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Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications

  • June 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 158 pages

The goal of this report is to provide an up-to-date understanding of how catalysts contribute to meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and world global economies while helping to prevent environmental degradation and remediating adverse environmental impacts as they occur.

Use this report to:
- Learn how catalysts contribute to meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and global economies.
- Evaluate the technical and other challenges that must be overcome for the market to realize its full potential.
- Analyse the market for catalysts used in petroleum refining.
- Receive information about the factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.

Highlights
- The global market for energy and environmental catalysts totaled $25.7 billion in 2014. This market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.6%, from nearly $27.3 billion in 2015 to nearly $35.8 billion by 2020.
- Environmental catalyst as a segment should total nearly $19.9 billion in 2015 and nearly $24.7 billion by 2020, at a CAGR of 4.4% from 2015 to 2020.
- The global market for energy catalysts is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.6%, from nearly $7.4 billion in 2015 to $11.1 billion by 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND
This report is an update of an earlier BCC Research report published in 2010. Meeting rising energy requirements and protecting the environment are among the most
important applications of catalyst technology. Broadly speaking, a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the required
activation energy, but which is left unchanged by the reaction. The petroleum industry is the largest single user of catalysts, especially in the production of refined products such as gasoline and diesel fuel. Catalysts also contribute to increasing the supply of petroleum by making it commercially possible to produce oil from sources once regarded as uneconomical, such as tar sands and heavy oil deposits. Catalysts are also being used to produce increasing quantities of synthetic oil and gas from coal and oil shale.

Catalysts are also at the forefront of technologies such as fuel cells and photovoltaic cells, which are being developed to replace conventional fossil fuels. They indirectly
contribute to increasing energy supplies by expanding the efficiency with which hydrocarbon and other fuels are utilized. Energy consumption is a major source of pollution (e.g., automobile and industrial emissions), along with other waste-generating activities. Many people consider the prevention of climate change and other forms of environmental degradation to be a greater priority than increasing energy supplies.

Catalysts are indispensable to many types of environmental remediation, from vehicle emissions control systems to industrial effluent and municipal waste treatment. They
also contribute indirectly to reducing pollution and other adverse environmental impacts, such as through cleaner-burning fuels and the production of products, including refrigerants that pollute less than the substances they replace.

REPORT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The goal of this report is to provide the reader with an up-to-date understanding of how catalysts contribute to meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and global economies
while helping to prevent environmental degradation and remediating adverse environmental impacts as they occur. Specific objectives include:
- Characterizing the current energy and environmental catalyst market in both quantitative and qualitative terms.
- Identifying segments of the energy and environmental markets with the greatest commercial potential in the near to mid-term (2015 to 2020).
- Identifying and quantifying the major demand drivers of energy and environmental catalysts where possible.
- Describing existing and new catalyst technologies under development to meet market requirements.
- Projecting future demand for different types of energy and environmental catalysts.
- Evaluating the technical and other challenges that must be overcome for the market to realize its full potential.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended especially for manufacturers and vendors of catalysts used in energy and environmental applications. Other readers who should find the report
particularly useful include entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know the direction in which these key segments of the catalyst
market are headed over the next five years. This report should also be of interest to end users such as motor vehicle manufacturers, whose technology road maps may make critical assumptions regarding the availability and performance of different catalyst types. The same is true of government agencies and officials responsible for monitoring energy production, consumption and pollution levels.

Other readers who should find the report particularly useful include members of technical and professional organizations, such as the American Chemical Society. Finally, the report’s findings and conclusions should be of interest to the nanotechnology community, including government nanotechnology programs such as the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative, inasmuch as many of the most-promising energy and environmental catalysts are nanocatalysts.

SCOPE OF REPORT
This report addresses the global market for energy and environmental catalysts, including catalysts used in the following:
- Production of crude oil and gas from unconventional sources such as tar sands and heavy oil reservoirs.
- Synfuels production (e.g., coal liquefaction/gasification, shale oil).
- Oil recycling.
- Alternative fuels production (e.g., hydrogen).
- Other emerging energy technologies, such as fuel cells and photovoltaic cells.
- Increasing fuel efficiency (e.g., fuel additives that increase burn efficiency).
- Avoiding or reducing environmental damage.

Mitigating or remediating adverse environmental impacts after they occur. This report also covers the market for catalysts used in petroleum refining. The market for refinery catalysts, however, is covered in less detail because it is already analyzed in a separate BCC Research report, CHM027C—Petrochemical (Petroleum and Chemical) Catalysts.

The study is organized around the following major topics:
- Executive summary.
- Overview (e.g., definitions, history, market segmentation).
- Characteristics of energy and environmental catalysts, those existing as well as those under development.
- Current and potential catalyst applications in energy and environment.
- Patent analysis.
- Global market trends from 2014 to 2020.
- Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.
- Industry structure and market shares.

Table Of Contents

Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
REPORT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
DEFINITION 10
HISTORICAL MILESTONES 10
GENERAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN CATALYSIS 12
MARKET SEGMENTATION 13
CHAPTER 4 CATALYST APPLICATIONS IN ENERGY 16
PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION 16
SYNFUELS 16
Coal and Natural Gas Liquefaction 16
Technologies 18
Direct Coal Liquefaction 18
Indirect Processes 18
Fischer-Tropsch Process 19
FIGURE 1 FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 19
Sasol Process 19
ExxonMobil AGC-21 20
Syntroleum Air Blown Autothermal Process 20
British Petroleum Co. Compact Steam Reformer 21
Rentech Process 22
Shell Middle Distillate Process 22
Statoil Cobalt Catalyst/Slurry Bubble Column Reactor 22
Velocys' Microchannel Reactor 23
Micro-GTL 23
Siluria Oxidative Coupling of Methane/Ethylene to Liquids 24
INFRA.xtl 24
Synfuels Process 24
Other Developments 25
Catalysts 25
Coal Liquefaction Catalysts 25
Gas-to-Liquid Catalysts 25
Syngas Catalysts 25
Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts 26
TABLE 1 FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS USED IN VARIOUS PROCESSES BY
COMPANY 26
TABLE 2 FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST SUPPLIERS, 2014 28
Recent Developments in Gas-to-Liquid Catalysis 29
Patent Analysis 29
FIGURE 2 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 30
Oil Shale 31
Technological Developments 31
Oil Shale Catalysis 32
Fracking 32
Patent Analysis 32
FIGURE 3 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO OIL SHALE CATALYSTS BY COMPANY,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 32
Methanol 33
Methanol Production Technology 34
Current Technology 34
Developing Technologies 35
Biomass-Based Methanol Production 36
Producing Methanol from Landfill Gas 37
Producing Methanol from Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 37
Methanol Catalysis 38
Syngas Production 38
Syngas Decontamination 38
Methanol Production 38
Patent Analysis 38
BIOFUELS 39
Biodiesel 39
Technological Developments 39
Biomass Catalysis 40
Patent Analysis 40
Ethanol 40
Technological Developments 41
Fermentation Ethanol 41
FIGURE 4 FERMENTATION ETHANOL FEEDSTOCKS, 2014 (% OF GLOBAL ETHANOL
PRODUCTION) 41
Cellulosic Ethanol 43
Ethanol Catalysis 44
Patent Analysis 45
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 46
Technological Developments 46
FIGURE 5 DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL 47
Catalysis 47
Patent Analysis 48
HYDROGEN 48
Technological Developments 48
Thermal Processes 48
Steam Reformation of Natural Gas 48
Partial Oxidation 49
Thermal Partial Oxidation 50
Catalytic Partial Oxidation 50
Autothermal Reforming 50
Reforming Renewable Liquid Fuels 51
Electrolytic Processes 51
Electrolysis of Methanol 51
Photolytic Processes 52
Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting 52
Catalysis 52
Reforming Catalysts 52
Partial Oxidation Catalysts 53
Autothermal Reforming Catalysts 53
Methanol Electrolysis Catalysts 53
Photocatalysts 54
Patents 55
REFINING AND RECYCLING 55
TECHNOLOGY 55
Fluid Cracking 55
Hydrocracking 56
Hydrotreating 56
Alkylation 56
Isomerization 57
Catalytic Reforming 58
CATALYSIS 58
TABLE 3 MAJOR REFINING CATALYSTS 58
Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts 58
Hydrocracking Catalysts 59
Hydroprocessing Catalysts 59
Alkylation Catalysts 60
Isomerization Catalysts 60
Catalytic Reforming Catalysts 61
Refining Catalyst Manufacturers 61
TABLE 4 REFINERY CATALYST MANUFACTURERS, 2014 61
PATENTS 61
FIGURE 6 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY PROCESS
TYPE, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 61
FIGURE 7 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY ASSIGNEE,
THROUGH MAY 1, 2015 (%) 62
ENERGY CONVERSION 63
FUEL CELLS 63
FIGURE 8 FUEL CELL PRINCIPLES 64
Technological Developments 64
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 64
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 65
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 66
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 66
Alkaline Fuel Cells 67
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 68
Fuel Cell Catalysis 68
Processing Hydrocarbon Fuels 68
Power Generation 69
Summary 69
TABLE 5 FUEL CELL CATALYSTS 70
Patents 70
FIGURE 9 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO FUEL CELL CATALYSTS, THROUGH
APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 70
CHAPTER 5 CATALYST APPLICATIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 73
GREEN PROCESSING 73
TABLE 6 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY PROCESS TYPE,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 74
CHEMICAL PRODUCTION 74
Technologies 75
Catalysis 75
Solid Acid Catalysts 75
Biocatalysts 76
Patents 76
FIGURE 10 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO SOLID ACID CATALYSTS, THROUGH
APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 77
TEXTILES 77
Technology 77
Bioscouring 77
Biopolishing 78
Biostoning 78
Catalysis 78
Patents 78
FIGURE 11 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO TEXTILE CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL
25, 2015 (%) 79
PULP AND PAPER MANUFACTURING 79
Technology 79
Catalysis 80
Patent Analysis 80
FIGURE 12 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO PULP AND PAPER CATALYSTS,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 81
FOOD PROCESSING 81
Technology 81
Catalysis 82
Patent Analysis 82
INDUSTRIAL PROCESS WASTE REMEDIATION 82
TECHNOLOGY 83
Oxidation 83
Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation 83
Photocatalytic Oxidation 83
Bioremediation 83
CATALYSIS 84
Chemical Oxidation Catalysts 84
TABLE 7 CATALYSTS USED IN CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL
WASTE 84
Photocatalysts 84
Enzymes for Industrial Waste Remediation 84
PATENT ANALYSIS 85
MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT 85
SOLID WASTES 85
Technologies 85
Recycling 85
Plastics Recycling 86
Fuel Production from Recycled Plastics 86
Landfill 86
Precombustion Treatment 87
Post-Combustion Treatment 87
Incineration 88
Selective Catalytic Reduction 88
Catalytic Oxidation 88
Conversion of Plastic and Other Wastes to Fuel 88
Treatment of Landfill Gases 89
Incineration 89
Patent Analysis 89
WASTEWATER 89
Technologies 90
Increasing Effectiveness of Secondary Treatment 90
Biogas Scrubbing 90
Photo-Oxidation of Wastewater 91
Catalysis 91
Increasing Effectiveness of Secondary Treatment 91
Digester Biogas Scrubbing 91
Photo-Oxidation of Wastewater 91
Patent Analysis 91
STATIONARY SOURCE AIR POLLUTION 92
TECHNOLOGY 92
CATALYSIS 92
PATENT ANALYSIS 93
FIGURE 13 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION
CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 93
MOBILE-SOURCE AIR POLLUTION 93
VEHICLE EMISSIONS 93
Technology 94
Catalytic Converter Technology 94
Advanced Vehicle Emissions Control Systems 94
Catalysis 95
Catalytic Converters 95
Three-Way Catalytic Converters 95
Two-Way Catalytic Converters 96
Diesel Nitrogen Oxide Emission Control Systems 96
Selective Catalytic Reduction 96
Lean Nitrogen Oxide Catalyst Technology 96
Patent Analysis 97
FIGURE 14 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO CATALYTIC CONVERTER CATALYSTS,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 97
NON-ROAD ENGINES 98
Technological Developments 99
Catalysis 99
Patent Analysis 99
CHAPTER 6 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET 101
SUMMARY 101
TABLE 8 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR ENERGY VERSUS ENVIRONMENTAL
CATALYSTS, 2014 AND 2020 (%) 102
MARKET BY SECTOR, SEGMENT AND USER INDUSTRY 102
ENERGY SECTOR 102
TABLE 9 GLOBAL ENERGY CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF ENERGY CATALYST BY SEGMENT, 2014
AND 2020 (%) 103
Primary Energy Segments 104
TABLE 10 GLOBAL ENERGY CATALYST MARKET FOR PRIMARY ENERGY
PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 105
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PRIMARY ENERGY CATALYSTS BY
SEGMENT, 2014 VERSUS 2020 (%) 105
Synfuels Subsegment 107
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SYNFUEL MARKET BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 107
Direct Coal-to-Liquid 107
TABLE 12 GLOBAL DIRECT COAL-TO-LIQUID CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 108
Gas-to-Liquid Fuel Production 108
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GAS-TO-LIQUID CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 108
Shale Oil 109
Methanol 110
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF METHANOL VERSUS PRODUCTION FOR FUEL
PURPOSES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 110
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL TRENDS IN METHANOL PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 110
TABLE 15 METHANOL PRODUCTION CATALYST REQUIREMENTS 112
TABLE 16 GLOBAL FUEL-RELATED METHANOL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION METRIC TONS/$ PER TON/$ MILLIONS 112
Biofuels 112
TABLE 17 GLOBAL BIOFUEL CATALYST MARKET BY INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
Biodiesel 113
TABLE 18 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 113
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL TRENDS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 113
TABLE 19 GLOBAL CATALYST IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION MARKET, 2014-2020 ($
PER TON/MILLION METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS) 114
Ethanol Production 114
TABLE 20 GLOBAL ETHANOL OUTPUT FROM CORN, GRAIN AND CELLULOSIC
WASTES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 115
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCED VIA CATALYTIC PROCESSES
OUTPUT, 2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 115
TABLE 21 GLOBAL ENZYME CATALYST IN FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION MT/$/$ MILLIONS) 116
Hydrogen 116
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CATALYSTS USED TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN FOR ENERGY
APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 117
Centralized Production 117
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL CATALYST CONSUMPTION IN CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN
PLANTS, REPLACEMENT CATALYSTS AND NEW CONSTRUCTION, 2014 (%) 117
Existing Hydrogen Plants 118
New Construction 118
TABLE 23 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET FOR CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 119
Decentralized Production 119
TABLE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL EXTERNAL REFORMERS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 120
Solar Cells 120
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 120
Refining Segment 120
Historical Catalyst Consumption 121
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST CONSUMPTION, 2014 (%) 121
Market Drivers 122
Macroeconomic Trends 122
TABLE 26 GLOBAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, THROUGH 2020 (% ANNUAL CHANGE) 122
Regulatory Trends 122
Other Market Drivers 123
TABLE 27 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 124
Energy Conversion Sector 124
Fuel Cells 124
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (%) 124
TABLE 28 GLOBAL FUEL CELL CATALYST MARKET, 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 29 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 30 GLOBAL FUEL CELL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 31 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET FOR PLATINUM CATALYSTS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS/%) 127
TABLE 32 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET FOR NONPRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 128
ENVIRONMENTAL SECTOR 128
TABLE 33 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 129
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS BY
SEGMENT, 2014 VERSUS 2020 (%) 129
Green Processing 130
TABLE 34 GLOBAL GREEN PROCESSING CATALYST MARKET BY SUBSEGMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 130
Chemicals 131
Historical Catalyst Consumption 131
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 132
Textile Processing 132
Historical Catalyst Consumption 132
TABLE 36 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF TEXTILES BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 132
Paper and Pulp Manufacturing 132
Historical Catalyst Consumption 133
TABLE 37 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF PULP AND PAPER
PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
Food Processing 133
TABLE 38 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF FOOD PRODUCTS
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
Industrial Process Waste 134
TABLE 39 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN INDUSTRIAL WASTE REMEDIATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 134
Municipal Waste Treatment 134
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT CATALYST MARKET BY
SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 134
Municipal Solid Wastes 135
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CATALYST MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
Fuel Production from Recycled Plastics 135
TABLE 42 GLOBAL DIESEL FUEL FROM RECYCLED PLASTIC PRODUCTION,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/MILLION LITERS) 136
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTES MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 137
Landfill Gas Amelioration 137
TABLE 44 GLOBAL ESTIMATED LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PLANT
DESULFURIZATION CATALYST CONSUMPTION, 2014 (MMBTU PER YEAR/$/%) 137
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR DESULFURIZING LANDFILL GAS MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS) 138
Incinerator Emissions Clean Up 138
CHM020E - Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR POPULATION* BY REGION,
2014 (%) 138
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR TRENDS, THROUGH 2020
(NUMBER) 139
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR CATALYST MARKET FOR
NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS CONTROL, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/%/$/$
MILLIONS)
140
Wastewater Treatment 140
TABLE 48 GLOBAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT CATALYST MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 141
Catalysts to Enhance Secondary Treatment 141
TABLE 49 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET FOR INCREASING SECONDARY TREATMENT
EFFECTIVENESS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 141
Catalysts Used in Biogas Scrubbing 142
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR DESULFURIZING LANDFILL GAS MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS) 142
Photo-Oxidation Catalysts 142
TABLE 51 GLOBAL PHOTOCATALYSTS FOR WASTEWATER SECONDARY TREATMENT
MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 142
Stationary Source Air Pollution Segment 143
TABLE 52 GLOBAL UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION
CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/$/ MILLION m3) 143
Mobile Source Air Pollution Segment 143
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION CATALYST MARKET BY
SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 144
Motor Vehicles 144
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MOTOR VEHICLE CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 144
Three-Way (Gasoline) Catalytic Converters 144
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, 2014 (%
KILOGRAMS) 145
TABLE 55 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER DEMAND FOR CATALYSTS, 2014 ($ PER
KG/$ MILLIONS) 146
TABLE 56 GLOBAL LIGHT VEHICLE PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
VEHICLES) 146
TABLE 57 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER CATALYST REQUIREMENT MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 58 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER MARKET FOR NEW CATALYST
MATERIALS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 147
Advanced Diesel Emission Control Systems 147
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL DIESEL VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2014 (%) 147
TABLE 59 GLOBAL DIESEL VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL CATALYST MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$/$ MILLIONS) 149
Non-Road Engine Emission Control Systems 150
TABLE 60 GLOBAL SALES OF CATALYSTS USED IN NON-ROAD CATALYTIC
CONVERTERS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 151
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 153
MARKET SHARES 153
ENERGY CATALYSTS 153
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL COMPANY MARKET SHARES IN ENERGY CATALYST, 2014 (%) 153
ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS 154
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL COMPANY MARKET SHARES IN ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST,
2014 (%) 154
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 156
ALBEMARLE CORP. 156
AXENS SA 156
CDTI INC. 156
CLARIANT AG 157
CRITERION CATALYSTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 157
FUELCELL ENERGY INC. 157
GENENCOR INTERNATIONAL INC. 158
HALDOR TOPSOE SA 158
HEADWATERS INC. 159
INFRA TECHNOLOGY LLC 160
IOGEN CORP. 160
JOHNSON MATTHEY PLC 161
NEXTECH MATERIALS LTD. 161
NIPPON KETJEN LTD. 162
NOVOZYMES A/S 162
REG SYNTHETIC FUELS LLC 162
RENTECH 163
RHODIA SA (PART OF SOLVAY) 164
SACHTLEBEN CHEMIE GMBH 164
SASOL LTD. 164
SILURIA TECHNOLOGIES 164
UOP LLC 165
W.R. GRACE/DAVISON CHEMICALS 165
ZEOLYST INTERNATIONAL 166

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS USED IN VARIOUS PROCESSES BY COMPANY 26
TABLE 2 FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYST SUPPLIERS, 2014 28
TABLE 3 MAJOR REFINING CATALYSTS 58
TABLE 4 REFINERY CATALYST MANUFACTURERS, 2014 61
TABLE 5 FUEL CELL CATALYSTS 70
TABLE 6 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY PROCESS TYPE,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 74
TABLE 7 CATALYSTS USED IN CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL
WASTE 84
TABLE 8 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 9 GLOBAL ENERGY CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 10 GLOBAL ENERGY CATALYST MARKET FOR PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION
BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SYNFUEL MARKET BY PROCESS TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 12 GLOBAL DIRECT COAL-TO-LIQUID CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 13 GLOBAL GAS-TO-LIQUID CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 14 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF METHANOL VERSUS PRODUCTION FOR FUEL
PURPOSES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 110
TABLE 15 METHANOL PRODUCTION CATALYST REQUIREMENTS 112
TABLE 16 GLOBAL FUEL-RELATED METHANOL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION METRIC TONS/$ PER TON/$ MILLIONS 112
TABLE 17 GLOBAL BIOFUEL CATALYST MARKET BY INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 18 GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION MARKET, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 113
TABLE 19 GLOBAL CATALYST IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION MARKET, 2014-2020 ($
PER TON/MILLION METRIC TONS/$ MILLIONS) 114
TABLE 20 GLOBAL ETHANOL OUTPUT FROM CORN, GRAIN AND CELLULOSIC WASTES,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 115
TABLE 21 GLOBAL ENZYME CATALYST IN FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION MT/$/$ MILLIONS) 116
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CATALYSTS USED TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN FOR ENERGY
APPLICATIONS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 117
TABLE 23 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET FOR CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL EXTERNAL REFORMERS MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 26 GLOBAL ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, THROUGH 2020 (% ANNUAL CHANGE) 122
TABLE 27 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST MARKET BY PROCESS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 124
TABLE 28 GLOBAL FUEL CELL CATALYST MARKET, 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 126
CHM020E - Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
TABLE 29 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SALES BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 30 GLOBAL FUEL CELL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127
TABLE 31 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET FOR PLATINUM CATALYSTS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS/%) 127
TABLE 32 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET FOR NONPRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 128
TABLE 33 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 34 GLOBAL GREEN PROCESSING CATALYST MARKET BY SUBSEGMENT,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 130
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN CHEMICAL PRODUCTION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 36 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF TEXTILES BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 132
TABLE 37 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF PULP AND PAPER
PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 38 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN GREEN PROCESSING OF FOOD PRODUCTS
BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 39 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET IN INDUSTRIAL WASTE REMEDIATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT CATALYST MARKET BY
SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CATALYST MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 135
TABLE 42 GLOBAL DIESEL FUEL FROM RECYCLED PLASTIC PRODUCTION, THROUGH
2020 (NUMBER/MILLION LITERS) 136
TABLE 43 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTES MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 137
TABLE 44 GLOBAL ESTIMATED LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PLANT DESULFURIZATION
CATALYST CONSUMPTION, 2014 (MMBTU PER YEAR/$/%) 137
TABLE 45 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR DESULFURIZING LANDFILL GAS MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR TRENDS, THROUGH 2020
(NUMBER) 139
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR CATALYST MARKET FOR
NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS CONTROL, THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/%/$/$ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 48 GLOBAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT CATALYST MARKET BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 49 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET FOR INCREASING SECONDARY TREATMENT
EFFECTIVENESS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 50 GLOBAL CATALYSTS FOR DESULFURIZING LANDFILL GAS MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 51 GLOBAL PHOTOCATALYSTS FOR WASTEWATER SECONDARY TREATMENT
MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 52 GLOBAL UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION
CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/$/ MILLION M3) 143
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION CATALYST MARKET BY
SUBSEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MOTOR VEHICLE CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 55 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER DEMAND FOR CATALYSTS, 2014 ($ PER
KG/$ MILLIONS) 146
TABLE 56 GLOBAL LIGHT VEHICLE PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
VEHICLES) 146
TABLE 57 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER CATALYST REQUIREMENT MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 58 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER MARKET FOR NEW CATALYST MATERIALS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 59 GLOBAL DIESEL VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL CATALYST MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (NUMBER/$/$ MILLIONS) 149
TABLE 60 GLOBAL SALES OF CATALYSTS USED IN NON-ROAD CATALYTIC
CONVERTERS, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 151
CHM020E - Catalysts for Environmental and Energy Applications
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 19
FIGURE 2 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS, THROUGH
APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 30
FIGURE 3 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO OIL SHALE CATALYSTS BY COMPANY,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 32
FIGURE 4 FERMENTATION ETHANOL FEEDSTOCKS, 2014 (% OF GLOBAL ETHANOL
PRODUCTION) 41
FIGURE 5 DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL 47
FIGURE 6 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY PROCESS TYPE,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 61
FIGURE 7 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO REFINING CATALYSTS BY ASSIGNEE,
THROUGH MAY 1, 2015 (%) 62
FIGURE 8 FUEL CELL PRINCIPLES 64
FIGURE 9 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO FUEL CELL CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL
25, 2015 (%) 70
FIGURE 10 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO SOLID ACID CATALYSTS, THROUGH
APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 77
FIGURE 11 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO TEXTILE CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL
25, 2015 (%) 79
FIGURE 12 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO PULP AND PAPER CATALYSTS,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 81
FIGURE 13 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION
CATALYSTS, THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 93
FIGURE 14 U.S. PATENT SHARE RELATED TO CATALYTIC CONVERTER CATALYSTS,
THROUGH APRIL 25, 2015 (%) 97
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST MARKET BY TYPE,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES FOR ENERGY VERSUS ENVIRONMENTAL
CATALYSTS, 2014 AND 2020 (%) 102
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF ENERGY CATALYST BY SEGMENT, 2014 AND
2020 (%) 103
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PRIMARY ENERGY CATALYSTS BY SEGMENT,
2014 VERSUS 2020 (%) 105
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL TRENDS IN METHANOL PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 110
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL TRENDS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, 2014-2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 113
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCED VIA CATALYTIC PROCESSES OUTPUT,
2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 115
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL CATALYST CONSUMPTION IN CENTRALIZED HYDROGEN PLANTS,
REPLACEMENT CATALYSTS AND NEW CONSTRUCTION, 2014 (%) 117
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST CONSUMPTION, 2014 (%) 121
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL FUEL CELL MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014 (%) 124
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS BY SEGMENT,
2014 VERSUS 2020 (%) 129
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR POPULATION* BY REGION,
2014 (%) 138
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL CATALYTIC CONVERTER MARKET BY CATALYST TYPE, 2014 (%
KILOGRAMS) 145
FIGURE TITLE PAGE NO.
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL DIESEL VEHICLE PRODUCTION, 2014 (%) 147
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL COMPANY MARKET SHARES IN ENERGY CATALYST, 2014 (%) 153
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL COMPANY MARKET SHARES IN ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYST,
2014 (%) 154

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