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Lightweight Materials in Transportation

  • September 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 163 pages

This BCC Research report provides an up-to-date assessment of the business opportunities for providers of lightweight materials that will arise over the next five years as these materials increase their penetration into various transportation markets. Includes forecast through 2020.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global market for lightweight materials used in transportation reached $115.4 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach about $109 billion by 2015 and $188.7 billion by 2020, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.6% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:
• An overview of the global market for lightweight materials in transportation equipment, including motor vehicles, aircraft, trains, and ships.
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020.
• Identification of lightweight materials that are in commercial use or under development for transportation applications.
• Discussion of trends by type of material and application.
• Analysis of the market's dynamics, specifically growth drivers, inhibitors, and opportunities.
• Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.
• Profiles of major players in the industry.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The report is global in scope, focusing on the worldwide market for lightweight materials in transportation equipment, including motor vehicles, aircraft, trains and ships. Lightweight materials are defined broadly as materials that are used in the fabrication of equipment primarily in order to minimize weight.
As the term is used in this report, transportation equipment includes all motorized vehicles or craft used to convey people, animals or cargo between two points, except for vehicles/craft used exclusively for sports or recreation applications (e.g., glider aircraft and sailboats). Sports and recreation vehicles and craft are excluded in part because they are the subjects of another BCC Research report, AVM053A – Materials and Devices for High-Performance Sports Products. In this report, dual-purpose transportation equipment, such as small airplanes, is analyzed along with vehicles and craft whose purpose is primarily commercial.
The report also does not cover motor vehicles, ships and aircraft built for and used by the armed forces of the United States and other nations.

The report includes the following major elements:

• Executive summary.
• Definitions.
• A listing of lightweight materials that are in commercial use or under development for transportation applications.
• A listing of lightweight materials and applications with the greatest commercial potential through 2020.
• Global market trends by type of material and application, 2014 to 2020.
• Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.


Table Of Contents

Lightweight Materials in Transportation
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
BACKGROUND 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
TRANSPORTATION, THROUGH 2020 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
TRANSPORTATION, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
DEFINITIONS 10
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 10
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 10
IMPORTANCE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 10
FUEL CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR 10
FIGURE 1 TRANSPORTATION SECTOR SHARE OF GLOBAL LIQUID FUELS
CONSUMPTION, 2012 AND 2035 (%) 10
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL FUEL CONSUMPTION BY TRANSPORT MODE, 2014 (%) 11
TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GASES AND OTHER
EMISSIONS 12
Greenhouse Gases 12
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GAS
EMISSIONS, 2014 (%) 13
Other Emissions 14
ROLE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN REDUCING TRANSPORT ENERGY
CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS 14
TRADE-OFFS 14
Safety Aspects of Lightweight Materials 14
Cost 15
FIGURE 4 COMPARATIVE COST/STRENGTH OF STEEL VERSUS LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS FOR VEHICLE PRIMARY STRUCTURES ($/LB AND GPA) 16
Durability/Reliability 17
Recyclability 17
Conservatism 19
END-USER SEGMENTS 19
TABLE 1 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS
BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS) 19
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS
BY SEGMENT, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS) 20
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION SHARE FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT
MATERIALS BY SEGMENT, 2014 VERSUS 2020 (%) 20
MOTOR VEHICLES 22
Historical Production 22
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL PRODUCTION SHARE FOR MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2014 (%) 22
Future Production 22
TABLE 2 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION UNITS) 23
FIGURE 8 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, 2014-2020 (MILLION
UNITS) 23
Vehicle Weight and Materials Use 23
FIGURE 9 AVERAGE VEHICLE WEIGHTS BY CLASS, 2014 (LBS.) 23
FIGURE 10 TOTAL MOTOR VEHICLE MATERIAL USAGE, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS) 24
RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK 25
Historical Production 25
TABLE 3 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
2014 (UNITS) 25
Future Shipments 25
TABLE 4 PROJECTED SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
THROUGH 2020 (UNITS) 25
Weight and Materials Requirements 26
TABLE 5 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
2011 (TONS PER UNIT) 26
FIGURE 11 TOTAL RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE AND ROLLING STOCK MATERIAL USAGE,
2014-2020 (MILLION TONS) 27
SHIPS 27
Historical Deliveries 27
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, 2006-2014 (MILLION TONS) 27
Future Deliveries 28
TABLE 6 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS) 28
FIGURE 13 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2014-2020 (MILLION TONS) 28
Weight and Materials Use 29
FIGURE 14 STEELWEIGHT OF PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2014-2020 (MILLION
TONS) 29
AIRCRAFT 30
Historical Aircraft Deliveries 30
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2014 (% OF TOTAL UNITS
DELIVERED) 30
Future Deliveries 31
TABLE 7 PROJECTED GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2020
(UNITS) 31
FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2014-2020
(UNITS) 32
Weight and Materials Requirements 32
FIGURE 17 TOTAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS USAGE, 2014-2020 (TONS) 32
TABLE 8 CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT AVERAGE UNLOADED WEIGHT BY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT,
2014 (LBS.) 33
CHAPTER 4 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 35
OVERVIEW 35
METALS AND ALLOYS 35
High-Strength Steel 35
Description 35
Technologies 36
Carbon-Manganese Steel 36
High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels 36
Advanced High-Strength Steels 36
Dual-Phase Steels 37
Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels 37
High Hole Expansion Steels 37
Complex Phase Steels 37
Martensitic Steels 38
End Users and Applications 38
TABLE 9 MAJOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL 38
Motor Vehicles 38
Body Structures 38
Other Applications 39
Suspensions 39
Light Truck Structures 39
Rail Cars 40
Shipbuilding 40
Prices 40
FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN GLOBAL CARBON STEEL PRICES, 1995-2014 (APRIL 1994 =
100) 40
Manufacturers 41
TABLE 10 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 42
Aluminum 42
General Description 42
Types of Aluminum Alloys 42
TABLE 11 ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS 43
End Users and Applications 44
Motor Vehicles 44
TABLE 12 AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF
MANUFACTURE, THROUGH 2015 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 45
FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION
OF MANUFACTURE, 2002-2015 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 45
FIGURE 20 MAIN ALUMINUM APPLICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT
TRUCKS, 2012* (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 46
Railway Locomotives and Rolling Stock 47
Shipbuilding 47
Aircraft 48
Light Aircraft 48
Commercial Airliners and Transport Aircraft 48
Helicopters 49
Prices 49
FIGURE 21 ALUMINUM ALLOY PRICE TRENDS, 1995-2014 ($/SHORT TON) 49
Manufacturers 51
TABLE 13 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF ALUMINUM FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 51
Titanium 51
Description 51
Material Types 52
TABLE 14 TITANIUM ALLOYS COMMONLY USED IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 53
End Users and Applications 53
Motor Vehicles 53
TABLE 15 TITANIUM APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 54
Exhausts 54
Springs 54
Engine Valves 54
Shipbuilding 55
Aircraft 55
Prices 56
Manufacturers 56
TABLE 16 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 56
Magnesium 57
Description 57
Material Types 57
End Users and Applications 57
Motor Vehicles 58
Aircraft 58
Prices 58
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN AVERAGE MAGNESIUM PRICES, 2014-2020 ($/TON) 58
Manufacturers 59
TABLE 17 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 60
PLASTICS 60
Description 60
Material Types 61
Commonly Used Plastics 61
TABLE 18 COMMONLY USED PLASTICS IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 61
Polypropylene 62
Polyvinyl Chloride 62
Thermoplastic Olefins 63
Polycarbonate 63
Polyurethane 63
Polyethylene 63
Nylon 64
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 64
Polyetheretherketone 64
Polyphenyl Sulfone 65
Polyetherimide 65
End Users and Applications 65
Motor Vehicles 65
TABLE 19 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 67
Aircraft 67
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT 68
Other End Uses and Applications 68
Prices 68
TABLE 21 PRICES OF PLASTICS USED IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, 2015
(AVERAGE $/LB.) 69
Manufacturers 70
TABLE 22 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF PLASTICS FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 70
FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES 70
Description 70
Material Types 70
Thermoset Composites 71
Resin Systems 71
Polyester 71
TABLE 23 TYPICAL SMC/BMC FORMULATION 71
Epoxies 72
Reinforcements 72
Glass 72
Carbon 73
Thermoplastic Composites 73
Resin Systems 74
Reinforcements 74
Nanocomposites 74
Resin Systems 74
Fillers 74
Montmorillonite 74
Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 75
End Users and Applications 75
Motor Vehicles 75
TABLE 24 TYPICAL COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 76
TABLE 25 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 76
Automotive Applications 77
Railway Equipment 78
Shipbuilding 78
Aircraft 79
Prices 80
Manufacturers 80
TABLE 26 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 80
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES 81
Description 81
Types of Materials 82
Aluminum Composites 82
Superalloy Composites 82
Titanium Composites 82
End Users and Applications 83
Motor Vehicles 83
TOPIC PAGE NO.
TABLE 27 POTENTIAL AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 83
Railway Equipment 84
Aircraft 84
TABLE 28 POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL/GENERAL AVIATION APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 84
Prices 84
Manufacturers 85
TABLE 29 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 85
HYBRID MATERIALS 85
Description 85
Material Types 85
Plastic/Metal Hybrids 86
Fiber-Reinforced Metal Laminates 86
End Users and Applications 87
Motor Vehicles 87
Front Ends 87
Other Components 87
Aircraft 88
Manufacturers 88
TABLE 30 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF HYBRID MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 88
CHAPTER 5 PATENT ANALYSIS 90
OVERVIEW 90
PATENTS BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 90
FIGURE 23 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH MAY 15, 2015, RELATING TO
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE OF
MATERIAL (PERCENTAGE OF ALL PATENTS)90
PATENTS BY TYPE OF TRANSPORT APPLICATION 91
FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH MAY 15, 2015, RELATING TO
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE OF
APPLICATION (%)91
CHAPTER 6 PUBLIC POLICY DIMENSIONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 94
BACKGROUND 94
UNITED STATES 94
FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 94
Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 94
National Energy Act of 1978 95
State and Local Legislation 96
SAFETY STANDARDS 96
EUROPEAN UNION 96
FISCAL POLICY 96
Motor Vehicle Fuel Taxes 96
Taxes on Jet Fuel 97
Carbon Charges 97
SAFETY STANDARDS 98
JAPAN 98
FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 98
FUEL TAXES 99
SAFETY STANDARDS 99
OTHER COUNTRIES 99
CHINA 99
Fuel Economy Standards 99
Vehicle Safety Standards 100
INDIA 100
CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 102
SUMMARY 102
OVERALL MARKET 102
FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2014 THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 102
MARKET BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 102
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE FOR LIGHTWEIGHT
TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2014-2020 (%) 103
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION
MATERIALS BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2014-2020 (%) 104
MARKET BY END-USER SEGMENT 105
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT BY END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
TONS/$ MILLIONS)105
TABLE 33 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE OF LIGHTWEIGHT
TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS BY END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 (%) 106
DETAILED MARKET ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS 107
MOTOR VEHICLES 107
Summary 107
TABLE 34 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN MOTOR
VEHICLES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS TONNAGE
CONSUMPTION USED IN MOTOR VEHICLES, 2014 TO 2020 (%) 108
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE IN VALUE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED
IN MOTOR VEHICLE, 2014 TO 2020 (%) 110
Automobiles and Light Trucks 110
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2014 110
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS
AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2014 (%) 111
FIGURE 31 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS, BY TONNAGE AND VALUE, 2014 (%) 111
TABLE 35 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED IN PRODUCTION OF PASSENGER
CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2014 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 113
High-Strength Steel 113
Aluminum 113
Titanium 113
Magnesium 114
Plastics 114
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites 114
Metal Matrix Composites 114
Hybrid Materials 114
Market Drivers 115
Production of Passenger Cars and Light Trucks 115
TABLE 36 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT
TRUCKS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION UNITS) 115
FIGURE 32 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT
TRUCKS, 2014-2020 (MILLION UNITS) 115
Market Penetration 116
FIGURE 33 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
AUTOS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2014-2020 (%) 116
Price Levels 117
FIGURE 34 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND
LIGHT TRUCKS, 2014-2020 ($/TON) 117
Market Projections 118
TABLE 37 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN PASSENGER
CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, THROUGH 2020 119
FIGURE 35 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS BY TONNAGE AND VALUE, 2020 (%) 120
Heavy Trucks 122
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2014 122
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN HEAVY
TRUCKS, 2014 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 123
Market Drivers 123
Production of Heavy Trucks 123
TABLE 38 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL USED IN HEAVY
TRUCKS, 2015-2020 (MILLION TONS) 124
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 124
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 124
TABLE 39 PROJECTED AVERAGE PRICE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS USED IN HEAVY
TRUCKS, 2014-2020 ($/TON) 125
Market Projections 125
TABLE 40 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN HEAVY
TRUCKS, THROUGH 2020 125
Buses 126
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2014 126
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,
2014 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 126
FIGURE 38 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF
BUSES, TONS AND VALUE, 2014 (%) 126
TABLE 41 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, 2014
(TONS/$ MILLIONS) 128
Market Drivers 128
Bus Shipments 128
FIGURE 39 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF BUSES AND RELATED
MATERIALS CONSUMPTION, 2014-2020 (UNITS/MILLION TONS) 128
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 129
TABLE 42 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
BUSES, 2014-2020 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 129
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 129
TABLE 43 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF
BUSES ($/TON) 129
Market Projections 130
TABLE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,
THROUGH 2020 130
FIGURE 40 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS
IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, TONNAGE AND VALUE 2020 (%) 131
RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK 132
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2014 132
FIGURE 41 GLOBAL PERCENTAGE SHARE OF CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2014 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
MATERIALS USED)
132
FIGURE 42 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF
RAILWAY EQUIPMENT (TONNAGE AND VALUE), 2014 (%) 133
TABLE 45 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, 2014 (TONS/$ MILLIONS) 134
High Strength Steel 134
Aluminum Alloy 135
Plastics 135
FRP Composites 135
Metal Matrix Composites 135
Market Drivers 136
Railway Car Shipments 136
FIGURE 43 TRENDS IN GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND
ROLLING STOCK, 2014-2020 (UNITS/TONS) 136
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 137
TABLE 46 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2014-2020 (%) 137
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 138
TABLE 47 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATING RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($/TON) 138
Market Projections 2014 through 2020 138
TABLE 48 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN RAILWAY
LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS, THROUGH 2020 139
FIGURE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
FABRICATING RAILWAY EQUIPMENT (TONNAGE AND VALUE), 2020 (%) 140
SHIPBUILDING 141
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2014 141
FIGURE 45 PERCENTAGE SHARE OF GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2014 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
MATERIALS USED)141
FIGURE 46 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING (TONNAGE AND VALUE), 2014 (%) 142
TABLE 49 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATING COMMERCIAL SHIPS,
2014 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 143
Market Drivers 143
Ship Production 143
TABLE 50 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,
2014-2020 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 144
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 144
TABLE 51 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2014-2020 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS
WEIGHT)144
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 144
TABLE 52 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, 2014-2020 ($ PER TON) 145
Market Projections, 2014 Through 2020 145
TABLE 53 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
SHIPBUILDING, THROUGH 2020 145
FIGURE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING (TONNAGE AND VALUE), 2017 (%) 147
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT 147
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2014 148
FIGURE 48 GLOBAL PERCENTAGE SHARE OF CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2014 (PERCENTAGE
OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED)148
FIGURE 49 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT (TONNAGE AND VALUE) 2014 (%) 149
TABLE 54 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATING COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2014 (TONS/$ MILLIONS) 150
Market Drivers 151
Production of Civilian Aircraft 151
TABLE 55 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, 2014-2020 (TONS) 152
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 152
TABLE 56 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2014-2020 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
WEIGHT OF MATERIALS)152
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 153
TABLE 57 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, 2014-2020 ($/TONS) 153
Projected Market through 2020 154
TABLE 58 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2020 154
FIGURE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT (TONNAGE AND VALUE), 2020 (%) 156
CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 159
3M CO. 159
ADVANCED MAGNESIUM ALLOYS CORP. 159
AKZO NOBEL NV 159
ALCOA INC. 159
BASF SE 160
BAYER MATERIAL SCIENCE AG 160
CELANESE CORP. 160
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. 161
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 161
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND CO. 161
DWA ALUMINUM COMPOSITES 162
EXATEC LLC 162
FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS INC. 162
FREIGHTCAR AMERICA 162
HANWHA AZDEL INC. 163
HEXCEL CORP. 164
HOLLAND CO. 164
LANXESS AG 164
LYONDELLBASELL INDUSTRIES 164
MAGNESIUM ELEKTRON 165
MARTIN MARIETTA MATERIALS 165
MATERION CORP. 166
MERITOR INC. 166
MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY 166
METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES LLC 166
MX COMPOSITES AB 167
POLYONE CORP. 167
RAYMOR INDUSTRIES INC. 167
RENTON COIL SPRING CO. 168
RHODIA SA 168
SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS 168
SIEMENS AG 169
SOLVAY SA 169
TITANIUM METALS CORP. 169
UBE INDUSTRIES LTD. 170
U.S. STEEL CORP. 170
VERKHNAYA SALDA METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION ASSOC. 170
VICTREX PLC 171

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN
TRANSPORTATION, THROUGH 2020 7
TABLE 1 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS BY
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS) 19
TABLE 2 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION UNITS) 23
TABLE 3 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
2014 (UNITS) 25
TABLE 4 PROJECTED SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
THROUGH 2020 (UNITS) 25
TABLE 5 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011
(TONS PER UNIT) 26
TABLE 6 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS) 28
TABLE 7 PROJECTED GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2020
(UNITS) 31
TABLE 8 CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT AVERAGE UNLOADED WEIGHT BY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT,
2014 (LBS.) 33
TABLE 9 MAJOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL 38
TABLE 10 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 42
TABLE 11 ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS 43
TABLE 12 AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF
MANUFACTURE, THROUGH 2015 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 45
TABLE 13 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF ALUMINUM FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 51
TABLE 14 TITANIUM ALLOYS COMMONLY USED IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 53
TABLE 15 TITANIUM APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 54
TABLE 16 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 56
TABLE 17 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 60
TABLE 18 COMMONLY USED PLASTICS IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 61
TABLE 19 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 67
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT 68
TABLE 21 PRICES OF PLASTICS USED IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, 2015
(AVERAGE $/LB.) 69
TABLE 22 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF PLASTICS FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 70
TABLE 23 TYPICAL SMC/BMC FORMULATION 71
TABLE 24 TYPICAL COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 76
TABLE 25 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 76
TABLE 26 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 80
TABLE 27 POTENTIAL AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 83
TABLE 28 POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL/GENERAL AVIATION APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 84
TABLE 29 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 85
TABLE 30 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF HYBRID MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 88
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT BY END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
TONS/$ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 33 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION MARKET SHARE OF LIGHTWEIGHT
TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS BY END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 (%) 106
TABLE 34 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN MOTOR
VEHICLES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 35 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED IN PRODUCTION OF PASSENGER
CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2014 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 36 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT
TRUCKS, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION UNITS) 115
TABLE 37 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN PASSENGER
CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, THROUGH 2020 119
TABLE 38 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
2015-2020 (MILLION TONS) 124
TABLE 39 PROJECTED AVERAGE PRICE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS USED IN HEAVY
TRUCKS, 2014-2020 ($/TON) 125
TABLE 40 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN HEAVY
TRUCKS, THROUGH 2020 125
TABLE 41 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, 2014
(TONS/$ MILLIONS) 128
TABLE 42 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
BUSES, 2014-2020 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 129
TABLE 43 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF
BUSES ($/TON) 129
TABLE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,
THROUGH 2020 130
TABLE 45 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT,
2014 (TONS/$ MILLIONS) 134
TABLE 46 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2014-2020 (%) 137
TABLE 47 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATING RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($/TON) 138
TABLE 48 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN RAILWAY
LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS, THROUGH 2020 139
TABLE 49 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATING COMMERCIAL SHIPS,
2014 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 50 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,
2014-2020 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 144
TABLE 51 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2014-2020 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS
WEIGHT) 144
TABLE 52 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, 2014-2020 ($ PER TON) 145
TABLE 53 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN SHIPBUILDING,
THROUGH 2020 145
TABLE 54 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATING COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2014 (TONS/$ MILLIONS) 150
TABLE 55 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, 2014-2020 (TONS) 152
TABLE 56 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2014-2020 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL WEIGHT
OF MATERIALS) 152
TABLE 57 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT,
2014-2020 ($/TONS) 153
TABLE 58 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL
AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2020 154

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