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Plastics for Barrier Packaging

  • January 2015
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  • BCC Research
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  • 322 pages

This BCC Research report looks at the packaging industry, that of plastic barrier packaging, and the plastic resins that supply these barriers. Forecasts included through 2019.

Use this report to:
- Review important background information on barrier packaging and the materials used to produce such packaging
- Learn about important facets of the barrier plastic packaging industry
- Receive information on the environmental, regulatory and public policy issues
- Identify packaging markets by barrier resin type

Highlights
- The U.S. packaging barrier resin market reached 8.8 billion pounds in 2014. This market is expected to grow to about 9.8 billion pounds in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2%.
- The U.S. barrier resins market reached 8 billion pounds in 2014 and is expected to grow to 8.8 billion pounds in 2019, with a CAGR of 2%.
- The U.S. permeable films market reached 640 million pounds in 2014 and is expected to grow to 710 million pounds in 2019, with a CAGR of 2.1%.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION
This report is an update of a BCC Research report on this subject by the same author, published in Jan. 2012. In this new update, we have reevaluated the entire subject and
introduced any new barrier packaging concepts and products that we found in the intervening period. We have updated and extended our market analyses, estimates
and forecasts for five additional years into the future, from base year 2014 to 2019.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Packaging and plastics used in packaging are seen virtually everywhere in modern developed society. Most of the goods that the public buys in developed societies are
packaged, as are an increasing number in developing countries as well (one side effect from all this packaging has been a constant barrage of complaints from activists that
products are “overpackaged” and this excess packaging contributes to our big waste load). Many companies have reacted and continue to react to these complaints by
reducing or changing their packaging to make the final package less complex and/or using less packaging material.

Packaging has been around for centuries and probably was developed for a number of reasons. These include preservation and stability of products over time and the
protection of products from damage, dirt, moisture, etc. Early packaging was quite crude; for example, the casks and cases of salted meat carried on old sailing ships,
which often went to sea for extended lengths of time.

All packaging provides some sort of barrier; this is a primary reason for packaging products in the first place. Packaging protects products from infiltration (or, in some cases, exfiltration, the latter the passing of a material or materials out of the container) of contaminants, of flavor, color, odor, etc., as well as preserving the contents. Glass and metal containers have been used for packaging goods for many years and certainly qualify as barrier packages. As we discuss later, thick glass and metal qualify as “functional” barriers that stop just about everything from passing through them. Plastics, that is, polymers usually made from chemical and petrochemical raw materials, are everywhere around us, in a multitude of goods ranging from small children’s toys to automobile bodies and house siding.

Packaging examples are also legion, most visible in food and beverage products but also well known for consumer items such as the ubiquitous “clamshell” clear rigid thermoformed packaging for hardware and “jewel box” cassette cases (as well as the CDs and DVDs that are inside). Packaging is the single largest end use of plastic resins in the United States. For many years, packaging has consumed more than one-quarter of all the resins used in any year in the United States. In this study, we look at a very important segment of the packaging industry, that of plastic barrier packaging and the plastic resins that supply these barriers. That is, polymers that are used in packaging to provide a barrier to some unwanted intrusion in or out of the package. Barrier resins block the passage of several important substances, including oxygen, moisture, odors, flavors, light and others.

Different experts and observers use different terms to describe the use and function of plastics in barrier packaging, and most of these terms are somewhat arbitrary. They
also can be confusing. First and foremost, this study is devoted entirely to synthetic barrier plastics; that is, those primarily derived from petrochemical feedstocks. At the time of our last update in 2011, the last sentence in the last paragraph pretty well described the origin of virtually all the plastics used in packaging; that is, from petrochemical feedstocks. In the last few years, a lot of new research and development is ongoing to find new plastic feedstocks that do not come from crude oil or natural gas.

This is the bioplastics phenomenon, where both new and old companies are looking for ways to make common plastics from renewable biological sources, primarily from
vegetation of some kind, be it corn, castor beans, switchgrass or several other sources. The bioplastics business and technology is not within the scope of this study since we
focus on the produced plastics and their uses in producing barrier packaging. We will note in appropriate places later in the report examples of biological sources for plastic
resins.

Despite the interest and potential of biological sources for plastic resins, the resins that we focus on are themselves still synthetic, produced by chemical processes; the only
difference may be in the origin of the feedstock or feedstocks. In the bioplastics arena, we do briefly describe cellophane, the one natural barrier film still in some use, but do
not include it in our market estimates and forecasts since it is not synthetic and for years it has been considered an obsolete product with a declining market.

Among synthetic resins, many analysts attempt to differentiate between barrier resins and structural resins used in packaging. By defining some limits of gas permeability
that constitute barrier properties, resins are placed in one or the other category. BCC Research does not rigidly classify barrier packaging resins in this way, for not only is
“barrier” an arbitrary term, but different resins can perform both barrier and structural functions in some plastic packaging structures. All resins discussed and analyzed in
this report are considered to be barrier resins, even if their use may predominantly be structural in many or most of their packaging structures.

Thus, we do consider polyolefins (polyethylenes and polypropylene), polystyrene and other such strong support resins to primarily be structural; we call them secondary
barrier resins. This is to differentiate them from the primary barrier resins such as ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC). The latter
are included in barrier structures strictly for their gas barrier properties. A good example of combination structure and barrier is the common polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) bottle used for years to package carbonated soft drinks (CSDs), water and other beverages. In this application, the primary structural resin, PET, has sufficient barrier against the primary pass-through material (e.g., the exfiltration of carbon dioxide “fizz” from the contained soda) to be a used in a simple monolayer plastic structure for many CSDs. However, it is really a relatively poor barrier resin and all CSDs lose “fizz” over time, with this degradation accelerated by exposure to heat; most of us have experienced opening a rather old plastic soda bottle and finding the contents flat. Many major soft drink bottlers now often put “use by” dates, or other means of identifying the package’s age, on CSD bottles.

To package a more demanding product such as beer, which can rapidly degrade from oxygen infiltration, a better barrier structure is needed and the plastic packaging
industry has been working for several years on this challenge; this was one of the most interesting developments around the turn of the century, discussed in our previous
updates and still of interest. Plastic, primarily PET-based, beer bottles have been a desired product for years, but at this time the “ideal” plastic beer bottle that can truly
preserve beer for the desired period of time is not yet a widespread commercial reality, especially in the U.S.

In many other cases, a multilayer structure (MLS), either laminated or coextruded, is needed to provide both strength and barrier. Some of these multilayer (ML) structures,
even for seemingly simple products like snack foods, are wonders to behold and now often have seven or more different plastic layers, each layer providing a different
structural, barrier or adhesive function.

The growth of plastic barrier packaging, in the sophisticated sense used in this report, has been significant since the discovery and development of the first synthetic
specialty barrier resin, polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC, Dow Chemical’s old Saran brand) in the 1950s and 1960s (Dow sold the household Saran Wrap to S.C. Johnson but
retains the trademark in the U.S. for its basic PVdC resin products). The commercialization of EVOH came a bit later, in the 1970s. As we said, these two resins are the backbone of high-barrier plastic packaging.

It was the development of coextrusion technology that enabled the efficient manufacture of ML plastic structures in a wide range of thicknesses, in a single pass through one machine. Coextrusion is just that, a process that extrudes more than one type of resin simultaneously through an extrusion die to form a MLS with discreet and independent layers bonded to each other. The development of coextrusion really caused barrier packaging growth to take off in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Before then, ML structures were made by laminating two plastic layers together with heat or adhesives, a slower and intrinsically less efficient process. Lamination still is an important MLS method, especially for resin combinations that are difficult to coextrude.

Adding to the interest in this subject, the barrier packaging industry changes constantly. An ideal polymeric barrier does not exist, and probably never will, since each application has different requirements. In some cases, for example, in the packaging of meat, polyethylenes (PEs) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), both films that are not good oxygen barriers, have been commonly used to package beef in supermarket meat displays for years, since they keep beef color red and inviting for the short time it is on display.

However, for long-term transport or storage of meat, a good oxygen barrier is needed to prevent spoilage. Newer packaging was required for “boxed beef,” packages of
commercial beef cuts (sirloins, round steak, etc.) that since 1967 have been produced at the processing plant and then shipped in refrigerated boxes for direct sale at the
supermarket. A common system in use today uses two film layers, a good barrier for shipment that is removed at the supermarket to expose a PE or PVC film that allows
oxygen to infiltrate and keep the beef red. Current barrier packaging plastics are good, but problems remain that restrict their use or hinder their growth in many applications. These include: High cost, almost always higher than the cost of a simple monolayer plastic package of, for example, polyethylene or polypropylene.

Susceptibility to contamination or degradation, especially by moisture: EVOH is the best example of this problem, since its hydroxyl groups give it good barrier qualities
but also make it susceptible to hydrolysis. As a result, EVOH only can be used as an inner layer in a MLS since its barrier properties degrade to virtual worthlessness when
EVOH is subjected to high humidity. Disposal or recycling problems: Most MLS, since they contain more than one type of plastic, cannot easily be commingled and recycled with, for example, straight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or PET. Many ML containers must be classified and labeled with the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) recycling number “7” for “other.” Challenges from competing materials and processes, both old and proven materials like glass and metallization, and newer ones such as silicon and other oxide coatings that can provide a superior barrier.

Our goal is to describe the most common and popular barrier polymers and their applications, their technology, competing barrier materials and future trends. We estimate and forecast markets for barrier polymers of several kinds and in several different important markets such as food and healthcare packaging. The polymers and applications that we cover are described and briefly discussed below in the “Scope” section.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
As noted above, packaging constitutes the single largest end use of plastics in the United States. And more and more packaging is barrier packaging, which is taking on
increased importance each year as both producers and customers seek longer shelf life and better product integrity, flavor, potency, etc. BCC Research has maintained and updated this study to provide a comprehensive reference for those interested and/or involved in these products and who want an up-to-date review of the field and estimated markets. This cohort of people and organizations includes a wide and varied group of chemical and other companies that make and use barrier polymers, process technology and equipment designers and marketers, politicians of all stripes and the general public. We have collected, condensed and analyzed information from a large amount of literature and other reference materials to compile this report.

Many developments over the past generation or so in barrier packaging were done to develop even more sophisticated multilayer barrier packaging structures, needed to
solve the most difficult barrier packaging problems economically. These developments are a primary and continuing focus of this study. As this technology was developed,
four basic barrier materials were found and used widely: PVdC, nylon, EVOH and metallized films. Consumer demand for foods with longer shelf life, high-quality and
excellent flavor and freshness retention has led to even more sophisticated MLS that often are thinner than their less-efficient predecessors, but also usually more
sophisticated and complicated, usually with more (but usually thinner) layers. This has occurred because of the better choice of barriers and structural layers in the ML
structure. It often results in a thinner coextruded or molded film or rigid structure with more layers that can do a better job than a simpler and thicker one.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended to inform and assist those involved in several different U.S. industrial and commercial business sectors, primarily individuals with a primary
interest in packaging. These organizations and people include those involved in development, formulation, manufacture, sale and use of barrier polymer and polymer
processes; also those in ancillary businesses such as processing equipment as well as additives and other support chemicals and equipment. These include process and
product development experts, process and product designers, purchasing agents, construction and operating personnel, marketing staff and top management. BCC
Research believes that this report will be of great value to technical and business personnel in the following areas, among others:

- Marketing and management personnel in companies that produce, market and sell barrier polymers.
- Companies involved in the design and construction of process plants that manufacture barrier polymers and those who service these plants.
- Financial institutions that supply money for such facilities, including banks, merchant bankers, venture capitalists and others.
- Personnel in end-user packaging companies and industries, such as food, healthcare and consumer and household products.
- Personnel in government at many levels, primarily federal, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but also state and local health, environmental and other
regulators who must implement and enforce laws covering public health and safety, food quality, etc.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This BCC Research study provides in-depth coverage of many of the most important technological, economic, political and environmental considerations in the U.S. barrier
packaging polymer industry. It primarily is a study of U.S. markets. But because of the increasingly global nature of polymer and packaging chemistry it touches on some
noteworthy international activities, primarily those having an impact on the U.S. market, such as imports/exports and foreign firms operating in this country.

We analyze and forecast market estimates for barrier packaging plastic resins in volume in pounds. Our base market estimate year is 2014, and we forecast market growth for a five-year period to 2019. All market figures are rounded to the nearest million pounds and all growth rates are compounded (signified as compound annual growth rates or CAGRs). Because of this rounding, some growth rates may not agree exactly with figures in the market tables; this is especially so with small volumes and their differences. All market volumes are at the manufacturer or producer level.

Table Of Contents

Plastics for Barrier Packaging
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 5
INTENDED AUDIENCE 6
SCOPE AND FORMAT 6
OXYGEN AND WATER VAPOR BARRIER RESINS 8
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 10
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 10
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 10
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 11
DISCLAIMER 11
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 13
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 15
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE BY
TYPE, 2014 AND 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 15
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 17
U.S. CHEMICAL AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 17
CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL GAS 17
SOME INDUSTRY HISTORY 18
CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES 19
U.S. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY PRODUCTION 22
TABLE 1 VALUE OF U.S. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SHIPMENTS, THROUGH 2012 ($
BILLIONS) 22
U.S. PLASTIC RESIN INDUSTRY 23
U.S. PLASTIC RESIN INDUSTRY SIZE AND PRODUCTION 23
TABLE 2 NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCTION OF MAJOR THERMOPLASTIC RESINS:
2006-2013 (MILLION POUNDS) 24
BULK RESIN MANUFACTURE 24
PLASTIC RESIN FABRICATION 25
RIGID CONTAINERS 26
Blow Molding 27
Thermoforming 27
FLEXIBLE PACKAGING 28
RESIN MODIFICATION: CONVERTING AND COMPOUNDING 29
Converting 29
Compounding 29
BARRIER COATINGS: SOLUTION/EMULSION 29
END USERS 30
TABLE 3 PRICES OF BULK COMMODITY THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, 1992-2014
(CENTS PER POUND) 31
BARRIER PACKAGING 31
HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF BARRIER PACKAGING AND BARRIER
PLASTICS 31
Barrier Plastics and Technology 33
FOOD SPOILAGE 35
THE NEED FOR BARRIER PACKAGING 35
Socioeconomic Factors in the Growth of Barrier Plastics 36
Growth of Prepared, Convenient, Fast Foods 36
Shelf Life 37
Recycling 37
TERMS USED IN BARRIER PACKAGING 38
GAS PERMEABILITIES AND TRANSMISSION RATES 38
Permeability 38
Gas Transmission Rate 39
High vs. Moderate Barriers 39
Oxygen Barrier 40
Water Vapor Barrier 41
MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES 42
PLASTICS 42
Barrier Resins 43
Natural Polymers 43
Synthetic Polymers 44
Vapor Permeability Values 45
TABLE 4 VAPOR PERMEABILITIES OF PACKAGING RESINS 46
Vapor Permeable Materials 47
Healthcare 47
Food 47
OTHER MATERIALS 48
Scavengers/Active Packaging 48
BARRIER STRUCTURES 49
Monolayer Structures 49
Multilayer Structures 49
CHAPTER 4 PACKAGING MARKETS BY BARRIER RESIN TYPES 52
OVERALL MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 52
TABLE 5 U.S. PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 52
REGENERATED CELLULOSE (CELLOPHANE) 54
TABLE 6 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE (CELLOPHANE) 54
ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMERS 55
EVOH BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 55
TABLE 7 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR EVOH BARRIER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 55
EVOH PROPERTIES 56
TABLE 8 TYPICAL EVOH PROPERTIES 57
TABLE 9 PROCESSES, ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF EVOH 57
EVOH PRODUCERS 59
Kuraray America's Eval Business Unit 59
Noltex LLC 59
EVOH STRUCTURES, FORMATS AND APPLICATIONS 60
Food Packaging 60
Multilayer Barrier Structures 61
Other Blends 61
Nonfood Packaging 62
FLUOROPOLYMERS-PCTFE 62
PCTFE BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 62
TABLE 10 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR PCTFE BARRIER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 63
PCTFE PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 63
TABLE 11 TYPICAL PCTFE PROPERTIES 64
TABLE 12 PCTFE ADVANTAGES 64
COMMERCIAL ACLAR BRAND PCTFE BARRIER RESINS AND FILMS 65
NITRILE POLYMERS (POLYACRYLONITRILE AND COPOLYMERS) 66
NITRILE (AN-MA) BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 66
TABLE 13 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR NITRILE (AN-MA) BARRIER
RESINS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 67
NITRILE RESIN PROPERTIES 68
TABLE 14 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF NITRILE (AN-MA) COPOLYMERS 68
NITRILE RESIN APPLICATIONS 69
AN-MA RESIN STRUCTURES AND FORMATS 70
POLYAMIDE (NYLON) RESINS 71
NYLON BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 72
TABLE 15 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR POLYAMIDE (NYLON) BARRIER
RESINS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 72
PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALLINE NYLON RESINS 73
Unoriented Nylons 73
TABLE 16 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF UNORIENTED NYLONS 73
Oriented Nylon 6 74
TABLE 17 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF ORIENTED NYLON 6 74
Properties 74
AMORPHOUS NYLONS 75
TABLE 18 PROCESSING, ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF AMORPHOUS NYLONS 75
DuPont's Selar Products 76
TABLE 19 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SELAR PA AMORPHOUS NYLONS 76
MXD6 77
NYLON STRUCTURES AND FORMATS 77
POLYOLEFINS 78
POLYOLEFIN PROPERTIES 78
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE FILMS 79
TABLE 21 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE FILMS 79
THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTERS 80
POLYESTER BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 80
TABLE 22 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTER
BARRIER RESINS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 81
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE 82
History 82
Properties 83
TABLE 23 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER (PET) RESIN 83
TABLE 24 SOME ADVANTAGES OF PET BARRIER RESINS 84
Modified PET Resins 85
POLYETHYLENE NAPHTHALATE 85
Applications for PEN 86
POLYTRIMETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PTT) 87
POLYETHYLENE FURANOATE (PEF) 87
POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE AND COPOLYMERS 88
PVDC BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 88
TABLE 25 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR PVDC BARRIER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 88
PVDC PROPERTIES 89
TABLE 26 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE 89
Advantages and Limitations 90
TABLE 27 PVDC PROCESSES, AND ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF PVCDC
BARRIER RESINS 90
Crystallinity 91
PVdC versus Other High Barrier Resins 91
Consumer Attitudes 91
PVDC PACKAGING FORMATS AND APPLICATIONS 92
PVDC COATINGS 93
PVdC-Coated Films 93
PVdC-Coated Rigid Containers 93
OTHER BARRIER MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS 94
ADHESIVE TIE LAYER RESINS 94
Chemistry 95
Ionomers 95
Properties 95
TABLE 28 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER AND
IONOMER FILM RESINS 96
Reactive Bonding 96
Tie Layer Resin Barrier Packaging Market Estimate 97
TABLE 29 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR BARRIER TIE LAYER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 97
NONPOLYMERIC BARRIERS IN PLASTIC BARRIER STRUCTURES 98
Film Metallization 98
Inorganic Barrier Coatings 99
Silicon Oxide Coatings 99
Aluminum Oxide Coatings 100
LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMERS 100
Polyarylates 101
CYCLOOLEFIN COPOLYMER 102
POLYETHYLENE FURANOATE 102
OXYGEN AND ETHYLENE SCAVENGING SYSTEMS 103
STRUCTURAL RESINS 104
POLYETHYLENES 104
POLYPROPYLENE 105
THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTERS 106
POLYSTYRENE 107
POLYCARBONATE 107
OTHER STRUCTURAL RESINS 107
VAPOR PERMEABLE RESINS 108
VAPOR PERMEABLE RESIN PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 108
TABLE 30 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR VAPOR PERMEABLE RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 109
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE 110
TABLE 31 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILMS 110
DUPONT TYVEK 111
CONTROLLED/MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING 113
TABLE 32 OPTIMUM HEADSPACE PACKAGING ATMOSPHERES FOR PRODUCE (%) 114
Commercial CAP/MAP Films 115
Blended and Composite CAP/MAP Films 116
Microporous or Microperforated CAP/MAP Films 116
CAP/MAP Films with Permeable Windows 116
Landec Intelimer Films 117
CHAPTER 5 PACKAGING MARKETS BY BARRIER RESIN APPLICATIONS 120
OVERALL MARKET ESTIMATE AND FORECAST 120
TABLE 33 `OVERALL U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN
VOLUMES BY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 120
FOOD PACKAGING 121
FOOD BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 121
TABLE 34 U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC FOOD PACKAGING MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 121
Barrier Resins 122
Vapor Permeable Resins 123
CHEMICAL/INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT PACKAGING 123
CHEMICAL/INDUSTRIAL BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 123
TABLE 35 U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL PACKAGING MARKET
VOLUME ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 123
AUTOMOTIVE FUEL TANKS 124
HEALTHCARE PACKAGING 125
HEALTHCARE BARRIER PACKAGING MARKET ESTIMATE 126
TABLE 36 U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC HEALTHCARE PACKAGING MARKET VOLUME
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 126
CHAPTER 6 TECHNOLOGY 129
PLASTIC RESIN CHEMISTRY, MANUFACTURE AND PROPERTIES 129
COMMODITY RESINS 130
REGENERATED CELLULOSE (CELLOPHANE) 131
ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMERS (EVOH) 131
FLUOROPOLYMERS-BARRIER PCTFE 132
NITRILE POLYMERS (POLYACRYLONITRILE AND COPOLYMERS) 133
POLYAMIDE (NYLON) RESINS 134
POLYOLEFINS 135
Polyethylene 135
Polypropylene 136
THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTERS 137
Modified Polyester Resins 139
Polyethylene Naphthalate 140
Polytrimethylene Terephthalate 140
VINYL POLYMERS 141
PVC and Copolymers 141
PVdC and Copolymers 141
OTHER BARRIER MATERIALS 142
OTHER STRUCTURAL RESINS 143
NEWER POLYMERIZATION TECHNOLOGIES 145
POLYOLEFIN PROCESSES 146
NEW AND IMPROVED POLYESTER RESINS AND PROCESSES 147
METALLOCENE/SINGLE-SITE CATALYST TECHNOLOGY 149
POLYMER FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY 151
RIGID STRUCTURES - PLASTICS MOLDING 151
FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES 154
THERMOFORMING TECHNOLOGY 161
POLYMER AND FILM ORIENTATION 163
BIAXIAL ORIENTATION - THE TENTER FRAME 164
BARRIER TECHNOLOGY 165
MOISTURE (WATER VAPOR) AND OXYGEN 165
OTHER GASES 166
LIGHT (VISIBLE AND ULTRAVIOLET) 166
ODORS, AROMAS, SOLVENT VAPORS AND OTHERS 167
Organic Permeation Detection Systems 167
TESTING GAS PERMEABILITY 168
Oxygen Permeability Testing 168
Water Vapor Permeability Testing 169
NONPOLYMERIC BARRIER SURFACE FILMS AND COATINGS 169
METALLIZED FILMS 169
SILICON AND OTHER METAL OXIDE COATINGS 170
Silicon Oxide Coatings 170
Other Metal Oxide Coatings 171
PLASMA TREATMENT 172
MULTILAYER LAMINATION AND COEXTRUSION 172
LAMINATION 173
COEXTRUSION 173
Feed Block Coextrusion 174
Multimanifold Die Coextrusion 174
Coextrusion vs. Lamination 175
FOOD PROCESSING METHODS 175
THERMAL PROCESSING 176
Aseptic Processing 176
Hot-Fill Processing 177
Retort Processing 177
NONTHERMAL PROCESSING 178
FOOD PACKAGING 178
NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN BARRIER PACKAGING 179
MORE AND THINNER LAYERS IN MULTILAYER STRUCTURES 180
NEW BARRIER POLYMERS 181
BIOPLASTICS 181
Bio-Based Polyamides 182
Polyethylene Furanoate (PEF) 183
OXYGEN SCAVENGERS 183
Systems 184
NANOCOMPOSITE BARRIERS 186
Products 187
Nanoclay Barrier Coatings 188
NEW CLOSURE DESIGNS 188
Bottle Closures 189
New Multilayer Film Package Sealing 189
NEW PET BARRIER METHODS AND MATERIALS 189
Chemical Vapor Deposition 191
Coca-Cola/Krones BestPET Coating System 192
Plasmax Plasma Coating System 193
Dow's Blox Barrier Plastics 193
Indspec Resorcinol-Based PET Copolymers 194
Invista's PolyShield PET Resin and Barrier Structure 195
MandG's ActiTUF Barrier Resins and PolyProtect Products 195
nGimat's "Open Atmosphere" System 196
ORMOCER Ceramic Coatings 197
Owens-Illinois/Graham Packaging SurShot System and SurShield
Barrier Structure 197
Plastlac's PetSkin UV Coating 198
Polymer and Processing Modifications 198
PPG Bairocade Coatings 198
Sidel's Actis System 199
RWTH Aachen University's Double-Sided Coating System 200
Tetra Pak's Glaskin and Sealica Systems 200
APPE's Combination Barrier System 201
Mullinex's OxyRx System 202
Plastic Technologies' Opti Bottle 202
Mitsubishi Plastics' Carbon Film Barrier 202
PLASTIC BEER BOTTLES 202
Technologies Used 203
Some History and Background 204
The Current Situation 207
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 209
TRENDS IN THE U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC RESINS INDUSTRY 209
BARRIER PLASTIC RESIN AND PACKAGING SUPPLIERS 211
INTEGRATION: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL 211
INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION 212
Recent Organizational Changes 212
Investment Drivers 213
IMPACT OF LARGE RESIN PRODUCERS AND END USERS 213
CASE STUDY: PET BOTTLE RESIN PRODUCERS 214
PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AND SUBSTITUTION 215
MARKET ENTRY FACTORS 215
COMPOUNDERS/CONVERTERS/MOLDERS AND DISTRIBUTORS 216
MARKETING 216
FACTORS AFFECTING MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH 216
END USER RESIN SELECTION CRITERIA 218
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS 219
GLOBAL USE OF BARRIER PACKAGING AND RESINS 220
TABLE 37 INTERNATIONAL MAJOR BARRIER RESIN MARKETS, 2014 (MILLION
POUNDS) 220
MAJOR FOREIGN PLAYERS 221
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 221
CHAPTER 8 ENVIRONMENTAL, REGULATORY AND PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES 224
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 224
DISPOSAL OF WASTE PLASTICS 224
MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION 225
RECYCLING 229
SOURCE REDUCTION 234
BIODEGRADABILITY AND OTHER FACTORS 235
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS 237
Recycling 239
FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATORY PROCESSES 240
FOOD SAFETY MODERNIZATION ACT OF 2011 240
PACKAGING LAW 241
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR) 242
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) 244
Food Additive Categories 244
Regulation of Food Packaging Materials 244
FOOD ADDITIVE PETITIONS 245
Premarket or Food Contact Notification System 246
Use of Recycled Plastics in Packaging 247
Newer Rules on Reporting Contamination 248
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) 249
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) 249
OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES 250
STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES 250
CASE STUDY: POLYACRYLONITRILE RESINS 251
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS 252
"GREENWASHING" 254
CHAPTER 9 COMPANY PROFILES 257
INTRODUCTION 257
SUPPLIER COMPANIES 258
AMCOR LTD. 258
Amcor Flexibles Specialty Foods North America 258
Amcor Rigid Plastics 258
AMPAC HOLDINGS LLC 259
AET FILMS-SEE TAGHLEEF INDUSTRIES INC. 259
ARKEMA INC. 259
ASCEND PERFORMANCE MATERIALS LLC 260
BALL CORP. 260
BASF CORP. 261
BAYER CORP. 262
BEMIS CO. INC. 263
BILCARE RESEARCH INC. 264
BYK ADDITIVES INC. 265
CELANESE CORP. 265
Celanese EVA Performance Polymers Manufacturing 265
Ticona Manufacturing Headquarters 265
CHARTER NEX FILMS INC. 267
CHEVRON PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO. 267
COLORMATRIX CORP. 268
CONSTAR INTERNATIONAL LLC-SEE PLASTIPAK PACKAGING INC. 268
DAIKIN AMERICA INC. 268
DAK AMERICAS LLC 269
THE DOW CHEMICAL CO. 270
DSM 272
DSM Engineering Plastics 272
E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND CO. 273
DuPont Teijin Films U.S. 273
ELEMENTIS SPECIALTIES INC. 275
EMS-CHEMIE HOLDING AG 276
EMS-Grivory 276
EMS-Chemie (North America) 276
EVAL-SEE KURARAY 276
EXXONMOBIL CORP. 276
ExxonMobil Chemical 277
GRAHAM PACKAGING CO. 277
GRAPHIC PACKAGING HOLDING CO. 278
HONEYWELL INC. 279
INDORAMA POLYMERS PUBLIC CO. LTD. 280
StarPet 280
AlphaPet 281
INEOS BAREX 281
INERGY AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS (USA) LLC 282
JINDAL FILMS AMERICA LLC 283
KLÖCKNER-PENTAPLAST OF AMERICA INC. 283
KOCH INDUSTRIES 284
Invista 284
KORTEC INC. 286
KURARAY CO. LTD. 287
Kuraray America 287
KUREHA CORP. 288
Kureha America LLC 289
LANDEC CORP. 289
LANXESS CORP. 290
LYONDELLBASELL INDUSTRIES 291
MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL CORP. 292
Mitsubishi Chemical USA 292
Mitsubishi Polyester Film 292
MITSUBISHI GAS CHEMICAL AMERICA INC. 293
Mitsubishi Engineering-Plastics Corp. 293
MITSUBISHI PLASTICS INC. 294
MITSUI CHEMICALS AMERICA 295
Mitsui Plastics 295
GRUPPO MOSSI and GHISOLFI 296
MandG Polymers USA LLC 296
MULTISORB TECHNOLOGIES 297
NANOCOR 298
NIPPON GOHSEI 298
Noltex LLC 298
Soarus LLC 298
MSI Technology LLC 299
PERLEN CONVERTING LLC 300
PLASTIPAK PACKAGING INC. 300
POLYONE CORP. 301
PPG INDUSTRIES 302
PRETIUM CONTAINER CORP. 302
PRINTPACK INC. 303
REXAM PLC 304
ROLLPRINT PACKAGING PRODUCTS INC. 304
SCHOLLE PACKAGING INC. 305
SEALED AIR CORP. 305
Cryovac Food Packaging 305
SIDEL-SEE TETRA LAVAL 307
SKC LTD. 307
SKC Inc. 307
SOARUS LLC-SEE NOLTEX LLC 307
SOLVAY S.A. 307
Solvay Specialty Polymers LLC/SolVin 308
SOUTHERN CLAY PRODUCTS INC.-SEE BYK ADDITIVES INC. 309
SPARTECH CORP./SPARTECH PLASTICS-SEE POLYONE CORP. 309
TAGHLEEF INDUSTRIES INC. 309
TEIJIN-DUPONT FILMS-SEE DUPONT 310
TIEPET USA/STARPET INC.-SEE INDORAMA 310
TEKNI-FILMS US 310
TETRA LAVAL INTERNATIONAL S.A. 310
Sidel U.S. 311
Tetra Pak U.S. 311
TOPAS ADVANCED POLYMERS INC. 312
THE TORAY GROUP 313
Toray Industries (America) 313
Toray Plastics (America) 313
VIAM FILMS 314
WINPAK LTD. 314
CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX: GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND
ACRONYMS 317

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE U.S. PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE BY
TYPE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 15
TABLE 1 VALUE OF U.S. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SHIPMENTS, THROUGH 2012 ($
BILLIONS) 22
TABLE 2 NORTH AMERICAN PRODUCTION OF MAJOR THERMOPLASTIC RESINS:
2006-2013 (MILLION POUNDS) 24
TABLE 3 PRICES OF BULK COMMODITY THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, 1992-2014 (CENTS
PER POUND) 31
TABLE 4 VAPOR PERMEABILITIES OF PACKAGING RESINS 46
TABLE 5 U.S. PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 52
TABLE 6 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE (CELLOPHANE) 54
TABLE 7 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR EVOH BARRIER RESINS, THROUGH
2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 55
TABLE 8 TYPICAL EVOH PROPERTIES 57
TABLE 9 PROCESSES, ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF EVOH 57
TABLE 10 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR PCTFE BARRIER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 63
TABLE 11 TYPICAL PCTFE PROPERTIES 64
TABLE 12 PCTFE ADVANTAGES 64
TABLE 13 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR NITRILE (AN-MA) BARRIER
RESINS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 67
TABLE 14 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF NITRILE (AN-MA) COPOLYMERS 68
TABLE 15 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR POLYAMIDE (NYLON) BARRIER
RESINS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 72
TABLE 16 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF UNORIENTED NYLONS 73
TABLE 17 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF ORIENTED NYLON 6 74
TABLE 18 PROCESSING, ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF AMORPHOUS NYLONS 75
TABLE 19 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SELAR PA AMORPHOUS NYLONS 76
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE FILMS 79
TABLE 21 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE FILMS 79
TABLE 22 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYESTER
BARRIER RESINS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 81
TABLE 23 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER (PET) RESIN 83
TABLE 24 SOME ADVANTAGES OF PET BARRIER RESINS 84
TABLE 25 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR PVDC BARRIER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 88
TABLE 26 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE 89
TABLE 27 PVDC PROCESSES, AND ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF PVCDC
BARRIER RESINS 90
TABLE 28 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER AND
IONOMER FILM RESINS 96
TABLE 29 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR BARRIER TIE LAYER RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 97
TABLE 30 U.S. PACKAGING VOLUME ESTIMATE FOR VAPOR PERMEABLE RESINS,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 109
TABLE 31 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILMS 110
TABLE 32 OPTIMUM HEADSPACE PACKAGING ATMOSPHERES FOR PRODUCE (%) 114
TABLE 33 `OVERALL U.S. MARKET ESTIMATE FOR PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN
VOLUMES BY APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 120
TABLE 34 U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC FOOD PACKAGING MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE,
THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 121
TABLE 35 U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL PACKAGING MARKET
VOLUME ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 123
TABLE 36 U.S. BARRIER PLASTIC HEALTHCARE PACKAGING MARKET VOLUME
ESTIMATE, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 126
TABLE 37 INTERNATIONAL MAJOR BARRIER RESIN MARKETS, 2014 (MILLION
POUNDS) 220

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. PACKAGING BARRIER RESIN MARKET VOLUME ESTIMATE BY
TYPE, 2014 AND 2019 (MILLION POUNDS) 15

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