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The Global Market for Carotenoids

  • July 2015
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  • BCC Research
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  • 173 pages

This BCC Research study reviews the world of commercial carotenoids with the objective to provide a detailed insight into production technologies, market developments, and dynamics, to give producers and users of carotenoids a transparent overview on the current situation and a well-founded outlook until 2019.

Use this report to:
- Learn about the industry structure and markets for commercialized carotenoids.
- Learn about the principles of production.
- Understand government regulations, production technologies, and formulations.
- Identify the current and future demand for commercialized carotenoids.

Highlights
- The global carotenoid market totaled $1.5 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach nearly $1.8 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.9%.
- Astaxanthin was valued at $369 million in 2014 and is expected to reach a market share of 24% with a value of $423 million in 2019, increasing at a CAGR of 2.3%.
- Capsanthin was valued at $285 million in 2014 and is expected to reach a market share of 21% with a value of $366 million in 2019, increasing at a CAGR of 5.1%.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND
This report is an update of the BCC research report FOD025D The Global Market for Carotenoids published in 2011. The main categories of carotenoids are still the same;
no new types of carotenoids have come on the market and, with the exception of astaxanthin, no fundamentally new manufacturing technology has been introduced.
However, the market for carotenoids over the past four years has changed dramatically for some product segments. Prices have dropped for a number of products
while market value has risen for others. Beta-carotene is still the most prominent carotenoid. While consumption has developed organically, products across all types of formulation and origin have seen a big drop in price due to the massive market entry of Chinese manufacturers with high-quality products. The beta-carotene market is currently oversupplied. Synthetic beta-carotene continues to dominate the market and hopes that fermentation-derived beta-carotene would capture a larger market share has not been fulfilled, with beta-carotene from algae practically disappearing from the market.

Lycopene, an antioxidant recommended to prevent prostate cancer, obtained permission from the European Commission (EC) to be used as a food additive and
coloring agent years ago, but hopes that such approval would boost the market have not come true. However, consumption in the traditional supplement segment has
increased. However, prices have decreased now that many Asian suppliers offer lycopene extracts from tomatoes at acceptable qualities. Consumption of standard astaxanthin, the color of choice for pigmenting fish and shrimp, is expanding in line with the growing aquaculture industry. However, in contrast to other carotenoids, astaxanthin derived from algae is booming as an ingredient for food supplements and prices for such products are skyrocketing. Technological innovations are occurring at an intensity rarely seen during the past decade in the carotenoid sector, ranging from fully controlled tube systems in production to the use of specifically designed microorganisms that can produce astaxanthin in the dark.

Canthaxanthin is still the color of choice for providing a red tone in egg yolks and in the pigmentation of salmonid fishes and shrimp. For canthaxanthin, price erosion started
early and has not yet been brought to a standstill. Expansion of consumption is moderate and market values are shrinking due to decreasing prices. The lutein supplement market boomed until 2004. Since then, the market has grown at moderate rates. The producer landscape has multiplied, competition among primary lutein producers is fierce, and prices for unrefined feed grade product are still low, although they are mildly increasing. In the supplement segment, lutein enjoys high popularity but prices are declining given the numerous producers in Asia. Isolated zeaxanthin, the stereoisomer to lutein, obtained approval to be sold in 2012, unlocking a substantial market development. Increasing volume sales are causing prices to drop but could also lead to a substantial rise in global market value by 2019. Paprika extracts and capsanthin, a purified coloring component, have for many years provided a red color shade to savory food and poultry feed as an alternative to canthaxanthin. While the spice market is expanding rapidly, the egg coloring market is growing more moderately. Prices for paprika products remain strong and the global market has reached an all-time high.

Annatto, the only carotenoid extracted from the fruits of a tree, has been on the market for decades in various forms. Demand is growing, driven by consumers’ desire
for a natural alternative to synthetic colors in pigmenting dairy products with a reddish-orange shade. Due to the expansion of plantations in Latin America as well as Asia, some oversupply has occurred, keeping prices for crude products low.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The current study reviews the world of commercial carotenoids to provide a detailed insight into production technologies, market developments and dynamics and to give
producers and users of carotenoids a transparent overview of the current situation and a well-founded outlook until 2019, based on a historic analysis of production and prices.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
BCC Research seeks to provide insight into an industry that is still at the forefront of technology. The report aims to provide producing companies and users of carotenoids
in the food, feed and supplement industries with a comprehensive overview of the industry. Strategy and business planning should be easier and more reliable as a result.
The report may also help companies and players in other ingredient markets that are considering diversifying into other sectors determine whether carotenoids would be a
good fit.

SCOPE OF REPORT
The report reviews the global markets for the following commercialized carotenoids:
- Annatto
- Astaxanthin
- Beta-carotene
- Beta-apo-8-carotenal
- Beta-apo-8-carotenal-ester
- Canthaxanthin
- Capsanthin and paprika extract
- Lutein
- Lycopene
- Zeaxanthin
The report provides a synopsis of the current carotenoid market, shows the relative competitiveness of individual carotenoids and discusses, using quantitative figures, the
relevance of different production systems, application segments, regional distribution and dominant players.

One chapter comprehensively discusses the different modes of carotenoid production, contrasting chemical synthesis, fermentation systems and extraction from botanical
sources. A general outline is provided on current trends in the major application sectors of carotenoids, food, feed and nutritional supplements. The product section
discusses markets and market trends for each carotenoid in detail. The report identifies each product, , discusses commercial formulations and reviews current regulatory
status in the major markets. Consumption data from 2014-2019 identifies trends and determines the position of the product at the sigmoid life cycle curve. Similarly, long
price series allow the analysis of trends and of possible inflexion points. The chapter on marketing strategies and market shares of major players provides an overview of the
current situation and as well as a forecast of future trends, prices, consumption and market values by 2019.

The methodology applied in this report is based on both the analysis of the manufacturing industry and the user community. The user community is composed of
companies active in the typical application segments of food, feed and supplements and, to a smaller extent, cosmetics. The report identifies application trends from past
years and analyzes company strategies and behavior. Insight into usage patterns is provided, leading to preliminary estimates on quantities used and market values of
specific products. Such information is cross-checked with production data from manufacturers. A detailed analysis of manufacturing patterns provides information on
formulation trends and on how products are marketed. Considering framework conditions that affect future demand, estimates on developments in specific carotenoids are provided, leading to forecasts through 2019.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Both, primary and secondary research methodologies were used to prepare this study. Public information, with the exception of production volumes and technologies on
carotenoids, is quite vast. Aside from company reports, product brochures and other published documents, direct contact between the analyst and representatives of the
relevant industry provides reliable and quantitative information on all aspects of carotenoids, ensuring the high quality of this report.

Table Of Contents

The Global Market for Carotenoids
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
BACKGROUND 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CAROTENOID MARKET VALUE BY PRODUCT
TYPE,THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS/%) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CAROTENOID MARKET VALUE SHARE BY PRODUCT
TYPE, 2019 (%) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11
SYSTEMATIC OF COMMERCIAL CAROTENOIDS 11
FIGURE 1 SYSTEMATIC OF COMMERCIALLY USED CAROTENOIDS BY METHOD OF
PRODUCTION 11
FIGURE 2 SYSTEMATIC OF COMMERCIALLY USED CAROTENOIDS BY APPLICATION 11
TRENDS IN MAJOR APPLICATION SEGMENTS 12
CAROTENOID TRENDS IN FOOD 12
CAROTENOID TRENDS IN FEED 14
CAROTENOID TRENDS IN COSMETICS 16
CAROTENOID TRENDS IN NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS 16
CAROTENOID MARKET BY VALUES 17
MARKET VALUE BY PRODUCT TYPE 17
TABLE 1 GLOBAL CAROTENOID MARKET VALUE BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS/%) 18
MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION 18
TABLE 2 GLOBAL CAROTENOID MARKET VALUE BY TYPE OF APPLICATION,2014 ($
MILLIONS) 19
MARKET VALUE BY REGION 19
TABLE 3 GLOBAL CAROTENOID MARKET VALUE BY REGION,2014 ($ MILLIONS) 20
RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF INDIVIDUAL CAROTENOIDS 20
TABLE 4 CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR RATING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF
INDIVIDUAL CAROTENOIDS 21
TABLE 5 CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL CAROTENOIDS BY COMPETITIVENESS 21
CHAPTER 4 PRINCIPLES OF PRODUCTION 23
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS ROUTE 23
FIGURE 3 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOW CHART FOR PREPARATION OF
BETA-IONONE 23
FIGURE 4 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOW CHART FOR THE REACTION OF
BETA-IONONE TO GYLCIDE ESTER 24
FOD025E - The Global Market for Carotenoids
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
FIGURE 5 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOW CHART FOR THE REACTION OF
GLYCIDE ESTER TO C14-ALDEHYDE 25
FIGURE 6 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOW CHART FOR THE REACTION FROM
BETA-C14-ALDEHYDE TO C19-DIOL 25
FIGURE 7 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOW CHART FOR THE REACTION FROM
BETA-C19-DIOL-ETHER TO C19-ALDEHYDE 25
FIGURE 8 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOW CHART FOR THE REACTION OF
BETA-C19-ALDEHYDE TO CIS-BETA-CAROTENE 26
FIGURE 9 SYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOIDS: FLOWCHART FOR THE REACTION FROM
CIS-BETA-CAROTENE TO TRANS-BETA-CAROTENE 27
FERMENTATION ROUTE 27
FIGURE 10 FLOW CHART OF MANUFACTURING BETA-CAROTENE BY FERMENTATION 28
THE ALGAE ROUTE: OPEN POND SYSTEM 29
FIGURE 11 FLOW CHART OF MANUFACTURING MIXED CAROTENOIDS FROM ALGAE
OPEN POND SYSTEM 30
THE ALGAE ROUTE: PHOTO-BIOREACTOR SYSTEM 31
FIGURE 12 FLOW CHART OF MANUFACTURING MIXED CAROTENOIDS FROM ALGAE
PHOTO-BIOREACTOR SYSTEM 32
EXTRACTION FROM BOTANICAL MATERIAL 32
EXTRACTION FROM CRUDE PALM OIL 32
FIGURE 13 EXTRACTION OF CAROTENOIDS FROM CRUDE PALM OIL 33
EXTRACTION OF BIXIN AND NORBIXIN FROM ANNATTO SEED 34
Bixin Production 35
FIGURE 14 EXTRACTION OF BIXIN PRODUCTION FROM ANNATTO SEED 35
Norbixin Production 35
FIGURE 15 EXTRACTION OF NORBIXIN PRODUCTION FROM ANNATTO SEED 36
OLEORESIN PRODUCTION 36
FIGURE 16 PRODUCTION OF OLEORESINS AND CRYSTALS FROM BOTANICAL
MATERIAL 37
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR ANNATTO 40
PRODUCT IDENTITY 40
TABLE 6 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BIXIN AND NORBIXIN 40
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 40
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 41
TABLE 7 TYPICAL DATA SHEET OF BIXIN AND NORBIXIN 41
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 42
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL COMMERCIAL ANNATTO SEED PRODUCTION MARKET BY
APPLICATION, 1990-2014 (THOUSAND TONS) 42
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN CONSUMPTION MARKET, 1990-2014
(TONS CRYSTALLINE) 43
TABLE 8 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 43
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY
REGION, 2014 (%) 44
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY
APPLICATION, 2014 (%) 44
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 45
FIGURE 21 DEVELOPMENT OF ANNATTO SEED PRICES, 1990-2014 ($/TON) 45
FIGURE 22 DEVELOPMENT OF BIXIN AND NORBIXIN PRICES, 1990-2014 ($/KG
CRYSTALLINE) 46
MARKET VALUE 46
TABLE 9 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, THROUGH
2014 ($ MILLIONS/%) 47
MARKET SHARE BY COMPANY 47
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF COMPANIES ACTIVE IN THE PREPARATION
AND TRADING OF BIXIN AND NORBIXIN, 2014 (%) 47
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 48
TABLE 10 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 49
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL BIXIN AND NORBIXIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 49
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR ASTAXANTHIN 52
PRODUCT IDENTITY 52
TABLE 11 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ASTAXANTHIN 52
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 52
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 54
TABLE 12 DATA SHEET OF A 10% ASTAXANTHIN PRODUCT FROM CHEMICAL
SYNTHESIS 55
TABLE 13 DATA SHEET OF A 0.5% ASTAXANTHIN PRODUCT FROM PHAFFIA
RHODOZYMA 55
TABLE 14 DATA SHEET OF A 2.5% ASTAXANTHIN OLEORESIN PRODUCT FROM
HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS 56
TABLE 15 DATA SHEET OF A PARACOCCUS CAROTINIFACIENS PRODUCT WITH 2%
ASTAXANTHIN 56
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 56
TABLE 16 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF RAINBOW TROUT,1986-2014 (THOUSAND
TONS) 57
TABLE 17 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF RAINBOW TROUT BY COUNTRY, 2014
(THOUSAND TONS/%) 57
TABLE 18 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF ATLANTIC SALMON,1990-2014 (MILLION TONS) 58
TABLE 19 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF ATLANTIC SALMON BY COUNTRY, 2014
(MILLION TONS/%) 58
TABLE 20 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF SHRIMP,1996-2014 (MILLION TONS) 59
TABLE 21 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF SHRIMP BY COUNTRY,2014 (MILLION TONS/%) 59
TABLE 22 POTENTIAL PIGMENT DEMAND FOR TROUT, SALMON AND SHRIMP, 2014 59
TABLE 23 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR SHRIMP, TROUT
AND SALMON PIGMENTATION, 2014 60
TABLE 24 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR FEED APPLICATIONS,
THROUGH 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 61
TABLE 25 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE FOR FEED
APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2014 (%) 61
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR FEED AND
SUPPLEMENTS APPLICATIONS, 1992-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 62
TABLE 26 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR FEED AND
SUPPLEMENTS APPLICATIONS BY PRODUCTION TYPE,1995-2014 (TONS
CRYSTALLINE/%) 63
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE FOR FEED AND
SUPPLEMENTS APPLICATIONS BY PRODUCTION TYPE, 2014 (%) 63
PRICE DEVELOPMENTS 64
FIGURE 27 PRICE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC ASTAXANTHIN, 1984-2014 ($/KG
CRYSTALLINE) 64
TABLE 27 TYPICAL MARKET PRICES FOR ASTAXANTHIN PRODUCTS BY
PRODUCTION TYPE, 2014 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE EQUIVALENT) 65
MARKET VALUE 65
TABLE 28 STRUCTURE OF GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY PRODUCTION
TYPE, 2014 65
TABLE 29 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2014 ($
MILLIONS/%) 65
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%) 66
MARKET SHARES BY COMPANY 66
TABLE 30 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCERS, 2007-2014 (%) 68
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN MARKET SHARE BY PRODUCERS, 2014 (%) 68
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 68
TABLE 31 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 70
TABLE 32 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 70
TABLE 33 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY PRODUCTION TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 71
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL ASTAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 71
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR BETA-CAROTENE 74
PRODUCT IDENTITY 74
TABLE 34 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BETA-CAROTENE 74
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 74
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 76
TABLE 35 TYPICAL CAROTENOID PROFILE OF BETA-CAROTENE PRODUCTS (%) 76
TABLE 36 MAJOR FORMULATIONS OFFERED AS A FUNCTION OF THE TYPE OF
BETA-CAROTENE 77
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 77
OVERVIEW 77
FIGURE 31 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET, 1984-2014 (TONS
CRYSTALLINE) 77
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION BY APPLICATION 78
Beta-carotene as a Food Colorant 78
TABLE 37 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET IN FOOD, 1984-2014
(TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 79
TABLE 38 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET IN FOOD BY TYPE,
2006-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 80
FIGURE 32 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN FOOD BY
TYPE, 2014 (%) 80
TABLE 39 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN FOOD BY
REGION,2007-2014 (%) 81
FIGURE 33 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN FOOD BY
REGION, 2014 (%) 81
Beta-carotene in Supplements 81
TABLE 40 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET IN SUPPLEMENTS,
1984-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 82
TABLE 41 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN
SUPPLEMENTS BY SERVING TYPE,2002-2014 (%) 83
TABLE 42 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN
SUPPLEMENTS BY REGION, 2004-2014 (%) 83
FIGURE 34 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN
SUPPLEMENTS BY REGION, 2014 (%) 83
Beta-carotene in Feed 84
TABLE 43 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET IN FEED,1984-2014
(TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 85
TABLE 44 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN FEED BY
REGION,2007-2014 (%) 85
FIGURE 35 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE IN FEED BY
REGION, 2014 (%) 85
Beta-Carotene in Cosmetics 86
TABLE 45 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET IN
COSMETICS,1984-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 87
Summary of Consumption by Application and Geographic Area 87
TABLE 46 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY
APPLICATION,1984-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 87
TABLE 47 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION,19842014
(TONS CRYSTALLINE) 88
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION BY TYPE OF PRODUCTION 88
TABLE 48 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY TYPE OF
PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 90
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY PRODUCTION
TYPE AND APPLICATION, 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 90
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION BY TYPE OF FORMULATION 91
Formulation Principles 91
TABLE 49 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL 30% BETA-CAROTENE OIL
SUSPENSION 93
TABLE 50 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS OF A 10% BETA-CAROTENE CWD PRODUCT 93
TABLE 51 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS OF A 10% BETA-CAROTENE TABLETGRADE
FORMULATION 94
TABLE 52 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS OF A 20% BETA-CAROTENE TABLETGRADE
FORMULATION 94
Consumption by Type of Formulation 95
TABLE 53 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET AND SHARE BY TYPE
OF FORMULATION, 2006-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 96
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY TYPE OF
FORMULATION, 2014 (%) 97
TABLE 54 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION AND
TYPE OF FORMULATION, 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 97
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 97
FIGURE 38 DEVELOPMENT OF PRICES FOR SYNTHETIC 30% OIL SUSPENSION PER
KG CRYSTALLINE EQUIVALENT, 1990-2014 ($ PER KG CRYSTALLINE) 99
FIGURE 39 DEVELOPMENT OF PRICE FOR 20% BETA-CAROTENE OIL DERIVED FROM
ALGAE PER KG CRYSTALLINE, 1998-2014 ($ PER KG CRYSTALLINE) 99
TABLE 55 TYPICAL PRICES OF MAJOR BETA-CAROTENE PRODUCTION
TYPES,2007-2014 ($/KG PRODUCT) 100
MARKET VALUE 100
TABLE 56 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY TYPE OF FORMULATION,
THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS/%) 101
TABLE 57 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2014 ($ MILLIONS/%) 101
TABLE 58 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2014
($ MILLIONS/%) 101
TABLE 59 GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY TYPE OF PRODUCTION,
THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS/%) 102
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 102
MARKETING SYSTEMS 102
Food Coloring 103
Supplements 103
Feed 103
Cosmetics 104
MARKET SHARES BY COMPANY 104
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF MAJOR BETA-CAROTENE PRODUCERS,
1999-2014 (%) 104
FIGURE 40 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF BETA-CAROTENE PRODUCERS, 2014 (%) 104
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 105
VOLUME DEVELOPMENT 105
Food Coloring 105
TABLE 61 EXPECTED COMPOUNDED ANNUAL GROWTH RATES OF BETA-CAROTENE
CONSUMPTION IN FOODS BY REGION,2014-2019 (%) 106
Supplements 106
TABLE 62 EXPECTED COMPOUNDED ANNUAL GROWTH RATES OF BETA-CAROTENE
CONSUMPTION IN SUPPLEMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%) 106
Feed 107
TABLE 63 EXPECTED COMPOUNDED ANNUAL GROWTH RATES OF BETA-CAROTENE
CONSUMPTION IN FEED BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (%) 107
Cosmetics 107
Price developments 107
TABLE 64 PRICE TRENDS FOR GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET BY TYPE OF
PRODUCTION, 2007-2019 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE) 108
VOLUME AND VALUE DEVELOPMENT 109
TABLE 65 DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 109
TABLE 66 DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY
REGION, THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 109
TABLE 67 DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY
TYPE OF PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 109
TABLE 68 DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS/%) 110
FIGURE 41 DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY
APPLICATION, 2014 AND 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FIGURE 42 DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL BETA-CAROTENE MARKET VALUE BY
REGION, 2014 AND 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 110
CHAPTER 8 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR APO-CAROTENAL 113
PRODUCT IDENTITY 113
TABLE 69 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF APO-CAROTENAL 113
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 113
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 114
TABLE 70 DATA SHEETS FOR TYPICAL APO-CAROTENAL PRODUCTS 115
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 115
FIGURE 43 GLOBAL APO-CAROTENAL CONSUMPTION MARKET, 1990-2014 (TONS
CRYSTALLINE) 115
TABLE 71 GLOBAL APO-CAROTENAL CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 116
FIGURE 44 GLOBAL APO-CAROTENAL CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION, 2014 (%) 116
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 117
FIGURE 45 PRICE DEVELOPMENT OF APO-CAROTENAL, 1990-2014 ($/KG
CRYSTALLINE) 117
MARKET VALUE 118
TABLE 72 GLOBAL APO-CAROTENAL MARKET VALUE,1994-2014 ($ MILLIONS) 118
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 118
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 118
TABLE 73 GLOBAL APO-CAROTENAL CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 119
FIGURE 46 GLOBAL APO-CAROTENAL MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019
($ MILLIONS) 119
CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKET FOR APO-ESTER 122
PRODUCT IDENTITY 122
TABLE 74 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALLINE APO-ESTER 122
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 122
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 123
TABLE 75 DATA SHEET FOR APO-ESTER 10% POWDER 123
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 123
FIGURE 47 GLOBAL APO-ESTER CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION,
1990-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 124
TABLE 76 GLOBAL APO-ESTER CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 125
FIGURE 48 GLOBAL APO-ESTER CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014
(%) 125
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 125
FIGURE 49 PRICE DEVELOPMENT OF APO-ESTER, 1990-2014 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE) 125
MARKET VALUE 126
TABLE 77 GLOBAL APO-ESTER MARKET VALUE, THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 126
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 126
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 127
TABLE 78 GLOBAL APO-ESTER CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 127
TABLE 79 GLOBAL APO-ESTER MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 127
FIGURE 50 GLOBAL APO-ESTER MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 127
CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR CANTHAXANTHIN 130
PRODUCT IDENTITY 130
TABLE 80 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALLINE CANTHAXANTHIN 130
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 130
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 131
TABLE 81 DATA SHEET OF A COMMERCIAL 10% CWD FEED-GRADE
CANTHAXANTHIN PRODUCT 131
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 132
COLORING EGG YOLKS 132
FISH PIGMENTATION 132
FOOD COLORING 132
SUPPLEMENT, PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC APPLICATIONS 133
FIGURE 51 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION,
1990-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 133
TABLE 82 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION AND
REGION, 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 134
FIGURE 52 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY REGION,
2014 (%) 134
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 135
FIGURE 53 PRICE DEVELOPMENT OF CANTHAXANTHIN, 1990-2014 ($/KG
CRYSTALLINE) 135
MARKET VALUE 136
TABLE 83 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2014 ($ MILLIONS/%) 136
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 136
TABLE 84 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF CANTHAXANTHIN PRODUCERS,2007-2014
(%) 137
FIGURE 54 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF CANTHAXANTHIN PRODUCERS, 2014 (%) 137
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 137
TABLE 85 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 138
TABLE 86 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 138
TABLE 87 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS/%) 138
FIGURE 55 GLOBAL CANTHAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019
($ MILLIONS) 139
CHAPTER 11 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR CAPSANTHIN AND PAPRIKA
EXTRACTS 141
PRODUCT IDENTITY 141
TABLE 88 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL CAPSANTHIN PRODUCTS
FOR FOOD USE 141
TABLE 89 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF A TYPICAL CAPSANTHIN PRODUCT
FOR FEED USE 142
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENTS 142
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 142
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 143
FIGURE 56 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET USED AS
COLORANT, 1990-2014 (THOUSAND TONS) 143
TABLE 90 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY PRODUCT
FORM, 2005-2014 (TONS) 144
FIGURE 57 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY
REGION, 2014 (%) 144
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 145
MARKET VALUE 146
TABLE 91 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY PRODUCT FORM,
THROUGH 2014 ($ MILLIONS/%) 146
TABLE 92 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 ($
MILLIONS) 146
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 146
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 147
TABLE 93 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY PRODUCT
FORM, 2014 AND 2019 (TONS) 147
TABLE 94 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY PRODUCT FORM, 2014
AND 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 148
FIGURE 58 GLOBAL PAPRIKA CAPSANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 148
CHAPTER 12 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR LUTEIN 150
PRODUCT IDENTITY 150
TABLE 95 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CRYSTALLINE LUTEIN 150
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 150
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 151
TABLE 96 DATA SHEET OF LUTEIN POWDER FEED-GRADE 151
TABLE 97 DATA SHEET OF LUTEIN OIL SUSPENSION 152
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 152
LUTEIN FOR FEED 152
FIGURE 59 GLOBAL LUTEIN CONSUMPTION MARKET IN FEED, 1992-2014 (TONS
CRYSTALLINE) 153
TABLE 98 GLOBAL LUTEIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR FEED BY
REGION,2007-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 153
LUTEIN FOR SUPPLEMENTS 154
FIGURE 60 GLOBAL LUTEIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR SUPPLEMENTS,
2000-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 154
TABLE 99 GLOBAL LUTEIN CONSUMPTION MARKET FOR SUPPLEMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 155
LUTEIN FOR FOOD AND OTHER APPLICATIONS 155
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 155
LUTEIN FOR FEED 155
TABLE 100 PRICE DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET FOR FEED,
THROUGH 2014 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE) 156
LUTEIN FOR SUPPLEMENTS 156
TABLE 101 PRICE DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET FOR SUPPLEMENT,
THROUGH-2014 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE) 157
FIGURE 61 DEVELOPMENT OF PRICES OF LUTEIN FOR FEED AND SUPPLEMENTS,
2000-2014 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE) 157
MARKET VALUE 157
TABLE 102 GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2014 ($
MILLIONS) 158
TABLE 103 GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION AND REGION, 2014 ($
MILLIONS/%) 158
FIGURE 62 GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION AND APPLICATION, 2014 ($
MILLIONS) 159
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 159
LUTEIN FOR FEED 159
LUTEIN FOR SUPPLEMENTS 160
TABLE 104 MARKET SHARES OF COMPANIES OFFERING/MANUFACTURING
SUPPLEMENT-GRADE FORMULATED LUTEIN PRODUCTS, 2007-2014 (%) 160
FIGURE 63 MARKET SHARES OF COMPANIES OFFERING/MANUFACTURING
SUPPLEMENT-GRADE LUTEIN, 2014 (%) 160
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 161
TABLE 105 GLOBAL LUTEIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 162
FIGURE 64 GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET VALUE BY APPLICATION, 2014 AND 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 163
FIGURE 65 GLOBAL LUTEIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 164
CHAPTER 13 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR LYCOPENE 166
PRODUCT IDENTITY 166
TABLE 106 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LYCOPENE 166
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 166
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 167
TABLE 107 LIST OF FOODS TO WHICH LYCOPENE FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS MAY
BE ADDED IN THE EU (MAXIMUM CONTENT OF LYCOPENE IN MG/KG) 167
TABLE 108 `SPECIFICATION OF LYCOPENE FROM FERMENTATION ALLOWED FOR
USE UNDER THE NOVEL FOOD ACT 168
TABLE 109 SPECIFICATION OF LYCOPENE FROM TOMATO ALLOWED FOR USE IN
THE EU FOR FOOD COLORING 169
TABLE 110 TYPICAL DATA SHEET OF A LYCOPENE 15% OIL SUSPENSION, NATURAL
EXTRACT 170
TABLE 111 TYPICAL DATA SHEET OF A LYCOPENE 5% POWDER, SYNTHETIC ORIGIN 171
TABLE 112 TYPICAL DATA SHEET OF LYCOPENE FROM BLAKESLEA TRISPORA AS
20% OIL SUSPENSION 171
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 171
FIGURE 66 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION,
1990-2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 172
TABLE 113 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 173
FIGURE 67 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014
(%) 173
TABLE 114 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCTION,
THROUGH 2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 174
PRICE DEVELOPMENT 174
TABLE 115 DEVELOPMENT OF MARKET PRICES FOR LYCOPENE BY SOURCE,
2004-2014 ($/KG CRYSTALLINE) 175
MARKET VALUE 175
TABLE 116 GLOBAL LYCOPENE MARKET VALUE BY TYPE OF PRODUCTION, 2010
AND 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 175
TABLE 117 GLOBAL LYCOPENE MARKET VALUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2014 ($
MILLIONS/%) 176
FIGURE 68 GLOBAL LYCOPENE MARKET VALUE SHARE BY REGION, 2014 (%) 176
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 176
TABLE 118 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF LYCOPENE PRODUCERS, 2004-2014 (%) 177
FIGURE 69 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF LYCOPENE PRODUCERS, 2014 (%) 177
CURRENT AND FUTURE MARKET 178
TABLE 119 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 179
TABLE 120 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 179
TABLE 121 GLOBAL LYCOPENE CONSUMPTION MARKET BY TYPE OF PRODUCTION,
THROUGH 2019 (TONS CRYSTALLINE) 179
FIGURE 70 GLOBAL LYCOPENE MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 179
CHAPTER 14 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND MARKETS FOR ZEAXANTHIN 182
PRODUCT IDENTITY 182
TABLE 122 PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ZEAXANTHIN 182
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT 182
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND
FORMULATIONS 183
TABLE 123 TYPICAL DATA SHEETS FOR NATURAL ZEAXANTHIN-LUTEIN PRODUCTS 183
TABLE 124 TYPICAL DATA SHEET FOR SYNTHETIC AND ISOLATED NATURAL
ZEAXANTHIN PRODUCTS 184
DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMPTION 184
TABLE 125 GLOBAL ZEAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH
2014 (TONS CRYSTALLINE/%) 184
FIGURE 71 GLOBAL ZEAXANTHIN CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2014
(%) 185
PRICE DEVELOPMENTS 185
MARKET VALUE 185
TABLE 126 GLOBAL ZEAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2014 ($
MILLIONS/%) 186
MARKETING SYSTEMS AND MARKET SHARES 186
CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND 186
FIGURE 72 GLOBAL ZEAXANTHIN MARKET VALUE BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 187

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