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Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination

  • March 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 184 pages

This BCC Research report evaluates the global markets for saline water desalination plants. It analyzes the water needs of 18 countries in five world regions. Known projects by country for the next five years are presented, along with estimated capacity additions, market values and growth rates for each world region. Forecasts provided for the period 2015-2020.

Use this report to:

Assess the roles that desalination can play now and in the future of water treatment technology.
Gain information on the technical aspects of both thermal and membrane desalination processes.
Learn about the known projects by country for the next five years, along with estimated capacity additions, market values, and growth rates for each world region.
Analyze the global water resource status and the growing gap between freshwater resources and water demand from all sectors.

Highlights

The global cumulative investments in desalination plants reached roughly $21.4 billion in 2015 and should reach nearly $48.2 billion by 2020, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.6%.
Cumulative investments in reverse osmosis (RO) reached roughly $17.3 billion in 2015 and should reach nearly $42.1 billion by 2020, a CAGR of 19.5% during the period of 2015 to 2020.
Cumulative investments in multistage flash (MSF) distillation reached $2.4 billion in 2015 and should reach $3.2 bilion by 2020, a CAGR of 6.1%.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This comprehensive technology market research report evaluates the global market for saline water desalination plants. The goals are to provide meaningful information, unbiased analysis, and an assessment of the roles that desalination can play now and in the future of water treatment technology. Technical aspects of both thermal and membrane desalination processes are outlined, as well as a few alternative techniques that may be viable in the future. The report analyzes the water needs of 18 countries in five world regions. Known projects by country for the next five years are presented, along with estimated capacity additions, market values, and growth rates for each world region.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

This report updates a previous BCC Research report on the same topic that waspublished in 2013. The need for pure water is a problem of global proportions and has become even more urgent since the earlier report became available. Water treatment is an issue of global concern as individuals, communities, industries, countries, and national institutions strive for ways to keep this essential resource available and suitable for use.

Increasingly, desalination systems are selected as an effective option to deliver pure water to the public by transforming saline, brackish, and contaminated water into useable and/or potable products. In part, this increased demand drives the development of technical advances in desalination processes and parallel price drops in the processes, especially membrane-based methods. These advances have made desalination systems affordable for countries that were previously unable to consider the possibility, thus creating a robust and rapidly growing market in which projects and corporate developments are constantly evolving.


Table Of Contents

Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS
BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS
BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11
WATER DEMAND DRIVERS 11
POPULATION GROWTH 11
TABLE 1 POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE
WORLD, 2010-2035 11
UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY 12
TABLE 2 GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%) 12
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%) 13
WATER, FOOD, AND ENERGY NEXUS 13
Energy 13
TABLE 3 GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER
CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050 14
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER
CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050 (MILLIONS, BILLION M3/YEAR) 14
Agriculture 15
FIGURE 3 WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL
NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015 (%) 15
RESOURCE EXHAUSTION 17
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030
(BILLION M3) 18
FIGURE 5 WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040 (%) 18
TABLE 4 TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040 19
DESALINATION CONSIDERATIONS 20
DESALTED WATER END USES 20
TABLE 5 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 21
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 21
WATER SALINITY 21
TABLE 6 WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L) 22
TABLE 7 SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014
(PPM) 23
TABLE 8 RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES 23
SOURCE WATERS USED FOR DESALINATION 23
TABLE 9 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE,
2014 (MILLION M3/D, %) 24
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE,
2014 (%) 24
CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 26
DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 26
BRIEF HISTORY OF DESALINATION 26
FIGURE 8 TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 27
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 27
THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES 27
COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES 28
TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND
MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS 28
COMPARATIVE COSTS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 30
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE
TECHNOLOGIES ($/M3) 30
TABLE 11 AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION
PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014 ($/M3) 31
TABLE 12 GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY,
1945-2015 (NUMBER, M3/D) 32
TABLE 13 LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015 33
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015
(MILLION M3/D, %) 33
TABLE 15 DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED
COUNTRIES, 2014 33
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 34
REVERSE OSMOSIS 34
TABLE 16 MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014 35
NANOFILTRATION 35
ELECTRODIALYSIS 36
THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES 37
MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION 37
MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION 37
VAPOR COMPRESSION 38
HYBRID REVERSE OSMOSIS/THERMAL PLANTS 39
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 39
FREEZING 39
GAS HYDRATE PROCESSES 40
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION 40
SOLAR HUMIDIFICATION 42
FLOW-THROUGH CAPACITOR 42
FORWARD OSMOSIS 43
ION EXCHANGE 43
CHAPTER 5 DESALINATION SYSTEM ECONOMICS: UNIT COST OF WATER 46
OVERVIEW 46
PLANT CAPACITY AND INITIAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT 46
MULTISTAGE FLASH DISTILLATION 46
MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION 46
REVERSE OSMOSIS 46
CAPITAL COST ESTIMATES BY TECHNOLOGY AND PLANT CAPACITY 47
TABLE 17 HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D,
$ MILLIONS) 47
FIGURE 10 HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY, ($
MILLIONS, M3/D) 47
TABLE 18 HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
(M3/D, $/M3) 48
FIGURE 11 HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
(M3/D, $/M3) 48
OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS 49
TABLE 19 O andM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY
CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 49
FIGURE 12 OandM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY
CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 50
TABLE 20 O andM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION
DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 50
FIGURE 13 OandM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION
PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 50
ENERGY COSTS AND CARBON EMISSIONS 51
TABLE 21 VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY
AND FEEDWATER SALINITY (MG/L, KWH/M3, %) 52
FIGURE 14 EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR
HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT ($/MMBTU, $/M3) 52
FIGURE 15 EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL
500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT ($/BARREL OIL,
$/M3)
53
TABLE 22 CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES (KG CO2/M3) 54
ALL-IN UNIT COST OF WATER 55
COST OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES 55
TABLE 23 GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014 56
TABLE 24 GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014 56
COST OF THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES 57
MULTISTAGE Flash Distillation 57
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012
($/M3) 57
Multi-Effect Distillation 58
SUMMARY 58
TABLE 25 COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY,
HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS 58
FIGURE 17 COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR
BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS (%) 58
FIGURE 18 COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED
AND MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS (%) 59
TABLE 26 RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN
BODIES OF WATER ($/M3) 61
Saudi Arabia Solar Projects 61
Wind 61
Tidal Energy 62
CHAPTER 6 DESALINATION PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS AND INVESTMENTS:
GLOBAL MARKET OUTLOOK 64
GLOBAL MARKET STATUS 64
TABLE 27 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D,
%) 64
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%) 64
TABLE 28 TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2014 (MILLION M3/D) 65
REGIONAL OUTLOOKS 66
NORTH AMERICA 66
Economic Trends 66
Water Needs 67
TABLE 29 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010
(THOUSAND M3/D, %) 67
FIGURE 20 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (%) 68
Desalination Capacity 68
TABLE 30 FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER
SOURCES, 2010 (%) 68
TABLE 31 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%) 69
FIGURE 21 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014
(%) 69
TABLE 32 INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %) 70
TABLE 33 U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 70
FIGURE 22 U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 71
Outlook 71
Heartland 72
FIGURE 23 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 72
Mid-Atlantic 72
Oil, Gas, and Coal Basins 73
Inland Urban Areas 73
Coastal Urban Areas 73
Florida 74
California 74
Texas 75
Capacity and Investment Forecast-North America 75
TABLE 34 NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 76
TABLE 35 NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 77
EUROPE 77
Economic Trends 77
Water Needs 77
Spain 78
Outlook 78
Cyprus 79
Outlook 79
U.K. 79
Outlook 80
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Europe 80
TABLE 36 EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 81
TABLE 37 EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 81
MIDDLE EAST 81
Economic Trends 81
Water Needs 82
Algeria 82
Outlook 83
Israel 83
Outlook 84
Jordan 84
Outlook 84
Kuwait 85
Outlook 85
Oman 85
Outlook 85
Saudi Arabia 86
Outlook 86
UAE 87
Outlook 87
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Middle East 87
TABLE 38 MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 88
TABLE 39 MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 89
ASIA 89
Economic Trends 89
TABLE 40 ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED
ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016 89
Water Needs 90
Australia 91
Outlook 91
China 91
Outlook 92
TABLE 41 CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020
(THOUSAND M3/D) 92
TABLE 42 CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS
IN CHINA 93
India and Pakistan 93
Outlook 94
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Asia 95
TABLE 43 ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND M3/D) 96
TABLE 44 ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN 97
Economic Trends 97
Water Needs 97
Argentina 98
Chile 98
Outlook 99
Mexico 99
Outlook 99
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Latin America and the Caribbean 100
TABLE 45 LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 101
TABLE 46 LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND REST OF WORLD 101
Outlook 102
Capacity and Investment Forecast-Sub-Saharan Africa and Rest of
World 102
TABLE 47 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 102
TABLE 48 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE
INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 103
GLOBAL FORECASTS 103
GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY ADDITIONS FORECAST 103
Global Desalination Capacity Forecast by Technology 103
Forecast Summary 103
TABLE 49 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 103
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 104
Global Desalination Capacity Forecast by Region 104
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 104
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION,
2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 104
GLOBAL INVESTMENT FORECAST 105
Global Investment Forecast by Region 105
TABLE 51 GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 52 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
Global Investment Forecast by Technology 107
Reverse Osmosis Technology Market Value 107
Multi-Effect Distillation and Multistage Flash Technology Market
Values 108
Market Value of Other Technologies 109
Novel Technologies 109
CHAPTER 7 RESEARCH TRENDS AND NATIONAL DESALINATION RandD PROGRAMS 111
ENERGY RECOVERY 111
LARGE-AREA MODULES 111
NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT 112
GLOBAL RESEARCH TRENDS 112
ADSORPTION DESALINATION (AD) 113
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD) 113
NEW MEMBRANE MATERIALS 113
Nano-Enabled Membranes 113
TABLE 53 CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL
MEMBRANES 114
Carbon Nanotube Membranes 114
Biomimetic Membranes 115
BRINE DISPOSAL 115
Alternative Brine Disposal Methods 116
RENEWABLE ENERGY-DRIVEN DESALINATION 118
FIGURE 28 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION
TECHNOLOGIES 118
Solar 119
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) 119
TABLE 54 RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN
BODIES OF WATER ($/M3) 120
NATIONAL RandD PROGRAMS 120
U.S. RESEARCH PRIORITIES 120
Desalination and Water Purification Roadmap 120
TABLE 55 DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS
AND RECOMMENDED RandD 121
Current Research Priorities 123
State Initiatives 123
TABLE 56 DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE 123
National Priorities 124
TABLE 57 DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION 124
AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH PRIORITIES 124
FIGURE 29 AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY ($/M3/D) 124
TABLE 58 AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION RandD PRIORITY THEMES 126
JAPAN (GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER) 127
TABLE 59 GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER RandD ROADMAP, 2013-2021 127
KOREAN NATIONAL RandD PROGRAM 127
SAUDI ARABIA WATER DESALINATION AND REUSE CENTER 128
SOUTH AFRICA NATIONAL WATER RESOURCE STRATEGY 128
CHAPTER 8 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 131
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 131
COMPANY PROFILES 132
ABENGOA WATER 132
ACCIONA AGUA/ACCIONA SA 133
ACE WATER TREATMENT CO. LTD. 133
ACWA (ARABIAN COMPANY FOR WATER and POWER DEVELOPMENT) POWER
INTERNATIONAL 134
AL KAWTHER INDUSTRIES LTD. 134
ALFA LAVAL 134
ALKEMA SOLUTIONS 135
AQUALIA 135
AQUALYNG 135
AQUATECH INTERNATIONAL CORP. 136
BIWATER PLC 136
CADAGUA 137
CLYDEUNION PUMPS/SPX CORP. 137
CONSOLIDATED WATER CO. LTD. 138
CORODEX INDUSTRIES 138
CSM FILTERS 138
CULLIGAN INTERNATIONAL 139
Italy 139
DANFOSS A/S 139
DEMONT 140
DOOSAN HEAVY INDUSTRIES and CONSTRUCTION 140
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 141
DUCHTING PUMPS 141
EBARA CORP. 142
ENERGY RECOVERY INC. 142
EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES (FORMERLY SIEMENS WATER
TECHNOLOGY) 143
FICHTNER GMBH 144
FISIA ITALIMPIANTI 144
FLOWSERVE 144
FLUID EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT CO. (FEDCO) 145
GENERAL ELECTRIC 145
GRAHAMTEK SYSTEMS 146
GRUNDFOS 146
GS INIMA ENVIRONMENT S.A. 147
H2O INNOVATION 147
HITACHI ZOSEN CORP. 148
HYFLUX LTD. 148
IDE TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 149
ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS 149
INGETEAM (INDAR) 150
KINDASA WATER SERVICES 150
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 151
KSB GROUP 151
KULJIAN CORP. 152
KURITA WATER INDUSTRIES 152
LAHMEYER INTERNATIONAL GMBH 152
LG WATER SOLUTIONS 153
MARUBENI CORP. 153
MEMSYS GMBH 154
MET-PRO GLOBAL PUMP SOLUTIONS 154
METITO (OVERSEAS) LTD. 154
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 155
NANOASIS 155
NITTO (HYDRANAUTICS) 156
ORGANO CORP. 156
OSMOFLO 157
PENTAIR 157
PORIFERA INC. 158
POSEIDON WATER 158
SACYR GLOBAL 158
SALINE WATER CONVERSION CORPORATION (SWCC) 159
SALT SEPARATION SERVICES LTD. 159
SASAKURA ENGINEERING 160
SEMBCORP UTILITIES PTE LTD. 161
SETE ENERGY SAUDIA FOR INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS LTD. (SETE ENERGY) 161
SEVERN TRENT SERVICES 161
SOGEX OMAN CO. LLC 162
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT (DEGRÉMONT) 162
SULZER/SULZER PUMPS 163
SUMITOMO CORP. 163
TEDAGUA/COBRA GROUP (ACS) 164
TORAY INDUSTRIES 165
Toray Membrane USA 165
TORISHIMA PUMP MANUFACTURING CO. LTD. 165
TOYOBO CO. LTD. 166
UEM INC. 167
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS and TECHNOLOGIES 167
WETICO 168
XYLEM INC. 168
CHAPTER 9 PATENT ANALYSIS 171
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 171
TABLE 61 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %) 171
PATENTS BY COMPANY 172
TABLE 62 PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015
(NUMBER, %) 172
CHAPTER 10 GLOSSARY 175
TABLE 63 GLOSSARY 175
CHAPTER 11 ACRONYMS 181
TABLE 64 ACRONYMS 181
CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX 184
TABLE 65 PATENT SURVEY, 2013 184
TABLE 66 PATENT SURVEY, 2014 188
TABLE 67 PATENT SURVEY, 2015 193

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE
WORLD, 2010-2035 11
TABLE 2 GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%) 12
TABLE 3 GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION
TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050 14
TABLE 4 TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040 19
TABLE 5 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 21
TABLE 6 WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (MG/L) 22
TABLE 7 SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014
(PPM) 23
TABLE 8 RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES 23
TABLE 9 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE,
2014 (MILLION M3/D, %) 24
TABLE 10 COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND
MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS 28
TABLE 11 AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION
PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014 ($/M3) 31
TABLE 12 GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY,
1945-2015 (NUMBER, M3/D) 32
TABLE 13 LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015 33
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015
(MILLION M3/D, %) 33
TABLE 15 DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED
COUNTRIES, 2014 33
TABLE 16 MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014 35
TABLE 17 HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY (M3/D, $
MILLIONS) 47
TABLE 18 HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
(M3/D, $/M3) 48
TABLE 19 O andM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY
CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 49
TABLE 20 O andM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION
DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 50
TABLE 21 VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY
AND FEEDWATER SALINITY (MG/L, KWH/M3, %) 52
TABLE 22 CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES (KG CO2/M3) 54
TABLE 23 GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014 56
TABLE 24 GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014 56
TABLE 25 COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY,
HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS 58
TABLE 26 RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN
BODIES OF WATER ($/M3) 61
TABLE 27 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %) 64
TABLE 28 TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION
CAPACITY, 2014 (MILLION M3/D) 65
TABLE 29 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010
(THOUSAND M3/D, %) 67
TABLE 30 FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER
SOURCES, 2010 (%) 68
TABLE 31 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%) 69
TABLE 32 INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
2014 (THOUSAND M3/D, %) 70
TABLE 33 U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 70
TABLE 34 NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 76
TABLE 35 NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 36 EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND M3/D) 81
TABLE 37 EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 81
TABLE 38 MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 88
TABLE 39 MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 40 ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED
ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016 89
TABLE 41 CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020
(THOUSAND M3/D) 92
TABLE 42 CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS IN
CHINA 93
TABLE 43 ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(THOUSAND M3/D) 96
TABLE 44 ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 45 LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY
TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 101
TABLE 46 LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 47 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 102
TABLE 48 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE
INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 49 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 103
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 104
TABLE 51 GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 52 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 53 CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL MEMBRANES 114
TABLE 54 RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN
BODIES OF WATER ($/M3) 120
TABLE 55 DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS
AND RECOMMENDED RandD 121
TABLE 56 DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE 123
TABLE 57 DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION 124
TABLE 58 AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION RandD PRIORITY THEMES 126
TABLE 59 GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER RandD ROADMAP, 2013-2021 127
TABLE 61 PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015 (NUMBER, %) 171
TABLE 62 PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015
(NUMBER, %) 172
TABLE 63 GLOSSARY 175
TABLE 64 ACRONYMS 181
TABLE 65 PATENT SURVEY, 2013 184
TABLE 66 PATENT SURVEY, 2014 188
TABLE 67 PATENT SURVEY, 2015 193

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS
BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009 (%) 13
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER
CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050 (MILLIONS, BILLION M3/YEAR) 14
FIGURE 3 WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL
NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015 (%) 15
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030
(BILLION M3) 18
FIGURE 5 WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040 (%) 18
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 21
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE,
2014 (%) 24
FIGURE 8 TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES 27
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE
TECHNOLOGIES ($/M3) 30
FIGURE 10 HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY, ($
MILLIONS, M3/D) 47
FIGURE 11 HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
(M3/D, $/M3) 48
FIGURE 12 OandM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY
CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 50
FIGURE 13 OandM UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION
PLANTS BY CAPACITY (M3/D, $/M3) 50
FIGURE 14 EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL
500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT ($/MMBTU, $/M3) 52
FIGURE 15 EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL
500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT ($/BARREL OIL,
$/M3)
53
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012
($/M3) 57
FIGURE 17 COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR
BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS (%) 58
FIGURE 18 COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED AND
MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS (%) 59
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%) 64
FIGURE 20 WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010 (%) 68
FIGURE 21 U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014 (%) 69
FIGURE 22 U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014 (%) 71
FIGURE 23 POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS 72
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY
TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 104
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION,
2013-2020 (THOUSAND M3/D) 104
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 28 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION
TECHNOLOGIES 118
FIGURE 29 AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY ($/M3/D) 124

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