLE 23 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS 51
TABLE 24 REASONS AGAINST USING ADDITIONAL ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
MATERIALS 52
TABLE 25 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 53
TABLE 26 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-GLASS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS 55
TABLE 27 DISADVANTAGES OF THE SMOOTHNESS OF E-GLASS FIBERS 56
TABLE 28 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GLASS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 56
TABLE 29 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR METAL FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 57
TABLE 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES 58
TABLE 31 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 32 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR MMC FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 33 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POA FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 34 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSANDS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 35 PROPERTIES OF ASBESTOS FIBERS 65
TABLE 36 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL ASBESTOS-BASED FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 66
TABLE 37 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 38 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PHENOLIC RESIN 69
TABLE 39 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR PHENOLIC RESINS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 40 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GRAPHITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 41 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR WOLLASTONITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 42 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER MATERIALS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLIONS OF LBS/$ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 43 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 44 APPLICATIONS OF FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN TRUCKS 81
TABLE 45 PROBLEMS WITH AVAILABLE FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM TRUCK
DRUM BRAKES 86
TABLE 46 FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN MEDIUM TRUCK APPLICATIONS 88
TABLE 47 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR DRY FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM- AND
HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS BY MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 91
TABLE 48 FACTORS NECESSITATING IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMOBILE BRAKES 95
TABLE 49 AUTOMOBILE BUYERS' REQUIREMENTS FOR BRAKES 96
TABLE 50 REASONS THAT BRAKE PADS CAUSE NOISE 99
TABLE 51 COMPARISON OF DISC VERSUS DRUM BRAKES 100
TABLE 52 DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING FORCE IN AUTOMOBILES (%) 101
TABLE 53 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION UNITS) 102
TABLE 54 LIGHT-VEHICLE OEM DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL
AND REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/MILLION UNITS) 103
TABLE 55 EXPECTED LIFETIME DISTANCES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FRICTION
MATERIALS (MILES) 105
TABLE 56 LIGHT-VEHICLE DRY FRICTION AFTERMARKET OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 57 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET AND OE
FRICTION MANUFACTURERS 111
TABLE 58 AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE DRY FRICTION OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 59 INDUSTRIAL DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY APPLICATION AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 117
TABLE 60 FRICTION MATERIAL COMPONENTS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS ($) 123
TABLE 61 AUTOMOTIVE WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 62 CONSTRUCTION WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND
REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 125
TABLE 63 COMPARISON OF MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS 126
TABLE 64 OTHER WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 65 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NEW VERSUS REBUILT CLUTCHES
IN THE AFTERMARKET 131
TABLE 66 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS OUTLOOK BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
TABLE 68 ADVANCES IN BRAKING SYSTEMS MADE POPULAR IN EUROPE 136
TABLE 69 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN
MARKETS 137
TABLE 70 WESTERN EUROPEAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 71 JAPANESE FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 72 CHINA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 73 INDIA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 74 REST OF THE WORLD'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 75 STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION MATERIALS
MARKET 148

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET
OUTLOOK BY SECTOR, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 9
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2005-2020
(THOUSAND UNITS) 80
FIGURE 2 AVERAGE PRICES FOR THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS IN
STANDARD APPLICATIONS ($/LB) 82
FIGURE 3 MARKET SHARES OF THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS (%) 83
FIGURE 4 MEDIUM TRUCK BRAKES BY TYPE (%) 87
FIGURE 5 MARKET SHARE OF NORTH AMERICAN TRAILER AXLE PRODUCERS, 2014
(%) 93
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 1995-2020 (MILLION UNITS) 102
FIGURE 7 LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2014-2020 (NUMBER) 113
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF CLUTCH BUTTONS BY MARKET SHARE,
2014 (%) 128
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF MEDIUM TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS BY
MARKET SHARE, 2014 (%) 128
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCT MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%) 134
FIGURE 11 WESTERN EUROPE FRICTION PRODUCT MARKETS BY NATION, 2014 (%) 138

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