Global Markets for Friction Products and Materials

  • November 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 219 pages

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is an updated edition of a study published by BCC Research in 2012. Its goal is to provide a detailed and comprehensive study of the global market for friction products and materials in light vehicles, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, aircraft, and other industrial applications, as well as potential business opportunities in the future. The report covers both original equipment (OE) markets and the aftermarket. Its objectives include a thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the friction products and materials business, as well as assessments of new and potential products that companies are developing. Social, political, and regulatory issues are also covered, as are international markets. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for friction products and materials.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

BCC Research’s last technical market study on friction products and materials, was published in mid-2012. Since then, the friction material market has continued to evolve, as a result of the slow and uneven recovery from the 2008 to 2009 recession in most of the developed markets, and the faltering growth of customer industries in emerging markets such as China and India.

The friction materials industry is still relatively secretive, and as such it is very difficult to obtain solid information on how much of these materials are being sold and where. There are very few sources concerning friction materials, and they have presented a most incomplete picture. Estimates for the size of the friction materials market have been few and far between, although a number of companies have shown interest in the market. This report is designed to meet the need for up-to-date intelligence on the size and structure of the global friction products industry.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The potential audience for this study includes marketing executives, business unit managers, and other decision-makers for friction products and materials companies. Technology suppliers, suppliers of plastic resins and other materials, and other companies involved in this business also represent a key audience.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of this report is comprehensive, covering the present status of and future prospects for original equipment (OE)/aftermarket friction materials and products in North America (i.e., the United States and Canada), Western Europe, Japan, China, India, and other global markets. The North American market is covered in the greatest detail. The report covers diverse segments such as light vehicles, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, the automotive aftermarket, aircraft/aerospace, construction and other off-road equipment, and various industrial applications. These are analyzed in detail as well as technology developments, market conditions and opportunities, and 5-year forecasts. The role of new technologies is reviewed in this comprehensive report.

In order to generate the information necessary to construct a reasonable future market for friction materials, it is necessary to undertake an examination of the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of materials. In particular, environmental concerns are very significant for some types of friction materials. This report covers two types of friction materials:
• Dry friction materials, such as non-asbestos organic (NAO), semi-metallic, low-metallic, and asbestos friction materials.
• Wet-friction materials such as paper products.

In addition to various friction materials and products, the report also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the business, including corporate strategies, technologies, and the means for providing these products and service offerings. It also covers in detail the social, political, regulatory, and economic issues that so many regard as critical to the industry’s current state of change. The report provides a review of the friction materials and products industry and its structure, and the many companies involved in providing these materials and technologies. The competitive position of the main players in the market and the strategic options they face are also discussed, as well as such competitive factors as marketing, distribution, and operations.

The values presented in the forecast tables represent the value of the friction products purchased by the OE manufacturers and other industrial companies. These measure value at the point of apparent consumption, regardless of where the friction product was manufactured. For materials, the values represent those paid by the friction product manufacturers. The volume data represent the consumption of these materials by the friction product manufacturers at the point of manufacture for these products, regardless of where the product is sold and used.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Initially, a comprehensive and exhaustive search of the literature on friction materials and products was conducted. These secondary sources included automotive and related journals and books, trade literature, marketing literature, other product/promotional literature, annual reports, security analyst reports, and other publications.

In a second phase, a series of semi-structured interviews was conducted with marketing executives, engineers, business unit managers, design engineers, and other personnel at the friction materials and products companies. Other sources included academics, technology, and materials suppliers, technical experts, trade association officials, government officials, and consulting companies.

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS

The author of the original BCC Research study on which this report is based, Calvin Swift, has more than 25 years of experience in competitive intelligence, industrial market research, planning and marketing at major corporations, market research consultancies, and think tanks. He advises and briefs management about economic and industry conditions, strategic developments, and the effects of proposed developments in plastics, metals, and other materials. The author has employed scenario analysis to investigate and research the future of industry to identify the impact of globalization, consolidation, demographics, changing industry structure, and technological innovation. His particular interest lies in the interaction of strategy, economic and industry developments, and innovation. He holds a BA and a MS degree in industrial economics, and has completed other studies in business administration.

The analyst responsible for updating the report is Andrew McWilliams, a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel, LLC. Mr. McWilliams is the author of numerous other BCC studies of advanced materials and their applications, including:
• AVM038E Advanced Structural Carbon Products: Fibers, Foams and Composites.
• AVM056C Lightweight Materials in Transportation.
• AVM015F High-Performance Ceramic Coatings: Markets and Technologies.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global friction products and materials market reached nearly $14.4 billion in 2012. This market is expected to grow to $15.1 billion in 2013 and $20.2 billion in 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.0% for the five-year period, 2013 to 2018.

This report provides:
• An overview of the global market for friction products and materials in light vehicles, medium- and heavy-duty trucks, aircraft, and other industrial applications
• Analyses of market trends with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) for the five year period, 2013 to 2018
• An analysis of the friction market's drivers as well as constraints
• Information on industry structure as well as social, political and regulatory issues
• Comprehensive company profiles of key players in the market.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH ON-LINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET
OUTLOOK BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET
OUTLOOK BY SECTOR, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 10

CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC, AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 12

OVERVIEW 12
HISTORY OF FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS 12
TABLE 1 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY SHOWED LITTLE
CHANGE BEFORE THE MID-1960S 13
TABLE 2 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY CHANGED IN THE
MID-1960S 14
WHAT IS A FRICTION MATERIAL? 15
THE SCIENCE OF FRICTION 15
TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE FRICTIONAL COEFFICIENT 16
TESTING 17
PRODUCTION OF FRICTION MATERIALS 17
SOFT BATCH 18
MOLDING 18
TRUCK BLOCK 18
CURING 18
BONDING 18
SCORCHING 19
INTEGRALLY MOLDED BRAKES 19
BRAKE INGREDIENTS 19
FIBERS IN COMPOSITES 20
THE EMPHASIS ON REDUCING COSTS 20
TABLE 3 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF NAO FRICTION MATERIALS 21
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES 21
REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS 22
HEALTH EFFECTS OF ASBESTOS 23
HISTORY OF ASBESTOS LEGISLATION 24
TABLE 4 PRODUCTS THAT CANNOT CONTAIN ASBESTOS AFTER 1996 25
TABLE 5 LIST OF PRODUCTS THAT CAN STILL CONTAIN ASBESTOS 26
THE USE OF ASBESTOS IN MATERIALS 26
REGULATIONS DEALING WITH THE ENVIRONMENT 27
REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRIES 29
Increased Calls for Regulation of the Automotive Aftermarket 29
The Threat of Litigation 30
THE ROLE OF ASSOCIATIONS 31
Friction Materials Standards Institute 31
Brake Manufacturers Council 31
ASBESTOS LITIGATION AND LIABILITY 32

CHAPTER 4 FRICTION MATERIALS 34

OVERVIEW 34
TABLE 6 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET*, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 7 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET,* THROUGH 2018 (MILLION LBS) 35
FRICTION PRODUCTS CONSTRUCTION 35
DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 36
TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE FOUR TYPES OF DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 36
NAO Friction Products 37
TABLE 9 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL NAO FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 38
TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF FIBERS USED IN NAO BRAKE PADS 38
TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NAO BRAKE PADS AND BLOCKS 39
Semi-metallic Friction Products 40
TABLE 12 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A SEMI-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 41
TABLE 13 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORDINARY SEMI-METALLIC PADS AND HEAVY
DUTY SEMI-METALLIC PADS 41
TABLE 14 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SEMI-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH NAO FRICTION PRODUCTS 42
Low-Metallic Products 42
TABLE 15 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A LOW-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 43
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LOW-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS 43
Friction Modifiers 44
TABLE 17 TYPES OF MATERIALS USED FOR FRICTION MODIFIERS (%) 44
Resins 46
WET FRICTION PRODUCTS 46
Paper Friction 46
TABLE 18 COMMONLY USED RAW MATERIALS IN PAPER-BASED FRICTION
PRODUCTS 47
TABLE 19 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WET PAPER FRICTION
MATERIALS COMPARED WITH DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 47
TABLE 20 REASONS WHY WET FRICTION MATERIALS ARE MORE DURABLE THAN
DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 48
TABLE 21 REASONS WHY THE WET PAPER FRICTION PRODUCTS MARKET SHOULD
NOT INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY 49
Sintered Metal 49
TABLE 22 REASONS WHY SINTERED METAL FRICTION PRODUCTS ARE NOT USED IN
TRUCK BRAKING APPLICATIONS 49
ARAMID FIBERS 50
TABLE 23 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS 51
TABLE 24 REASONS AGAINST USING ADDITIONAL ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
MATERIALS 52
TABLE 25 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 53
GLASS FIBERS 53
TABLE 26 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-GLASS IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS 54
TABLE 27 DISADVANTAGES OF THE SMOOTHNESS OF E-GLASS FIBERS 55
TABLE 28 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GLASS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 56
METAL FIBERS 57
TABLE 29 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR METAL FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 57
CARBON FIBERS 58
TABLE 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES 59
TABLE 31 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 60
OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS 61
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE FIBERS 61
TABLE 32 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR MMC FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 62
PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBERS 62
TABLE 33 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POA FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS) 63
OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS 63
TABLE 34 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 64
Carbon-Silicon Carbide 64
Miscellaneous Advanced Fibers 65
ASBESTOS FIBERS 65
TABLE 35 PROPERTIES OF ASBESTOS FIBERS 66
TABLE 36 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL ASBESTOS-BASED FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 67
TABLE 37 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 68
PHENOLIC RESINS 69
TABLE 38 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PHENOLIC RESIN 70
TABLE 39 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR PHENOLIC RESINS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS) 71
GRAPHITIC MATERIALS 72
TABLE 40 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GRAPHITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 73
WOLLASTONITE 73
TABLE 41 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR WOLLASTONITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 74
OTHER MATERIALS 74
TABLE 42 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER MATERIALS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 75

CHAPTER 5 FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MARKETS 78

OVERVIEW 78
TABLE 43 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 78
TRUCK DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 79
TRUCK INDUSTRY DYNAMICS 79
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2003-2018
(THOUSAND UNITS) 79
TRUCK BRAKE SELECTION 80
TRUCK BRAKE FRICTION MATERIALS 81
TABLE 44 APPLICATIONS OF FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN TRUCKS 81
FIGURE 2 AVERAGE PRICES FOR THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS IN
STANDARD APPLICATIONS ($/POUND) 82
FIGURE 3 MARKET SHARES OF THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS (%) 83
Safety Considerations 83
Brake Block vs. Lining 84
Jacob's Brake 85
CLUTCH FACINGS 85
MEDIUM TRUCK BRAKES 86
TABLE 45 PROBLEMS WITH AVAILABLE FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM TRUCK
DRUM BRAKES 87
FIGURE 4 MEDIUM TRUCK BRAKES BY TYPE (%) 87
TABLE 46 FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN MEDIUM TRUCK APPLICATIONS 88
HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS 89
OUTLOOK 91
TABLE 47 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR DRY FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM- AND
HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS BY MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 91
SUPPLIERS 92
Foundation Brakes 92
FIGURE 5 MARKET SHARE OF NORTH AMERICAN TRAILER AXLE PRODUCERS (%) 92
Medium Trucks 93
Large Trucks 94
AUTOMOTIVE DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 94
A BRIEF HISTORY OF FRICTION PRODUCTS IN AUTOMOBILES 95
TABLE 48 FACTORS NECESSITATING IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMOBILE BRAKES 95
TABLE 49 AUTOMOBILE BUYERS’ REQUIREMENTS FOR BRAKES 96
DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE BRAKING 97
Market Forces Affecting Longevity of Brake Pads 98
Noise in Brake Pads 99
TABLE 50 REASONS THAT BRAKE PADS CAUSE NOISE 99
TYPES OF BRAKES 99
TABLE 51 COMPARISON OF DISC VERSUS DRUM BRAKES 100
Disc Brakes 100
TABLE 52 DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING FORCE IN AUTOMOBILES (%) 101
Drum Brakes 101
Automotive Brake Outlook 102
TABLE 53 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
(MILLION UNITS) 102
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 1989-2018 (MILLION UNITS) 102
TABLE 54 LIGHT-VEHICLE OEM DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL
AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/MILLION UNITS) 103
THE AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET IN BRAKE PADS 104
Aftermarket Brake Use Patterns 104
TABLE 55 EXPECTED LIFETIME DISTANCES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FRICTION
MATERIALS (MILES) 105
Aftermarket Materials Selection 105
Light-Vehicle Ownership Trends 106
Aftermarket Brake Outlook 108
TABLE 56 LIGHT-VEHICLE DRY FRICTION AFTERMARKET OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL
AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 108
AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE SUPPLIERS 109
Automotive OE Brakes 109
Automotive Aftermarket Brakes 110
TABLE 57 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET AND OE
FRICTION MANUFACTURERS 111
AVIATION/AEROSPACE DRY FRICTION 112
BRAKE CONSTRUCTION 112
AEROSPACE MARKET DYNAMICS 113
FIGURE 7 LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2012-2018 (NUMBER) 113
MARKET OUTLOOK 114
TABLE 58 AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE DRY FRICTION OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115
SUPPLIERS 115
INDUSTRIAL DRY FRICTION 116
TABLE 59 INDUSTRIAL DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY APPLICATION AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 116
RAILWAY 117
OIL WELLS 118
CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY 119
APPLIANCES 120
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY 120
WET FRICTION 121
AUTOMOTIVE WET FRICTION 122
TABLE 60 FRICTION MATERIAL COMPONENTS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS ($) 122
TABLE 61 AUTOMOTIVE WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 123
CONSTRUCTION WET FRICTION 124
TABLE 62 CONSTRUCTION WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 124
OTHER WET FRICTION 125
TABLE 63 COMPARISON OF MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS 125
TABLE 64 OTHER WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND REGION,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF CLUTCH BUTTONS BY MARKET SHARE,
2012 (%) 127
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF MEDIUM TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS BY
MARKET SHARE, 2012 (%) 128
AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCHES 129
TABLE 65 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NEW VERSUS REBUILT
CLUTCHES IN THE AFTERMARKET 130

CHAPTER 6 INTERNATIONAL MARKETS 132

OVERVIEW 132
TABLE 66 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS OUTLOOK BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCT MARKETS BY REGION, 2012 (%) 132
NORTH AMERICA 134
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 134
WESTERN EUROPE 135
TABLE 68 ADVANCES IN BRAKING SYSTEMS MADE POPULAR IN EUROPE 135
TABLE 69 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN
MARKETS 136
FIGURE 11 WESTERN EUROPE FRICTION PRODUCT MARKETS BY NATION, 2012 (%) 137
TABLE 70 WESTERN EUROPEAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 139
JAPAN 139
TABLE 71 JAPANESE FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 140
CHINA 140
TABLE 72 CHINA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 141
INDIA 141
TABLE 73 INDIA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 142
REST OF THE WORLD 142
TABLE 74 REST OF THE WORLD'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 143

CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND STRATEGIC CHANGES 146

OVERVIEW 146
INDUSTRY HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 146
TABLE 75 STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION MATERIALS
MARKET 147
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLE OF INNOVATION 148
TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES 148
FUNDING OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 148
UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CENTERS 149
THE FUTURE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN FRICTION MATERIALS 150
MANUFACTURING STRATEGIES 150
SCALE ECONOMIES AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION 151
LABOR 151
COST STRUCTURE 152
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE 153
MARKETING 153
PRICING AND BARGAINING POWER 153
MARKET SEGMENTATION 154
DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES 154
RELATIONS WITH OEM CUSTOMERS 155
GLOBAL MARKETING 156
DISTRIBUTION 157
OTHER MARKETING 158
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 159
TYPES OF COMPANIES 159
CONCENTRATION 160
CONSOLIDATION 161

CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 164

NORTH AMERICAN COMPANIES 164
ABS FRICTION CORP. 164
AFFINIA GROUP, INC. 164
ALL FRICTIONS CO. 165
ALTO PRODUCTS CORP. 166
AUSCO PRODUCTS, INC. 166
BORGWARNER, INC. 167
CAPITAL TOOL and DESIGN, LTD. 167
CARLISLE BRAKE AND FRICTION 168
CECO FRICTION PRODUCTS, INC. 168
CHAMPION TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 168
CLEVELAND OAK, INC. 169
THE CLINE CO. 169
CONI-SEAL, INC. 170
COOK BONDING and MANUFACTURING CO., INC. 170
DANA HOLDING CORP. 170
DELTA FRICTION 171
EATON AIRFLEX 171
FDP FRICTION SCIENCE 172
FEDERAL-MOGUL CORP. 172
FEROTEC FRICTION 173
FORMSPRAG CLUTCH 173
GMP FRICTION PRODUCTS 174
GREAT LAKES FRICTION PRODUCTS, INC. 174
HAWKHEAD AUTOMOTIVE, INC. 174
HIBBING INTERNATIONAL FRICTION 175
HITCO CARBON COMPOSITES, INC. 175
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL, INC. 175
INDUSTRIAL BRAKE and SUPPLY 176
ITT CORP. 177
LOGAN CLUTCH CORP. 177
MACH III CLUTCH, INC. 178
MATERIAL SCIENCES CORP. 178
MEGGIT AIRCRAFT BRAKING SYSTEMS 179
MERITOR, INC. 180
MIDWEST BRAKE 180
NUCAP INDUSTRIES, INC. 181
OE QUALITY FRICTION, INC. 181
PERFORMANCE FRICTION CORP. 181
PHOENIX FRICTION PRODUCTS, INC. 182
PROTEC FRICTION SUPPLY 182
PT TECH 183
QUALITOR, INC. 183
REDDAWAY MANUFACTURING CO., INC. 183
ROME TOOL and DIE CO. 184
THE ROWLAND CO. 184
SATISFIED BRAKE PRODUCTS 185
SCAN-PAC MANUFACTURING, INC. 185
SEPAC, INC. 185
STARFIRE SYSTEMS, INC. 186
TEK-MOTIVE, INC. 186
THERMOSET FRICTION MATERIAL SPECIALISTS 187
TRIBCO, INC. 187
TRW AUTOMOTIVE HOLDINGS CORP. 188
UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 188
WABTEC CORP. 189
WESTROCK CO. 190
WHEELING BRAKE AND CLUTCH 190
WESTERN EUROPEAN COMPANIES 191
BECORIT GMBH 191
ROBERT BOSCH GMBH 191
BREMBO S.P.A. 192
BREMSKERL REIBBELAGWERKE EMMERLING GMBH and CO. KG 193
CONTINENTAL AG 193
EUROPEAN FRICTION INDUSTRIES, LTD. 194
FENNER PRECISION 194
FRENOS SAULEDA S.A. 195
HALDEX AB 195
ICER BRAKES S.A. 196
INDUSTRIAL CLUTCH PARTS, LTD. 196
KNORR-BREMSE AG 197
LUK GMBH and CO. OHG 197
MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY 198
METELLI SPA 198
MIBA AG 199
ORTLINGHAUS-WERKE GMBH 199
ROULUNDS BRAKING HOLDINGS APS 200
SGL CARBON SE 200
SIMER SRL 201
STS FRICTION GMBH 201
TARONI and C. S.A.S. 201
TMD FRICTION HOLDING GMBH 202
UTIL INDUSTRIES 202
WINNARD, LTD. 203
JAPANESE COMPANIES 203
ADVICS CO., LTD. 204
AISIN SEIKI CO., LTD. 204
AKEBONO BRAKE INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 205
ASKTECHNICA CO., LTD. 205
FUJI BRAKE INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 206
HOSEI BRAKE INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 206
JAPAN BRAKE INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD. 206
MK KASHIYAMA CORP. 207
NISSHINBO HOLDINGS, INC.NISSHINBO HOLDINGS, INC. 207
VESRAH COMPANY, INC. 208
CHINESE COMPANIES 208
ASIMCO MELIAN BRAKING SYSTEMS (LANDFANG) CO., LTD. 208
CIXI ORIENTAL FRICTION PRODUCTS CO., LTD. 209
DANAHER AUTO SPARE PART CO., LTD. 209
DONGYING XINYI AUTO FITTING CO., LTD. 209
FANGTIAN INDUSTRIES CO., LTD. 210
FUJIAN GUANLEAN AUTOMOTIVE PARTS INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 210
HANGZHOU CHANGMING FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 210
HANGZHOU FEIYANG AUTOPARTS CO., LTD. 211
HANGZHOU HANGCHENG FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 211
HANGZHOU QIANJIANG FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 211
HANGZHOU YUHANG FEIYING EAGLE FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 212
HENGSHUI LONGXIN FRICTION MATERIALS CO., LTD. 212
HUBEI FEILONG FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 212
NINGBO XIANGSHENG FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 213
SHANDONG DOUBLE LINK BRAKE MATERIAL CO., LTD. 213
SHANDONG GOLD PHOENIX GROUP CO., LTD. 213
SHANDONG LONGJI GROUP CO., LTD. 214
SHENZHEN YUEXINCHI TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. 214
ZAOYANG FU XING FRICTION MATERIAL CO., LTD. 214
INDIAN COMPANIES 215
ANAND AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS, LTD. 215
ASK AUTOMOTIVE PVT., LTD. 216
AVS BRAKE LININGS PVT, LTD. 216
BIC AUTO PRIVATE, LTD. 216
BRAKEWEL AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS INDIA, LTD. 217
CO-EFF FRICTION BANDS, LTD. 217
HINDUSTAN COMPOSITES, LTD. 217
MASU BRAKES PVT., LTD. 218
RANE BRAKE LINING, LTD. 218
SUNDARAM BRAKE LININGS, LTD. 218
SUPER CIRCLE AUTO, LTD. 219
OTHER COMPANIES 219
DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING, LTD., LLC. 219
EGAR S.A. 220
FBK AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS MALAYSIA SDN BHD 220
FERMIT S.A. 220
FRAS-LE S.A. 221
FRENOSA 221
FRICCION S.R.L. 221
FRICCION Y TECNOLOGIA, S.A. DE C.V. 222
GUNG LUN ENTERPRISE CO., LTD. 222
HUAN DAH INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD. 222
INCOLBESTOS S.A. 223
INDUBAL S.A.C. 223
KOREA BERAL CO., LTD. 223
LUMAG SP. Z.O.O. 224
MAMUSA 224
MINTYE INDUSTRIES BHD. 224
NAN HOANG TRAFFIC INSTRUMENT CO., LTD. 225
REPUESTOS COLOMBIANOS S.A. 225
SB SANGSIN BRAKE 226
S.C.H. INDUSTRY CO., LTD. 226
TAIWAN BRAKE TECHNOLOGY CORP. 226
ZF SACHS SLOVAKIA A.S. 227



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET OUTLOOK
BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY SHOWED LITTLE
CHANGE BEFORE THE MID-1960S 13
TABLE 2 REASONS WHY THE FRICTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY CHANGED IN THE
MID-1960S 14
TABLE 3 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF NAO FRICTION MATERIALS 21
TABLE 4 PRODUCTS THAT CANNOT CONTAIN ASBESTOS AFTER 1996 25
TABLE 5 LIST OF PRODUCTS THAT CAN STILL CONTAIN ASBESTOS 26
TABLE 6 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET*, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 34
TABLE 7 GLOBAL FRICTION MATERIALS MARKET,* THROUGH 2018 (MILLION LBS) 35
TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE FOUR TYPES OF DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 36
TABLE 9 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL NAO FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 38
TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF FIBERS USED IN NAO BRAKE PADS 38
TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NAO BRAKE PADS AND BLOCKS 39
TABLE 12 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A SEMI-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 41
TABLE 13 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORDINARY SEMI-METALLIC PADS AND HEAVY
DUTY SEMI-METALLIC PADS 41
TABLE 14 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SEMI-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS COMPARED WITH NAO FRICTION PRODUCTS 42
TABLE 15 TYPICAL INGREDIENTS IN A LOW-METALLIC BRAKE PAD (%) 43
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LOW-METALLIC FRICTION
PRODUCTS 43
TABLE 17 TYPES OF MATERIALS USED FOR FRICTION MODIFIERS (%) 44
TABLE 18 COMMONLY USED RAW MATERIALS IN PAPER-BASED FRICTION PRODUCTS 47
TABLE 19 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WET PAPER FRICTION MATERIALS
COMPARED WITH DRY FRICTION PRODUCTS 47
TABLE 20 REASONS WHY WET FRICTION MATERIALS ARE MORE DURABLE THAN DRY
FRICTION PRODUCTS 48
TABLE 21 REASONS WHY THE WET PAPER FRICTION PRODUCTS MARKET SHOULD
NOT INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY 49
TABLE 22 REASONS WHY SINTERED METAL FRICTION PRODUCTS ARE NOT USED IN
TRUCK BRAKING APPLICATIONS 49
TABLE 23 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS 51
TABLE 24 REASONS AGAINST USING ADDITIONAL ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION
MATERIALS 52
TABLE 25 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 53
TABLE 26 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-GLASS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS 54
TABLE 27 DISADVANTAGES OF THE SMOOTHNESS OF E-GLASS FIBERS 55
TABLE 28 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GLASS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 56
TABLE 29 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR METAL FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 57
TABLE 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITES 59
TABLE 31 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 60
TABLE 32 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR MMC FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 62
TABLE 33 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POA FIBERS IN CARBON-CARBON FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 34 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS IN FRICTION
PRODUCTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 (THOUSANDS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 64
TABLE 35 PROPERTIES OF ASBESTOS FIBERS 66
TABLE 36 COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL ASBESTOS-BASED FRICTION MATERIAL (%) 67
TABLE 37 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 68
TABLE 38 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PHENOLIC RESIN 70
TABLE 39 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR PHENOLIC RESINS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 40 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR GRAPHITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 73
TABLE 41 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR WOLLASTONITE IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 74
TABLE 42 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER MATERIALS IN FRICTION PRODUCTS BY
MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 (MILLIONS OF LBS./$ MILLIONS*) 75
TABLE 43 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 44 APPLICATIONS OF FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN TRUCKS 81
TABLE 45 PROBLEMS WITH AVAILABLE FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM TRUCK
DRUM BRAKES 87
TABLE 46 FRICTION MATERIALS USED IN MEDIUM TRUCK APPLICATIONS 88
TABLE 47 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR DRY FRICTION MATERIALS IN MEDIUM- AND
HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS BY MATERIAL AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 91
TABLE 48 FACTORS NECESSITATING IMPROVEMENT IN AUTOMOBILE BRAKES 95
TABLE 49 AUTOMOBILE BUYERS’ REQUIREMENTS FOR BRAKES 96
TABLE 50 REASONS THAT BRAKE PADS CAUSE NOISE 99
TABLE 51 COMPARISON OF DISC VERSUS DRUM BRAKES 100
TABLE 52 DISTRIBUTION OF BRAKING FORCE IN AUTOMOBILES (%) 101
TABLE 53 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
(MILLION UNITS) 102
TABLE 54 LIGHT-VEHICLE OEM DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL
AND REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/MILLION UNITS) 103
TABLE 55 EXPECTED LIFETIME DISTANCES OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FRICTION
MATERIALS (MILES) 105
TABLE 56 LIGHT-VEHICLE DRY FRICTION AFTERMARKET OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 57 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET AND OE
FRICTION MANUFACTURERS 111
TABLE 58 AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE DRY FRICTION OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 59 INDUSTRIAL DRY FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY APPLICATION AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 116
TABLE 60 FRICTION MATERIAL COMPONENTS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS ($) 122
TABLE 61 AUTOMOTIVE WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MATERIAL AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 62 CONSTRUCTION WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 63 COMPARISON OF MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS 125
TABLE 64 OTHER WET FRICTION MATERIAL OUTLOOK BY MARKET AND REGION,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 65 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NEW VERSUS REBUILT CLUTCHES
IN THE AFTERMARKET 130
TABLE 66 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS OUTLOOK BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 68 ADVANCES IN BRAKING SYSTEMS MADE POPULAR IN EUROPE 135
TABLE 69 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN
MARKETS 136
TABLE 70 WESTERN EUROPEAN FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 71 JAPANESE FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 72 CHINA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 73 INDIA'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 74 REST OF THE WORLD'S FRICTION PRODUCTS APPLICATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 75 STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FRICTION MATERIALS
MARKET 147



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS MARKET
OUTLOOK BY SECTOR, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 10
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2003-2018
(THOUSAND UNITS) 79
FIGURE 2 AVERAGE PRICES FOR THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS IN
STANDARD APPLICATIONS ($/POUND) 82
FIGURE 3 MARKET SHARES OF THE THREE GRADES OF FRICTION MATERIALS (%) 83
FIGURE 4 MEDIUM TRUCK BRAKES BY TYPE (%) 87
FIGURE 5 MARKET SHARE OF NORTH AMERICAN TRAILER AXLE PRODUCERS (%) 92
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 1989-2018 (MILLION UNITS) 102
FIGURE 7 LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2012-2018 (NUMBER) 113
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF CLUTCH BUTTONS BY MARKET SHARE,
2012 (%) 127
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF MEDIUM TRUCK TRANSMISSIONS BY
MARKET SHARE, 2012 (%) 128
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL FRICTION PRODUCT MARKETS BY REGION, 2012 (%) 132
FIGURE 11 WESTERN EUROPE FRICTION PRODUCT MARKETS BY NATION, 2012 (%) 137

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