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EMI/RFI: Materials and Technologies

  • August 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 217 pages

Use this report to:
- Analyze electronics and other key industries with regard to EMI shielding.
- Trace significant developments, forecast important trends, and quantify the various market sectors and profiles companies active in EMI/RFI shielding.
- Evaluate EMI suppliers, trade associations and editors of trade magazines.
- Discuss the current state of electronics and other related industries, the market for plastics-based shielding options, key participants, shielding technologies, patents, materials, shielding components, global developments, and examples of global regulatory standards and environmental issues confronting the electronic shielding business.

Highlights
- The global market for EMI/RFI shielding has grown to nearly $6 billion in 2016 from $5.6 billion in 2015. The market is expected to grow at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.6% from 2016 to 2021, increasing to more than $7.8 billion in 2021.
- The conductive coatings segment of the EMI/RFI shielding market is the largest sector of the market. The market is expected to grow from nearly $2.2 billion in 2016 to more than $2.7 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 4.7% for the period 2016–2021.
- The miscellaneous segment of the EMI/RFI shielding market is expected to grow from $2 billion in 2016 to nearly $2.8 billion in 2021 at a CAGR of 6.5% for the period 2016–2021.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This study is an updated version of the previous EMI/RFI: Materials and Technology report. The objective in each report is to review and analyze electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) problems that are encountered in the operation of electronic equipment and the key implications for plastics and competitive materials and technologies used to suppress that interference.
There are several important differences between the current shielding compared with that of the past, led by the increased number and quality of devices and components requiring shielding. The proliferation of portable electronic devices has also given the industry significant additional challenges. Another issue is the ever-increasing frequencies being encountered, along with the proliferation of wireless devices, which may result in the shifting of shielding options. In addition, the impact of other technologies such as Bluetooth and absorptive EMI will be assessed. This study will analyze the effects on material usage caused by these and other issues. Another consideration is the increased introduction and interest of electronic products based on fiber optics that can require products to minimize electromagnetic interferences. This technology has begun to impact the computer and TV industry, although not yet in a significant manner.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
The size and the growth of the global market for EMI/RFI shielding products is a function of several factors. Shielding closely follows the demand for electronic devices and components. It is also is a valuable resource to assist manufacturers in complying with ever-changing safety and performance regulations and standards. This study summarizes the somewhat muddled global regulatory environment. This report identifies the nature of the EMI/RFI problem, noting the ways that the redesigning of shielding and electronics can overcome these problems. Technologies and materials specific to EMI/RFI shielding are also identified and analyzed for their impact on plastics and other materials within a context of trends in components and devices used in the electronics medical, automotive and consumer products industries.

This report also discusses the current state of the electronics and other related industries, the market for plastics-based shielding options, key participants, shielding technologies, patents, materials, shielding components, global developments, and examples of global regulatory standards and environmental issues confronting the electronic shielding business. Compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) are provided for the period 2016 through 2021 in millions of dollars and millions of square feet. An analysis based on volume is not feasible because of the many disparate shielding products.

METHODOLOGY
Procedures used to gather information included:
- Reviews of EMI technologies and supplier literature.
- Analysis of the electronics and other key industries in terms of EMI shielding.
- Contacts with EMI suppliers, trade associations and editors of trade magazines.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This market research report should be of interest to resin manufacturers, plastics compounders and plastics processors that impact the electronics industry, especially those whose products are neat and/or filled resins. Electronics design engineers, electronics OEMs and other related companies could be in a better position to evaluate cost/performance advantages of various shielding technologies and methods for their products. Furthermore, the thousands of global companies involved in the manufacture of electromagnetic compliance products could benefit from an updated report on the products and technology in serving this very large business.

Table Of Contents

EMI/RFI: Materials and Technologies
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 2
METHODOLOGY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD,
2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
SYMBOLS AND TERMINOLOGY 10
TABLE 1 SYSTÈME INTERNATIONAL D'UNITÉ UNITS AND THEIR SYMBOLS 10
TABLE 2 SYSTÈME INTERNATIONAL D'UNITÉ PREFIXES AND THEIR SYMBOLS 11
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY 11
RADIATION 12
CONDUCTION 12
IMPEDANCE 12
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE 12
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 13
TABLE 3 FREQUENCY LEVELS AND BAND NAMES 14
ELECTROMAGNETIC AND RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE 14
TABLE 4 EMI TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS 14
DEFINITIONS AND RANGES 15
CHAPTER 4 SHIELDING MECHANISMS 17
OVERVIEW 17
BACKGROUND 17
MAJOR EMI PROBLEM AREAS 17
EMI SHIELDING OVERVIEW 18
SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS 18
TABLE 5 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS RATINGS 18
ATTENUATION 19
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY 19
EMC CONTROL 19
SHIELDING PERFORMANCE 20
ABSORPTION 21
REFLECTANCE 21
PERMEABILITY 21
TABLE 6 TYPICAL LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIALS 22
GALVANIC CORROSION AND METALS COMPATIBILITY 22
TABLE 7 ANODIC INDICES FOR METALS 23
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONDUCTIVITY AND RESISTIVITY 24
EFFECTS OF EMI/RFI AND STATIC ELECTRICITY 24
IMPORTANCE OF RADIO FREQUENCY RANGES 25
CONTROLLING EMI/RFI 25
Background 25
Review and Summation of EMI Technology 26
Thermoplastic Use 27
EMI Shielding Compounds Versus Coatings 27
TABLE 8 EMI SHIELDING COMPOUNDS VERSUS CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 28
CHAPTER 5 SHIELDING TECHNOLOGIES AND MATERIALS 30
OVERVIEW 30
METALLIZATION PROCESSES 30
OVERVIEW 30
METALIZATION MATERIALS 30
TABLE 9 METALLIZATION MATERIAL FUNCTIONAL COATINGS 31
SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OVERVIEW BY COATING TYPE 31
TABLE 10 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF KEY COATINGS 31
CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS 31
BACKGROUND 32
FORMULATION OPTIONS 32
CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS 33
DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS 33
TABLE 11 DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS FOR SELECTED MATERIALS 34
TECHNIQUES FOR MAKING PLASTICS CONDUCTIVE 34
TABLE 12 OPTIONS FOR MAKING PLASTICS CONDUCTIVE 35
CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL TYPES 35
TABLE 13 SURFACE RESISTIVITY FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICE SUBSTRATES 35
TABLE 14 RESISTANCE SPECTRUM FOR METHODS FOR MAKING PLASTICS
CONDUCTIVE 36
FUNCTIONS 37
CONDUCTIVE ADDITIVE SELECTION 37
CONDUCTIVITY TESTS 37
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 37
COMPOUNDING CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS 38
COMPANIES PRODUCING CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS 39
TABLE 15 KEY COMPANIES PRODUCING CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS, 2016 39
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 39
Thermally Conductive Plastics 39
Electrically Conductive Plastics Compounds Based on Filler
Combinations 40
Conductive Flexible Polyurethane Foams 40
Nanostructured Conducting Polymers 40
CONDUCTIVE PLASTIC ADDITIVES 40
Background 41
Fibers and Powders 41
Silver-Coatings 41
Carbon Fibers and Powders 41
Carbon Fibers 41
Carbon Blacks 42
Metal Fibers 43
Advantages 43
Metal Fiber Conductivity 43
Metallized Glass Fibers 44
Nickel-Coated Graphite Fibers 44
Background 44
Advantages 45
Stainless Steel Fibers 46
Overview 46
Technology 46
Effect on Processing 46
Fiber Forms 46
Advantages and Disadvantages 47
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STAINLESS STEEL FIBERS 48
Copper Fibers 48
Conductive Filler Suppliers 48
TABLE 17 MAJOR U.S. AND CANADIAN CONDUCTIVE FILLER SUPPLIERS, 2016 48
New Developments 49
Graphene 49
CARBON NANOTUBES 49
Other Areas of Interest 50
Usage in Producing Electrically Conductive Composites 50
Technology 51
Technical Problems 51
Conductive Plastics' Technical Issues 51
Carbon Nanotube Producers and Suppliers 52
TABLE 18 KEY U.S. AND INDIAN SUPPLIERS OF CARBON NANOTUBES 52
New Developments in Carbon Nanotubes Related to EMI 52
Carbon Nanotubes Provide Lightweight EMI Shielding 52
Use of Doped Polyanilines 53
Use of Polystyrene-based Nanocomposites 53
CONDUCTIVE FILMS 53
COMPANIES PRODUCING CONDUCTIVE FILMS 54
TABLE 19 U.S. AND CANADIAN COMPANIES MARKETING CONDUCTIVE FILMS 54
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 54
Development of New Conductive Films 54
Anisotropic Conductive Films 55
Graphene Films 55
INHERENTLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS 55
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS 55
POLYANILINES 56
OTHER ICP TYPES 56
PRICING 56
PROSPECTS 57
CONDUCTIVITIES OF ICPS WITH METALS, SEMICONDUCTORS AND
INSULATORS 57
TABLE 20 CONDUCTIVITIES OF DOPED ICPS COMPARED WITH METAL,
SEMICONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS 57
PROCESSING OPTIONS 57
TABLE 21 PROCESSING TYPES EMPLOYED FOR ICPS 57
TABLE 22 STABILITY AND PROCESSING ATTRIBUTES OF KEY ICPS 58
KEY INHERENTLY CONDUCTIVE POLYMER PRODUCERS 58
RECENT EMI SHIELDING DEVELOPMENTS 58
Polyaniline-based Materials for Efficient EMI Shielding 58
EMS Materials from Conductive Blends of Polystyrene and Polyaniline
Clay Nanocomposites. 59
CONDUCTIVE ELASTOMERS 59
TABLE 23 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDUCTIVE ELASTOMERS (MEASURED
IN DB) 60
TABLE 24 COMPARATIVE TESTING OF CONDUCTIVE ELASTOMERS FOR GALVANIC
CORROSION 60
TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS RELATED TO EMI 60
CONDUCTIVE ELASTOMER PRODUCTS 61
Extruded Conductive Elastomers 61
Laird Technologies 61
Leader Tech 61
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 61
Conductive Elastomer Products for Demanding Applications 61
Parker Chomerics Introduces New Conductive Elastomers 62
Conductive Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics 62
CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 62
BACKGROUND 62
ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE COATING APPLICATIONS 63
EMI SHIELDING COMPOUNDS COMPARED WITH OTHER CONDUCTIVE
COATINGS 63
TABLE 25 COMPARING EMI SHIELDING COMPOUNDS AND CONDUCTIVE COATINGS
BY SEVERAL KEY VARIABLES 64
CONDUCTIVE COATING ISSUES 64
COMPARISON OF CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 64
TABLE 26 COMPARISON OF CONDUCTIVE COATINGS BY CONDUCTIVITY AND
SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS 65
PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 65
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 65
TABLE 27 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR
EMI SHIELDING 66
CONDUCTIVE COATING COST COMPARISONS 66
COATING BINDERS 67
SOLVENT-BASED VERSUS WATERBORNE CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 67
COPPER, NICKEL AND SILVER USAGE 68
Advantages of Copper Versus Nickel 68
Advantages of Nickel Versus Copper 68
Silver 69
Attributes of the Major Metal Combinations Used as Conductive
Materials 69
ELECTROPLATED COATINGS 69
TABLE 28 KEY U.S. AND U.K. CONDUCTIVE COATING COMPANIES, 2016 70
NEW DEVELOPMENTS 70
ELECTROLESS PLATING 71
OVERVIEW 71
ATTRIBUTES 72
TECHNOLOGY DETAILS 72
METALS INVOLVED 72
TABLE 29 ELECTROLESS PLATING PROCESS 73
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 73
TABLE 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTROLESS PLATING FOR EMI
SHIELDING 73
PLASTIC SUBSTRATES 74
APPLICATIONS 74
TABLE 31 APPLICATIONS USING ELECTROLESS PLATING FOR EMI SHIELDING 74
MULTILAYERS 74
TABLE 32 SEQUENCE OF STEPS FOR ELECTROLESS PLATING OF PLASTICS 75
MEASURING SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS 75
TABLE 33 RELATIVE CONDUCTIVITY OF SHIELDING METALS 76
DIRECT PLATE 77
COMPANIES INVOLVED IN ELECTROLESS PLATING 77
TABLE 34 KEY U.S. SUPPLIERS OF ELECTROLESS PLATING PRODUCTS 77
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES WITH ELECTROLESS PLATING 78
MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS 78
OTHER SPECIFICATIONS 78
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 79
Several New Developments in Electroless Plating 79
VACUUM METALLIZATION 79
BACKGROUND 79
TECHNOLOGY 79
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 80
TABLE 35 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VACUUM METALLIZATION FOR
EMI SHIELDING 80
INDUSTRY TEST METHODS 81
VACUUM METALLIZATION PROCESSES 81
Direct Thermal Evaporation 81
Electron Beam Coatings 81
Cathode Sputtering 82
TABLE 36 U.S. VACUUM METALLIZING COMPANIES 82
CONDUCTIVE PAINTS 82
COPPER 82
SILVER 83
NICKEL 83
TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVED 83
SOLVENT VERSUS WATERBORNE 83
PAINT THICKNESSES 84
OTHER VARIABLES 84
CONDUCTIVE PAINT APPLICATION 84
SHIELDING PERFORMANCE 84
CONDUCTIVE PAINT COST COMPARISONS 84
CONDUCTIVE PAINTED PLASTICS 85
CONDUCTIVE PAINT SPECIFYING INDUSTRIES 85
SELECTED TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN CONDUCTIVE PAINT TECHNOLOGY 85
GLOBALLY ACCESSIBLE INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT PROGRAMS 86
COMPANIES INVOLVED IN CONDUCTIVE PAINTS 86
COMMON PAINTED PLASTICS 86
THERMAL SPRAY 87
TECHNOLOGY 87
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 87
TABLE 37 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ZINC ARC SPRAY FOR EMI
SHIELDING 87
IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PROCESS 88
COMPANIES INVOLVED 88
INTERNATIONAL THERMAL SPRAY ASSOCIATION 88
METALLIZED FOILS, LAMINATES AND TAPES 89
FLEXIBLE FOIL LAMINATES 89
ADHESIVE METAL TAPES 90
FABRIC TAPES 91
COMPANY PRODUCTS 91
3M Company 91
EGC Enterprises 92
Parker Chomerics 92
Electronic Tapes 92
EMI Shielding Laminates 92
Neptco Inc. 92
Insulfab Inc. 93
FERRITES 93
BACKGROUND 93
PROPERTIES 94
GENERAL APPLICATIONS 94
CHOOSING FERRITES FOR EMI SUPPRESSION 95
TABLE 38 PARAMETERS FOR FERRITE SELECTIONS 96
FERRITE SHAPES AND APPLICATIONS 96
TABLE 39 FERRITE DEVICES AND CORRESPONDING APPLICATIONS 96
TABLE 40 FERRITE APPLICATIONS BY SHAPE 96
COMPANIES MARKETING SOFT FERRITES 97
TABLE 41 KEY U.S. AND INDIAN COMPANIES MARKETING SOFT FERRITES, 2016 97
RECENT DEVELOPMENT 97
New Soft Ferrite for Power Applications 97
COST AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SHIELDING OPTIONS 97
COST COMPARISONS 98
TABLE 42 RAW MATERIAL AND LABOR COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MAJOR
SHIELDING OPTIONS, 2016 ($/SQUARE FEET) 98
TABLE 43 COST STRUCTURE OF VARIOUS SHIELDING OPTIONS, 2016 ($/SQUARE
FEET) 99
PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS 99
TABLE 44 STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF KEY EMI SHIELDING OPTIONS 99
TABLE 45 QUALITATIVE RATINGS OF THE MAJOR SHIELDING OPTIONS 100
EMC SHIELDING AND END-USER REQUIREMENTS 101
CHAPTER 6 SHIELDING COMPONENTS 103
GASKETS 103
TECHNOLOGY 103
ESSENTIAL FEATURES WHEN EVALUATING EMI GASKETS 104
Shielding Effectiveness 104
Operating Conditions 104
Compression and Deflection 104
Compression Set 104
PROPERTIES 104
SELECTING GASKET TYPES 105
TABLE 46 TYPICAL SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS FOR MAJOR GASKET TYPES 105
GASKET TYPES BY MATERIAL 105
Conductive Fabric Over Foam Gaskets 106
Stamped and Formed Metal Gaskets 106
Conductive Elastomer Gaskets 107
Wire Mesh Gaskets 107
TECHNICAL AND COMMERCIAL CONSIDERATIONS 107
EMI Gasket Shielding Effectiveness 108
INSTALLATION COSTS 108
SHIELDING GASKETS FOR HIGHER FREQUENCIES 108
TESTING 109
SELECTED EMI GASKET SUPPLIERS 109
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR GASKETS IN EMI SHIELDING 110
FILTERS 110
ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION 110
GUIDELINES FOR FILTER SELECTION 112
APPLICATIONS 112
LOSSY LINE OR DISSIPATIVE FILTERS 112
EMI FILTER PRODUCERS 113
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS/PRODUCTS 113
Appliances 113
New DC/DC Converter with Built-in EMI Filter Meet MIL-Standards 113
CONNECTORS AND CABLES 113
CABLE CONSTRUCTION 114
EMI CABLE SHIELDING AND ABSORBING MATERIALS 114
Shielding 114
WINDOWS 114
MATERIALS 115
SHIELDING PERFORMANCE 115
MATERIAL ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 116
TABLE 47 COMPARISON OF WINDOW SHIELDING MATERIALS 116
MAINTENANCE AND PERFORMANCE ISSUES 116
SHIELDED WINDOW PRODUCERS 117
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 117
New Chomerics Shielded Windows that Block Harmful EMI Rays 117
EMI Shielding Glass 117
ENCLOSURES 118
CHALLENGES 118
TECHNOLOGY ISSUES 119
AESTHETICS 119
SHIELDING OF APERTURES 119
EMI LEAKAGE 120
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 121
TABLE 48 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF METAL CABINETS FOR EMI
SHIELDING 121
COST CONSIDERATIONS 122
ENCLOSURE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 122
SUMMING UP THE ISSUES OF EMI AND SHIELDED ENCLOSURES 123
SUPPLIERS OF SHIELDED ENCLOSURES 123
ARCHITECTURAL SHIELDING 123
BACKGROUND 124
BASIC ARCHITECTURAL SHIELDING OPTIONS 124
SHIELDED ROOM CONSTRUCTION TYPES 125
COMPONENTS 126
TABLE 49 COMPARISON OF ARCHITECTURAL SHIELDING TECHNOLOGIES 127
COMPANIES INVOLVED 127
OTHER SHIELDING COMPONENTS 127
BRAIDS 127
French Braid Shields 128
Flat and Tubular Braided Wire Applications 128
Recent Company Activities 128
EMI/RFI Tubular Braided Shielding 128
Shielded Braiding 129
FOIL SHIELDS 129
Combination Foil/Braid Shields 129
EMI Shielding Laminates 129
Recent Company Activities 130
Shielding and Grounding Improvements over Conductive
Coatings 130
ADHESIVES 130
Recent Company Activities 130
CHO-BOND Conductive Adhesives 130
Electrically Conductive Adhesives 130
CHAPTER 7 EMI SHIELDING MARKET: QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS 133
OVERVIEW 133
EMI/RFI SHIELDING MARKET BY METHOD 133
VOLUMES CONSUMED 133
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 133
TABLE 51 U.S. MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 134
TABLE 52 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET) 134
TABLE 53 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET) 135
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 136
TABLE 55 U.S. MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION
SQUARE FEET) 136
TABLE 56 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 136
TABLE 57 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 137
CONSUMPTION VALUE 137
TABLE 58 AVERAGE ESTIMATED COSTS OF EMI SHIELDING METHODS, 2015
($/SQUARE FEET) 137
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
($ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 60 U.S. MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 61 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 62 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 64 U.S. MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 65 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 66 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 141
METAL CABINET MARKET ESTIMATES 141
TABLE 67 GLOBAL VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI SHIELDING,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 68 U.S. VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI SHIELDING,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 69 EUROPEAN VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 70 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 142
CONDUCTIVE PLASTIC MARKET ESTIMATES 142
TABLE 71 GLOBAL VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 72 U.S. VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 73 EUROPEAN VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 74 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 143
MISCELLANEOUS EMI SHIELDING PRODUCT MARKET ESTIMATES 143
TABLE 75 GLOBAL VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 76 U.S. VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 77 EUROPEAN VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN
EMI/RFI SHIELDING, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 78 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN
EMI/RFI SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 145
CHAPTER 8 ADDITIONAL PATTERNS AND USAGE OF SELECTED EMI SHIELDING
PRODUCTS 147
CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 147
LAMINATES AND TAPES 148
CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS AND ELASTOMERS 148
MISCELLANEOUS SHIELDING 149
CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY/EMI SHIELDING INTERFACE 151
ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY 151
TABLE 79 TYPICAL FIELD LEVELS AND FREQUENCY 151
TABLE 80 EMI SOURCES 152
TABLE 81 COMPONENTS WITH EMI/RFI AND ESD PROBLEMS AND INDUSTRIES
INVOLVED 152
TRENDS IN THE ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY 153
EMI Shielding Considerations 153
Impact of Standards 153
EMI SHIELDING TRENDS 154
Innovation in EMI/RFI Shielding 154
Future Trends 154
MAJOR SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANIES 154
TABLE 82 TOP GLOBAL SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANIES BY SALES, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 154
TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY 155
AUTOMOBILES 155
Automotive EMI Shielding Overview 155
Internal Automotive EMI Sources 156
External Automotive EMI Sources 156
Automotive EMC Standards 157
TABLE 83 AUTOMOTIVE EMC STANDARDS, 2016 158
TABLE 84 SELECTED EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE EMC STANDARDS, 2004-2006 158
TABLE 85 SELECTED SAE AUTOMOTIVE EMC STANDARDS, 2016 158
Major Producer of EMC Solutions for the Automotive Industry 159
EMI Shielding Compounds for Automotive Radar and Sensing System
Components 159
AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY 159
Background 159
Aircraft Electromagnetic Environment 160
Aircraft EMC Categories 160
Aerospace and Aircraft EMC Compliance Standards 160
Products to Control Aircraft EMI 161
Areas of Concern of Passenger Personal Electronic Devices 161
HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY 161
POTENTIAL EMI PROBLEMS WITH MEDICAL IMPLANTS 163
EFFORTS TO MINIMIZE EMI PROBLEMS IN THE MEDICAL ARENA 164
MINIMIZING RISK AND MAXIMIZING BENEFITS OF MOBILE PHONES IN
HOSPITALS 164
WIRELESS ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT EFFECTS IN HOSPITALS 164
Wireless Phones and Hearing Aids 165
Wireless Phones and Cardiac Pacemakers 165
Wireless Phones and ICDs 165
CRITICAL HOSPITAL EMI AREAS 165
MANAGING HOSPITAL EMC 166
MATERIALS USED FOR SHIELDING MEDICAL DEVICES 166
MEDICAL EMC STANDARDS 167
Overview 167
Examples 168
Other Standards for the Medical Industry 168
TABLE 86 MEDICAL EMC STANDARDS, 2016 168
Possible Pitfalls 169
Specificity of the Standards 169
TABLE 87 IEC 60601-1 EMC STANDARD FOR MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFETY, 2016 169
NEW DEVELOPMENT 169
APPLIANCES 170
OVERVIEW 170
EMC COMPLIANCE 171
NEW DEVELOPMENTS 171
EMI Filters for Household Appliances 171
FCC Updates EMI Filters for Household Appliances 171
OTHER CONSUMER PRODUCTS 171
CHAPTER 10 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES IMPACTING EMI/RFI MARKETS 174
FIBER OPTICS 174
TECHNOLOGY 174
TABLE 88 BANDWIDTH AND APPLICATIONS OF COPPER AND FIBER-OPTIC CABLES 175
FIBER-OPTIC SCENARIO 175
SHIELDING IN FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEMS 176
LOCAL AREA NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES 176
TABLE 89 COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAN MEDIA 177
BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY 177
BENEFITS AND APPLICATIONS 178
INTERFERENCE ISSUES 178
ABSORPTIVE EMI CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 178
ABSORBER TYPES 179
Magnetic Absorbers 179
Foam Absorbers 179
TECHNOLOGY OF EMC ABSORBERS 180
MARKETS 180
COMPANIES INVOLVED IN MICROWAVE ABSORBERS 181
PRODUCTS USED AS MICROWAVE ABSORBERS 181
High-Performance Microwave Pyramidal Absorbers From
ETS-Lindgren 181
FERRITES 182
MICROWAVE FOAM ABSORBER MATERIALS 182
EMI ABSORBER TUBES 182
CONCEPT OF HIGH FREQUENCIES 182
EMI SUPPRESSION 183
Cavity Resonance 183
EMI Emissions 183
TRENDS 184
TECHNOLOGY DETAILS 184
APPLICATIONS 184
Telecommunications 185
Automotive 185
Other Industries 185
PRODUCTS 185
IMPACT OF OTHER SHIELDING CHOICES 186
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ABOVE 1 GHZ 186
CHAPTER 11 RECENT PATENTS 188
OVERMOLDED SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGE WITH A WIREBOND CAGE FOR EMI
SHIELDED 188
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE AND METHOD OF FORMING PREFABRICATED EMI
SHIELDING FRAME WITH CAVITIES CONTAINING PENETRABLE MATERIAL OVER
SEMICONDUCTOR DIE
188
EMI SHIELDING SCHEME USING SANDWICHED SHEET METAL 188
AUTO JACK WITH EMI SHIELDING 188
COMPUTER ENCLOSURE WITH EMI SHIELDING CLIP 189
EMI SHIELDING DEVICE AND FIXING APPARATUS FOR HARD DISK DRIVE 189
LAYER STRUCTURE WITH EMI SHIELDING EFFECT 189
METHOD FOR FORMING AN EMI SHIELDING LAYER ON ALL SURFACES OF A
SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGE 189
CONFORMING EMI SHIELDING 189
EMI SHIELDING CIRCUIT AND SEMICCONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
INCLUDING THE SAME 190
EMI SHIELDING HEAT SHRINKABLE TAPES 190
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE SHIELDING TECHNIQUES 190
CHIP LEVEL EMI SHIELDING STRUCTURE AND MANUFACTURE METHOD
THEREOF 190
CHAPTER 12 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPLIANCE 193
ELECTRONIC STANDARDS 193
PURPOSE OF EMC STANDARDS/REGULATIONS 193
BASIC CONCEPTS 193
COMPLIANCE TESTING AND CERTIFICATION 193
CRITICAL PATH FOR EMC 194
SAFETY COMPLIANCE 194
REGULATORY AND STANDARDS BODIES AND DIRECTIVES 194
REGULATORY AND STANDARDS BODIES 194
EMC STANDARDS AND DIRECTIVES 195
CISPR Related to EMC Emission Test Methods and Limits 195
IEC Standards 195
ISO Standards on Automotive EMC Issues 195
European Standards Concerning Unwanted Electrical Emissions 195
MILITARY EMC STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS 196
ACTIVITIES FROM 2010 IEC ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON EMC 196
U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REQUIREMENTS 196
SUBASSEMBLIES 197
OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 197
COMPLIANCE 198
WEEE 198
ROHS 198
CHAPTER 13 COMPANY PROFILES 200
A.K. STAMPING CO. INC. 200
AD-VANCE MAGNETICS 200
ALCO TECHNOLOGIES 201
AMUNEAL MANUFACTURING CORP. 201
COILCRAFT INC. 202
CTS CORP. 202
CUMING MICROWAVE CORP. 203
CYBERSHIELD INC. 203
ELASTOMERIC SPECIALTIES INC. 204
ENTHONE INC. 204
ETS-LINDGREN 205
FERRONICS INC. 205
FUJIPOLY AMERICA CORP. 206
GREENE RUBBER CO. 207
KITAGAWA INDUSTRIES AMERICA INC. INTERMARK USA 207
LAIRD TECHNOLOGIES 208
LEADER TECH 208
MAGNETIC SHIELD CORP. 209
MAJR PRODUCTS 209
MARIAN INC. 210
MARTEK PROBER INC. 211
MICROSORB TECHNOLOGIES 211
MUSHIELD CO. INC. 212
OMEGA SHIELDING PRODUCTS INC. 212
ORION INDUSTRIES INC. 213
PANASHIELD LLC. 213
PARKER CHOMERICS 214
PREMIX THERMOPLASTICS 215
PRESSCUT INDUSTRIES INC. 215
RTP CO. 216
SAS INDUSTRIES INC. 216
SCHAFFNER EMC INC. 217
SCHLEGEL ELECTRONIC MATERIALS 217
SELECO INC. 218
SHIELDEX TRADING USA 219
STOCKWELL ELASTOMERICS INC. 219
SWIFT TEXTILE METALIZING LLC 220
TDK RF SOLUTIONS INC. 220
TECH-ETCH INC. 221
THRUST INDUSTRIES 222
VTI VACUUM TECHNOLOGIES 222
ZIPPERTUBING CO. INC. 223
CHAPTER 14 APPENDIX A: MAJOR PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES 225
IEEE EMC SOCIETY 225
SAE INTERNATIONAL 225
CHAPTER 15 APPENDIX B: ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS 227
TABLE 90 ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS 227

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 6
TABLE 1 SYSTÈME INTERNATIONAL D'UNITÉ UNITS AND THEIR SYMBOLS 10
TABLE 2 SYSTÈME INTERNATIONAL D'UNITÉ PREFIXES AND THEIR SYMBOLS 11
TABLE 3 FREQUENCY LEVELS AND BAND NAMES 14
TABLE 4 EMI TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS 14
TABLE 5 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS RATINGS 18
TABLE 6 TYPICAL LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIALS 22
TABLE 7 ANODIC INDICES FOR METALS 23
TABLE 8 EMI SHIELDING COMPOUNDS VERSUS CONDUCTIVE COATINGS 28
TABLE 9 METALLIZATION MATERIAL FUNCTIONAL COATINGS 31
TABLE 10 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF KEY COATINGS 31
TABLE 11 DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS FOR SELECTED MATERIALS 34
TABLE 12 OPTIONS FOR MAKING PLASTICS CONDUCTIVE 35
TABLE 13 SURFACE RESISTIVITY FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICE SUBSTRATES 35
TABLE 14 RESISTANCE SPECTRUM FOR METHODS FOR MAKING PLASTICS
CONDUCTIVE 36
TABLE 15 KEY COMPANIES PRODUCING CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS, 2016 39
TABLE 16 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STAINLESS STEEL FIBERS 48
TABLE 17 MAJOR U.S. AND CANADIAN CONDUCTIVE FILLER SUPPLIERS, 2016 48
TABLE 18 KEY U.S. AND INDIAN SUPPLIERS OF CARBON NANOTUBES 52
TABLE 19 U.S. AND CANADIAN COMPANIES MARKETING CONDUCTIVE FILMS 54
TABLE 20 CONDUCTIVITIES OF DOPED ICPS COMPARED WITH METAL,
SEMICONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS 57
TABLE 21 PROCESSING TYPES EMPLOYED FOR ICPS 57
TABLE 22 STABILITY AND PROCESSING ATTRIBUTES OF KEY ICPS 58
TABLE 23 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDUCTIVE ELASTOMERS (MEASURED IN
DB) 60
TABLE 24 COMPARATIVE TESTING OF CONDUCTIVE ELASTOMERS FOR GALVANIC
CORROSION 60
TABLE 25 COMPARING EMI SHIELDING COMPOUNDS AND CONDUCTIVE COATINGS
BY SEVERAL KEY VARIABLES 64
TABLE 26 COMPARISON OF CONDUCTIVE COATINGS BY CONDUCTIVITY AND
SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS 65
TABLE 27 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR EMI
SHIELDING 66
TABLE 28 KEY U.S. AND U.K. CONDUCTIVE COATING COMPANIES, 2016 70
TABLE 29 ELECTROLESS PLATING PROCESS 73
TABLE 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ELECTROLESS PLATING FOR EMI
SHIELDING 73
TABLE 31 APPLICATIONS USING ELECTROLESS PLATING FOR EMI SHIELDING 74
TABLE 32 SEQUENCE OF STEPS FOR ELECTROLESS PLATING OF PLASTICS 75
TABLE 33 RELATIVE CONDUCTIVITY OF SHIELDING METALS 76
TABLE 34 KEY U.S. SUPPLIERS OF ELECTROLESS PLATING PRODUCTS 77
TABLE 35 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VACUUM METALLIZATION FOR
EMI SHIELDING 80
TABLE 36 U.S. VACUUM METALLIZING COMPANIES 82
TABLE 37 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ZINC ARC SPRAY FOR EMI
SHIELDING 87
TABLE 38 PARAMETERS FOR FERRITE SELECTIONS 96
TABLE 39 FERRITE DEVICES AND CORRESPONDING APPLICATIONS 96
TABLE 40 FERRITE APPLICATIONS BY SHAPE 96
TABLE 41 KEY U.S. AND INDIAN COMPANIES MARKETING SOFT FERRITES, 2016 97
TABLE 42 RAW MATERIAL AND LABOR COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MAJOR
SHIELDING OPTIONS, 2016 ($/SQUARE FEET) 98
TABLE 43 COST STRUCTURE OF VARIOUS SHIELDING OPTIONS, 2016 ($/SQUARE
FEET) 99
TABLE 44 STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF KEY EMI SHIELDING OPTIONS 99
TABLE 45 QUALITATIVE RATINGS OF THE MAJOR SHIELDING OPTIONS 100
TABLE 46 TYPICAL SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS FOR MAJOR GASKET TYPES 105
TABLE 47 COMPARISON OF WINDOW SHIELDING MATERIALS 116
TABLE 48 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF METAL CABINETS FOR EMI
SHIELDING 121
TABLE 49 COMPARISON OF ARCHITECTURAL SHIELDING TECHNOLOGIES 127
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 133
TABLE 51 U.S. MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 134
TABLE 52 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 134
TABLE 53 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET) 135
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION
SQUARE FEET) 136
TABLE 55 U.S. MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION
SQUARE FEET) 136
TABLE 56 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 136
TABLE 57 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021
(MILLION SQUARE FEET) 137
TABLE 58 AVERAGE ESTIMATED COSTS OF EMI SHIELDING METHODS, 2015
($/SQUARE FEET) 137
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 60 U.S. MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 61 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH 2021
($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 62 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD, THROUGH
2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 64 U.S. MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 65 EUROPEAN MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 140
TABLE 66 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2021 ($
MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 67 GLOBAL VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI SHIELDING,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 68 U.S. VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI SHIELDING,
THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 69 EUROPEAN VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 70 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUME AND VALUE OF METAL CABINETS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 71 GLOBAL VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 72 U.S. VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 73 EUROPEAN VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 74 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUME AND VALUE OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 75 GLOBAL VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 76 U.S. VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN EMI/RFI
SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 77 EUROPEAN VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN
EMI/RFI SHIELDING, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 78 ASIA-PACIFIC VOLUME AND VALUE OF MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS IN
EMI/RFI SHIELDING, THROUGH 2021 (MILLION SQUARE FEET/$ MILLIONS) 145
TABLE 79 TYPICAL FIELD LEVELS AND FREQUENCY 151
TABLE 80 EMI SOURCES 152
TABLE 81 COMPONENTS WITH EMI/RFI AND ESD PROBLEMS AND INDUSTRIES
INVOLVED 152
TABLE 82 TOP GLOBAL SEMICONDUCTOR COMPANIES BY SALES, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 154
TABLE 83 AUTOMOTIVE EMC STANDARDS, 2016 158
TABLE 84 SELECTED EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE EMC STANDARDS, 2004-2006 158
TABLE 85 SELECTED SAE AUTOMOTIVE EMC STANDARDS, 2016 158
TABLE 86 MEDICAL EMC STANDARDS, 2016 168
TABLE 87 IEC 60601-1 EMC STANDARD FOR MEDICAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFETY, 2016 169
TABLE 88 BANDWIDTH AND APPLICATIONS OF COPPER AND FIBER-OPTIC CABLES 175
TABLE 89 COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAN MEDIA 177
TABLE 90 ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY OF TERMS 227

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR EMI/RFI SHIELDING BY METHOD,
2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7

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