INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive multi-client study of the North American market for carbon, aramid, partially oxidized polyacrylonitrile, polybenzimidazole, and other specialty fibers used in aircraft and aerospace, sporting goods, automotive, and other industrial products as well as the potential business opportunities in the market. The report’s objectives include a thorough coverage of the underlying economic issues driving the specialty fiber and materials business as well as assessments of new and potential products that companies are developing. Social, political, and regulatory issues are also covered, as are international markets. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for specialty fibers.

This technology/marketing report starts with an overview of specialty fiber types including a history of fiber development and the overall composites marketplace. The report then moves on to processing technology trends and secondary processing and fabrication methods before proceeding to a detailed assessment of markets and product applications. This assesses the market growth, materials, production, status of commercial development, barriers to entry, and market leaders. A comprehensive analysis of the industry structure is provided and ends with profiles of the leading specialty fiber companies.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

A small yet strategic global market, specialty fibers are a critical and essential element in many advanced technologies. The specialty fibers industry, however, has changed significantly since the last update of this report. The financial crisis and a severe global recession particularly affected industrial and other end-use markets for specialty fibers, leading to diminished demand. At the same time, new entrants in China and expansions by existing producers have resulted in additional capacity. In turn, this has led to lower operating rates for many producers, a more competitive market, and pricing pressures. These drivers will continue.

In the long term the market for specialty fibers will expand as a result of technological advancements and strength in several end-use markets. With the rapid changes in the industry structure and in the accelerated rise of new, expanding applications, a technology/marketing report with an updated unified view of materials and applications is needed.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

In a multi-client format, this study provides the most complete accounting of specialty fiber developments currently available. It provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment that can be found anywhere on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market developments in specific fibers. This, in turn, contributes to the determination of what kind of strategic response suppliers may adopt in order to compete in this market.

Audiences for this study include marketing executives, business unit managers, commercial development directors, and other decision-makers in specialty fiber companies. Technology suppliers, fabricators and assemblers, suppliers of competing and ancillary materials, suppliers of plastic resins, end-use product manufacturing companies, and other companies peripheral to this business also represent a key audience.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of this report is comprehensive, covering the present status of and future prospects for specialty fibers and products in North America. As defined in this report, North America includes the United States and Canada. Basically, the scope of the report includes diverse segments such as sporting goods, light vehicles, aircraft/aerospace, and various industrial applications. Fibers covered include carbon, aramid, partially oxidized polyacrylonitrile, polybenzimidazole, and other specialty fibers (metal matrix composite, polyphenylene sulfide, boron, carbon-silicon carbide, and other advanced fibers).

These are analyzed in detail as are technology developments, market conditions and opportunities, and 5-year forecasts. The role of new technologies is reviewed in this comprehensive report. This BCC Research study analyzes the current North American market in detail and identifies the most promising market opportunities for the next 5 years. The markets in Western Europe, Japan, China, and other global markets are covered as well.

In order to generate the information necessary to construct a reasonable future market for specialty fibers, it is necessary to undertake an examination of the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of materials and technologies. In addition to various fiber types, this examination also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the business, including corporate strategies, technologies, and the means for providing these products and service offerings. It also covers in detail the regulatory and economic issues that so many regard as critical to the industry’s current state of change. The report provides a review of the specialty fibers industry and its structure, and the many companies involved in providing these materials and technologies. The competitive position of the main players in the market and the strategic options they face are also discussed, as well as such competitive factors as marketing, distribution, and operations.

In this report, the term revenue is equivalent to, and is used interchangeably with the terms purchases, demand, and sales. All growth rates mentioned in the tables and in the text are based on the compound annual rate of growth from 2011 through the year 2016. In most cases, the actual quantity or volume (in pounds) is measured, and the calculated growth rates are easy to comprehend. Because current dollar measures are used to measure revenues, these growth rates reflect the growth in volume or real growth, including the effects of price changes and changes in product/service mix. The sum of the components in tables may not add to the total due to independent rounding. Historical data from 2007 through 2011 are presented in the tables in this report. Data prior to 2007 are available.

The research methodology was qualitative in nature and employed a triangulating approach, which aids validity. The research involved two stages, one involving secondary research and the other primary research.

Initially, a patent search and analysis was conducted. This strategy identified companies and market applications and was the initiating force in research direction. Next, a comprehensive and exhaustive search of the literature on carbon, aramid, and other specialty fibers was conducted. These secondary sources included automotive and related journals and related books, trade literature, marketing literature, other product/promotional literature, annual reports, security analyst reports, and other publications.

In a second phase, a series of semistructured interviews were conducted with marketing executives, engineers, business unit managers, design engineers, and other personnel at the specialty fiber companies. Other sources include academics, technology and materials suppliers, technical experts, trade association officials, government officials, and consulting companies. These were a rich source of data. Subsequent analysis of the documents and interview notes was iterative.

AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS

Calvin Swift as over 20 years’ experience in competitive intelligence and industrial market research, planning, and marketing at major corporations, market research consultancies and think tanks. He advises and briefs management about economic and industry conditions, strategic developments, and the effects of proposed developments in the light vehicle industry as well as in plastics, metals, and other materials. The author has employed scenario analysis to investigate and research the future of industry to identify the impact of globalization, consolidation, demographics, changing industry structure, and technological innovation. His particular interest lies in the interaction of strategy, economic and industry developments, and innovation. He holds a BA and a master’s degree in industrial economics, and has completed other studies in business administration.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES . 1
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 1
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
AUTHOR’S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 4
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES . 4
DISCLAIMER . 5
CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY (CONTINUED) 7
SUMMARY TABLE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SPECIALTY FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SPECIALTY FIBERS, 2007-2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 9
CHAPTER THREE: REGULATORY, ECONOMIC, AND TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 10
OVERVIEW . 10
REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS 10
REGULATIONS PROMOTING DEMAND . 10
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES . 11
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES (CONTINUED) . 12
END-OF-LIFE ISSUES 13
PRODUCT SAFETY . 13
DEVELOPMENTS IN END-USE MARKETS . 14
TABLE 1 GLOBAL ECONOMIC, TRADE, AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION GROWTH, 2007?2016 (PERCENT CHANGE PER YEAR IN OUTPUT VOLUME) . 14
AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE 15
TABLE 2 SPECIALTY FIBERS USED IN THE GLOBAL AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 15
Opportunities from New Programs . 16
Opportunities from New Programs (Continued) . 17
FIGURE 1 TRENDS IN THE DIFFUSION OF COMPOSITES IN SELECTED COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY APPLICATIONS, 1970- 2010 (%) 18
FIGURE 2 MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF 787 DREAMLINER STRUCTURE (%) . 19
Aerospace Market Dynamics. 20
FIGURE 3 LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT ORDERS, 1995-2010 21
Aerospace Market Dynamics (Continued) . 22
Aerospace Market Dynamics (Continued) . 23
Aerospace Market Dynamics (Continued) . 24
Aircraft/Aerospace Market Outlook 25
SPORTING GOODS . 25
TABLE 3 SPECIALTY FIBERS USED IN THE GLOBAL SPORTING GOODS MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 26
AUTOMOTIVE . 27
TABLE 4 SPECIALTY FIBERS USED IN THE GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 27
TABLE 5 GLOBAL LIGHT VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS) 28
North American Outlook . 29
Global Outlook . 30
Global Outlook (Continued) 31
Changes in Industry Structure . 32
INDUSTRIAL . 32
TABLE 6 SPECIALTY FIBERS USED IN THE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 33
TABLE 7 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION GROWTH, SELECTED NATIONS, 2007?2016 (PERCENT CHANGE PER YEAR IN OUTPUT VOLUME) . 34
CHAPTER FOUR: NEW DIRECTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: ANALYSIS OF PATENT TRENDS . 35
FIGURE 4 SPECIALTY FIBER PATENTS ISSUED BY YEAR, 2003?2011 36
FIGURE 5 SPECIALTY FIBER PATENTS ISSUED BY MATERIAL, 2008-2011 (%) 37
FIGURE 6 SPECIALTY FIBER PATENTS BY NATION, 2008-2011 (%) 38
FIGURE 6 (CONTINUED) 39
TABLE 8 SPECIALTY FIBER-RELATED PATENT ACTIVITY, BY
ASSIGNEE WITH FIVE OR MORE PATENTS, 2008?2011 39
CHAPTER FIVE: SPECIALTY FIBERS . 40
OVERVIEW . 40
TABLE 9 GLOBAL SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY VOLUME, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 40
TABLE 10 GLOBAL SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY VALUE, THROUGH 2012 ($ MILLIONS) . 41
CARBON FIBERS . 42
HISTORY OF CARBON FIBER 42
History of Carbon Fiber (Continued) 43
History of Carbon Fiber (Continued) 44
FIGURE 7 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON FIBER, 1970?2010 45
TECHNOLOGY 46
PAN-Based Fibers . 46
Pitch-Based Fibers. 47
FIGURE 8 HOW CARBON FIBER IS MADE 47
Rayon-Based Fibers . 48
Chemical Vapor Deposition . 48
Processing of Carbon Fibers 49
Continuous-Fiber Composites 49
Discontinuous-Fiber Composites 50
Non-Polymeric Matrixes . 51
Forms Available . 51
COMPETITIVE COMPARISON . 52
TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CARBONCARBON COMPOSITES . 53
NORTH AMERICA 54
Aircraft/Aerospace . 54
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS FOR CARBON FIBER (%) . 55
Military Aircraft Applications 56
TABLE 12 MILITARY AIRCRAFT PROGRAMS INCORPORATING CARBON FIBERS 57
Commercial Aircraft Applications 58
Regional/Business Aircraft Applications . 59
Helicopter Applications 60
Space/Rocket Applications 60
Space/… (Continued) 61
Other Aircraft/Aerospace Applications 62
Sporting Goods . 62
TABLE 13 NORTH AMERICAN SPORTING GOODS MARKETS FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 63
Automotive . 64
TABLE 14 NORTH AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE MARKETS FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 65
Other Industrial 66
TABLE 15 NORTH AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL MARKETS FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 67
North American Outlook Summary 68
TABLE 16 NORTH AMERICAN OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 69
WESTERN EUROPE . 69
TABLE 17 WESTERN EUROPE OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 70
Aircraft/Aerospace . 70
Sporting Goods . 71
Automotive . 71
Other Industrial 72
JAPAN 73
TABLE 18 JAPAN OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 73
Aircraft/Aerospace . 74
Sporting Goods . 74
Automotive . 75
Other Industrial 76
CHINA 76
TABLE 19 CHINA OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 77
REST OF THE WORLD . 77
TABLE 20 REST OF THE WORLD OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 78
PRICES . 78
Prices (Continued) . 79
GLOBAL OUTLOOK . 80
TABLE 21 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS BY MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 80
TABLE 22 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON FIBERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 81
FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS: CARBON FIBERS . 81
Intensity of Rivalry 82
New Entrants. 82
Substitute Products . 83
Buyer Power . 83
Supplier Power 83
FIGURE 10 CARBON FIBER SUPPLY CHAIN 84
CARBON FIBER INDUSTRY STRUCTURE . 84
SUPPLIERS . 85
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL CARBON FIBER MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCER, 2011 (190.2 MILLION POUNDS) 86
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL CARBON FIBER CAPACITY BY NATION/REGION, 2011 (190.2 MILLION POUNDS) 87
FIGURE 12 (CONTINUED). 88
ARAMID FIBERS . 89
TECHNOLOGY 89
NORTH AMERICA 90
Aircraft/Aerospace . 91
TABLE 23 NORTH AMERICAN AIRCRAFT/AEROSPACE MARKET FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 91
Sporting Goods . 92
Automotive . 92
TABLE 24 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION PRODUCTS . 92
TABLE 25 REASONS AGAINST USING ADDITIONAL ARAMID FIBER IN FRICTION MATERIALS . 93
Automotive (Continued) . 94
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE MARKET FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 95
Industrial . 95
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL MARKET FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 95
Industrial (Continued) 96
Outlook . 97
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 98
WESTERN EUROPE . 98
TABLE 29 WESTERN EUROPEAN OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 99
JAPAN 99
TABLE 30 JAPANESE OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 99
CHINA 100
TABLE 31 CHINESE OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 100
REST OF THE WORLD . 100
TABLE 32 REST OF THE WORLD OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 101
PRICES . 101
OUTLOOK 101
TABLE 33 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ARAMID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 102
SUPPLIERS . 102
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL META-ARAMID FIBER MARKET SHARE, 2011 (%) . 103
Suppliers (Continued) 104
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL PARA-ARAMID MARKET SHARE, 2011 (%) 105
PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE (POA) FIBERS 105
TECHNOLOGY 106
MARKETS 106
TABLE 34 MARKET FOR PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBERS IN NORTH AMERICA, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 107
TABLE 35 MARKET FOR PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBERS IN WESTERN EUROPE,
THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 107
TABLE 36 MARKET FOR PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBERS IN JAPAN, THROUGH 2016
(THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 108
OUTLOOK 108
TABLE 37 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 109
SUPPLIERS . 109
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL PARTIALLY OXIDIZED POLYACRYLONITRILE FIBER MARKET SHARE, 2011 (%) 110
HIGH-STRENGTH POLYETHYLENE FIBERS 110
TECHNOLOGY 111
MARKETS 111
OUTLOOK 112
TABLE 38 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR HIGH-STRENGTH POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY MARKET, THROUGH 2016
(THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 112
TABLE 39 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR HIGH-STRENGTH POLYETHYLENE FIBERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2016
(THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 113
SUPPLIERS . 113
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL HIGH-STRENGTH POLYETHYLENE FIBER MARKET SHARE, 2011 (%) 114
POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE (PBI) FIBERS . 115
TECHNOLOGY 115
MARKETS 115
OUTLOOK 116
TABLE 40 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE (PBI) FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 116
TABLE 41 NORTH AMERICAN OUTLOOK FOR POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE (PBI) FIBERS BY MARKET, THROUGH
2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 117
SUPPLIER 117
OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS . 118
TABLE 42 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR OTHER ADVANCED FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 118
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE (MMC) FIBERS 119
Manufacturing Technology . 119
Manufacturing Technology (Continued) 120
Barriers to Adoption 121
Markets 122
TABLE 43 MMC APPLICATIONS BY MARKET SEGMENT . 123
Outlook . 124
TABLE 44 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE (MMC) FIBERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 124
TABLE 45 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE (MMC) FIBERS BY MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 125
Suppliers 125
POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE (PPS) FIBERS 126
Manufacturing Technology . 126
Markets 127
Outlook . 128
TABLE 46 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE (PPS) FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 128
Suppliers 129
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE (PPS) FIBER MARKET SHARE, 2011 (%) 130
POLYIMIDE FIBERS 131
Manufacturing Technology . 131
Markets 132
Outlook 133
TABLE 47 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POLYIMIDE FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 133
Supplier 134
POLYAMIDEIMIDE (PAI) FIBERS 134
TABLE 48 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR POLYAMIDEIMIDE (PAI) FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 135
NOVOLOID FIBERS . 135
TABLE 49 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR NOVOLOID FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 136
MISCELLANEOUS ADVANCED FIBERS 136
TABLE 50 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR MISCELLANEOUS ADVANCED FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (POUNDS) . 137
Boron 138
TABLE 51 FIGHTER AND OTHER AIRCRAFT USING BORON FIBER . 139
TABLE 52 NORTH AMERICAN OUTLOOK FOR BORON FIBERS BY MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (POUNDS). 140
TABLE 53 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR BORON FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (POUNDS) 141
Carbon-Silicon Carbide . 141
Carbon-Silicon … (Continued) 142
TABLE 54 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR CARBON-SILICON CARBIDE FIBERS, THROUGH 2016 (POUNDS) . 143
Miscellaneous Advanced Fibers 143
Steel Fibers 144
CHAPTER SIX: INTERNATIONAL MARKETS 145
OVERVIEW . 145
TABLE 55 GLOBAL SPECIALTY FIBER OUTLOOK BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 145
FIGURE 18 SHARE OF INCREMENTAL GLOBAL GROWTH IN SPECIALTY FIBERS DEMAND: 1999-2011 VERSUS 2011-2016 (%) . 146
FIGURE 18 (CONTINUED). 147
NORTH AMERICA . 147
TABLE 56 NORTH AMERICAN SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY FIBER, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) . 148
WESTERN EUROPE 149
WESTERN EUROPE (CONTINUED) 150
TABLE 57 WESTERN EUROPEAN SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY FIBER, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 151
JAPAN . 152
TABLE 58 JAPANESE SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY FIBER, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 153
CHINA . 153
TABLE 59 CHINESE SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY FIBER, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 154
REST OF THE WORLD 155
TABLE 60 REST OF WORLD SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET BY FIBER, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF POUNDS) 156
REST OF THE WORLD (CONTINUED) 157
CHAPTER SEVEN: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE . 158
OVERVIEW . 158
TABLE 61 STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIALTY FIBERS MARKET . 159
INNOVATION AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 159
TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES . 160
RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT FUNDING . 160
OTHER RESEARCH ACTIVITIES . 161
Other Research Activities (Continued) . 162
FUTURE TRENDS IN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT . 163
MANUFACTURING STRATEGIES 163
SCALE ECONOMIES AND VERTICAL INTEGRATION . 164
LABOR 164
COST STRUCTURE. 165
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE . 165
MARKETING 166
PRICING AND BARGAINING POWER . 166
MARKET SEGMENTATION 167
DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES . 167
RELATIONS WITH OEM CUSTOMERS . 168
GLOBAL MARKETING . 169
DISTRIBUTION AND OTHER MARKETING . 170
Distribution and … (Continued) . 171
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS . 172
TYPES OF COMPANIES. 172
CONCENTRATION . 172
CONSOLIDATION . 173
CHAPTER EIGHT: COMPANY PROFILES . 174
NORTH AMERICAN COMPANIES 174
3M COMPANY . 174
ADVANCED COMPOSITES GROUP LTD. 175
ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS, LLC . 176
AEROCELL CORPORATION . 176
ALBANY INTERNATIONAL CORP. 176
ALDILA, INC. . 177
ALLIANT TECHSYSTEMS INC. 177
AMERICAN METAL FIBERS INC. 178
ASTENJOHNSON, INC. . 178
BALLARD MATERIAL PRODUCTS, INC. 179
CPS TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION . 180
CYTEC INDUSTRIES, INC. 180
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY 181
E.I. DuPont de Nemours … (Continued) 182
ELECTRO FIBER TECHNOLOGIES LLC 183
FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS, INC. . 183
GRAFIL, INC. . 184
HEXCEL CORPORATION 184
HITCO CARBON COMPOSITES, INC. 185
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC. 186
J.D. LINCOLN, INC. 187
METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES, INC. . 187
MOMENTIVE PERFORMANCE MATERIALS INC. 188
MUTUAL INDUSTRIES INC. . 189
NELCOTE, INC. . 189
PBI PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS, INC. 190
PERFORMANCE MATERIALS CORPORATION . 190
QUANTUM COMPOSITES, INC. . 191
RIBBON TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION . 191
RIO TINTO ALCAN, INC. . 192
SHAKESPEARE COMPANY LLC 192
SPECIALTY MATERIALS, INC 193
STARFIRE SYSTEMS, INC. . 193
TENCATE ADVANCED COMPOSITES. 194
TRITON SYSTEMS, INC. 195
UNIFRAX CORPORATION . 195
ZOLTEK COMPANIES, INC. 196
WESTERN EUROPEAN COMPANIES 197
NV BEKAERT SA 197
COMPAGNIE DE SAINT-GOBAIN SA 198
DSM N.V. 198
EVONIK FIBRES GMBH 199
KERMEL SAS 200
RATH AG 200
SGL GROUP . 201
SOCIKTK DES FIBRES DE CARBONE S.A. (SOFICAR) . 202
UMECO PLC 203
JAPANESE COMPANIES 203
DENKA KAGAKU KOGYO K.K. 204
GUN EI CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO., LTD. . 204
KUREHA CORPORATION . 205
MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL HOLDINGS CORPORATION 206
NICHIAS CORPORATION 207
NIPPON CARBON CO., LTD. . 207
NIPPON GRAPHITE FIBER CORPORATION 208
OSAKA GAS CHEMICALS CO., LTD. 209
OTSUKA CHEMICAL CO., LTD. 209
SHIKOKU CHEMICALS CORPORATION 210
SUMITOMO CHEMICAL COMPANY, LIMITED . 210
TAIMEI CHEMICALS COMPANY, LTD. 211
TEIJIN LIMITED 211
Teijin Limited (Continued) 212
TOHO TENAX CO., LTD. 213
TOKAI CARBON CO., LTD. 214
TORAY INDUSTRIES, INC. . 214
TORAY MONOFILAMENT CO., LTD. . 215
TOYOBO CO. LTD. 216
UBE INDUSTRIES, LTD. 217
CHINESE COMPANIES 217
ANSHAN EAST ASIA CARBON FIBERS CO., LTD. 217
CHINA WORLDBEST HOLDING LTD. . 218
DALIAN XINGKE CARBON FIBER CO., LTD. . 218
JIANGSU RUITAI SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. . 219
LIANYUNGANG ZHONGFU LIANZHONG COMPOSITES
GROUP CO., LTD. 219
SHANGHAI SXCARBON TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD. . 220
SICHUAN DEYANG SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD 220
SINOSTEEL JILIN CARBON CO., LTD. . 221
SRO GROUP LIMITED . 221
WEIHAI TUOZHAN FIBER CO., LTD. 222
YANTAI SPANDEX CO., LTD. . 222
OTHER COMPANIES 223
AKSA AKRILIK KIMYA SANAYII A.S. . 223
FORMOSA PLASTICS CORPORATION 223
Formosa Plastics (Continued) . 224

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