Lightweight Materials in Transportation

  • January 2013
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 153 pages

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND

Reducing structural weight is one of the most important ways of reducing fuel consumption and improving the performance of motor vehicles and other types of transportation equipment. For example, an estimated 75% of the average motor vehicle’s fuel consumption is directly related to factors associated with vehicle weight.Less weight, consistent with other performance and safety requirements, means more useful work can be extracted from a unit of fuel or other energy source. In addition, weight-reducing technologies are critical to the success of new, highly efficient energy technologies such as hybrid vehicles.Downsizing is one approach to reducing structural weight. However, practical considerations, safety standards and consumer preferences combine to limit the potential for reducing the weight of most transportation systems further through downsizing.The alternative to downsizing is the development of materials that combine relatively low mass (weight) with the requisite strength, flexibility and other performance criteria. The aircraft industry was the first to introduce lightweight materials (e.g., aluminum alloys) on a widespread scale beginning in the 1920s. This continues today with the adoption of lightweight composite materials.Other industries, particularly the automotive industry, did not embrace lightweight materials as rapidly as the aircraft industry. However, in the 1990s automakers doubled their use of aluminum in an effort to reduce vehicle weight to meet federal fuel economy standards. While the Aluminum Association projects that automotive demand for aluminum should slow in the early 21st century, automakers are now incorporating increasing amounts of composites in their products.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is an update of a BCC Research report published in early 2011. The overall goal of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment of the business opportunities for providers of lightweight materials that will arise over the next five years as these materials increase their penetration into various transportation markets. In support of this goal, specific objectives of the report include:
- Identifying the lightweight materials with the greatest commercial potential in transportation applications over the next five years (2012 to 2017).
- Estimating the potential global markets for these technologies.
- Analyzing the technical, commercial and other prerequisites of success in these markets.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The report is intended especially for manufacturers and users of lightweight materials in the transportation equipment industry. Although the report is structured around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature and concerned primarily with markets, pricing, competition and other marketing-related issues.As such, the report’s intended audience is mainly marketing executives, entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know where the transportation market for lightweight materials is headed in the next five years. The report is not written specifically for scientists and technologists, although its findings regarding the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications, should interest them as well.Others who should find the report informative include government agencies, environmental and public policy interest groups focusing on transportation, energy conservation, the environment and sustainable development in general.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The report is global in scope, focusing on the worldwide market for lightweight materials in transportation equipment, including motor vehicles, aircraft, trains and ships. Lightweight materials are defined broadly as materials that are used in the fabrication of equipment primarily in order to minimize weight.As the term is used in this report, transportation equipment includes all motorized vehicles or craft used to convey people, animals or cargo between two points, except for vehicles/craft used exclusively for sports or recreation applications (e.g., glider aircraft and sailboats). Sports and recreation vehicles and craft are excluded in part because they are the subject of another BCC report, AVM053A Materials and Devices for High-Performance Sports Products. In this report, dual-purpose transportation equipment, such as small airplanes, is analyzed along with vehicles and craft whose purpose is primarily commercial.The report also does not cover motor vehicles, ships and aircraft built for and used by the armed forces of the United States and other nations.The report includes the following major elements:
- Executive summary.
- Definitions.
- Lightweight materials that are in commercial use or under development for transportation applications.
- Lightweight materials and applications with the greatest commercial potential through 2017.
- Global market trends by type of material and application, 2011 to 2017.
- Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY

The information sources and methodologies used to develop the market projections in this report are discussed at length in the section “Global Market for Lightweight Materials in Transportation Applications, 2011 through 2017/Detailed Market Estimates and Projections.” In general, BCC used the following approach:
- Identified commercial as well as promising developmental materials and their target markets through a literature review and interviews with industry experts.
- Estimated baseline (2011) market penetration ratio for each material and target market.
- Developed forecasts of growth trends in each target market.
- Analyzed technical, economic and other factors that will influence the ability of different materials to compete for a share of their respective market(s) and estimated future consumption of each material on this basis.
The report estimates the market for each technology in unit as well as cost terms. Average cost data were obtained from a variety of sources, including industry publications, manufacturers’ price lists and contacts with industry sources. Where possible, BCC has projected 2017 prices based on factors such as historical price trends, supply-demand relationships and overall levels of production.The report carefully documents data sources and assumptions. In this way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, they can test the impact on the final numbers of changing assumptions such as price.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Andrew McWilliams, the author of this report, is a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. He is the author of numerous other BCC Research business opportunity analyses, including the previous edition of this report, as well as analyses of related markets such as EGY051A Petroleum Fuel Optimization Technologies; AVM038D Advanced Structural Carbon Products: Fibers, Foams and Composites; AVM053A Materials and Devices for High-Performance Sports Products; and NAN021E Nanocomposites, Nanoparticles, Nanoclays and Nanotubes.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
- An overview of the global market for lightweight materials in transportation equipment, including motor vehicles, aircraft, trains, and ships
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011, estimates for 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017
- Identification of lightweight materials that are in commercial use or under development for transportation applications
- Discussion of trends by type of material and application
- Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market
- Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

Table Of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
BACKGROUND 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
INTENDED AUDIENCE 1
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 2
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 3
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 3
DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN TRANSPORTATION,
THROUGH 2017 6
SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 9
DEFINITIONS 9
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 9
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 9
IMPORTANCE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 9
FUEL CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR 9
FIGURE 1 TRANSPORTATION SECTOR SHARE OF GLOBAL LIQUID FUELS CONSUMPTION,
2008 AND 2035 (%) 9
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL FUEL CONSUMPTION BY TRANSPORT MODE, 2011 (%) 10
TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GASES AND OTHER
EMISSIONS 11
Greenhouse Gases 11
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
(%) 11
Other Pollutants 12
ROLE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN REDUCING TRANSPORT ENERGY
CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS 12
TRADE-OFFS 13
Safety Aspects of Lightweight Materials 13
Cost 13
FIGURE 4 COMPARATIVE COST/STRENGTH OF STEEL VERSUS LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS
FOR VEHICLE PRIMARY STRUCTURES, 2011 ($/LB AND GPA) 14
Durability/Reliability 15
Recyclability 16
Conservatism 17
END-USER SEGMENTS 17
TABLE 1 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2017
(MILLION TONS) 18
FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION,
2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 18
FIGURE 6 MAJOR END-USER SHARES OF TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS
CONSUMPTION, 2011 VERSUS 2017 18
MOTOR VEHICLES 19
Historical Production 19
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 (%) 19
Future Production 20
TABLE 2 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION
UNITS) 21
FIGURE 8 FUTURE TRENDS IN PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 2017
(MILLION UNITS) 21
Vehicle Weight and Materials Use 21
FIGURE 9 AVERAGE VEHICLE WEIGHTS BY CLASS, 2011 (LBS.) 21
FIGURE 10 TOTAL MOTOR VEHICLE MATERIAL USAGE, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 23
RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK 23
Historical Production 23
TABLE 3 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011
(UNITS) 24
Future Shipments 24
TABLE 4 PROJECTED SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 24
Weight and Materials Requirements 24
TABLE 5 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011 (TONS
PER UNIT) 25
FIGURE 11 TOTAL RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE AND ROLLING STOCK MATERIAL USAGE, 2011
THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 25
SHIPS 26
Historical Deliveries 26
TABLE 6 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2011 (MILLION TONS) 26
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, 2004-2011 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 26
Future Deliveries 27
TABLE 7 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 27
FIGURE 13 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 27
Weight and Materials Use 28
FIGURE 14 STEELWEIGHT OF PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 28
AIRCRAFT 28
Historical Aircraft Deliveries 28
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2011 (% OF TOTAL UNITS DELIVERED) 29
Future Deliveries 29
TABLE 8 GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 30
FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (UNITS) 30
Weight and Materials Requirements 30
FIGURE 17 TOTAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS USAGE, 2011-2017 (TONS) 30
TABLE 9 CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT AVERAGE UNLOADED WEIGHT BY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT, 2011
(LBS.) 31

CHAPTER 4 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 33
OVERVIEW 33
METALS AND ALLOYS 33
High-Strength Steel 33
Description 33
Technologies 34
Carbon-Manganese Steel 34
High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels 34
Advanced High-Strength Steels 34
Dual-Phase Steels 34
Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels 35
High Hole Expansion Steels 35
Complex Phase Steels 35
Martensitic Steels 35
End Users and Applications 35
TABLE 10 MAJOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL 36
Motor Vehicles 36
Body Structures 36
Other Applications 37
Suspensions 37
Light Truck Structures 37
Rail Cars 37
Shipbuilding 37
Prices 37
FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN GLOBAL CARBON STEEL PRICES, 1995-2012 (APRIL 1994 = 100) 38
Manufacturers 39
TABLE 11 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 39
Aluminum 39
General Description 39
Types of Aluminum Alloys 40
TABLE 12 ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS 40
End Users and Applications 41
Motor Vehicles 41
TABLE 13 AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF MANUFACTURE
AND YEAR, 2002 THROUGH 2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42
FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF
MANUFACTURE AND YEAR, 2002-2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42
FIGURE 20 MAIN ALUMINUM APPLICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS,
2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42
Railway Locomotives and Rolling Stock 44
Shipbuilding 44
Aircraft 45
Light Aircraft 45
Commercial Airliners and Transport Aircraft 45
Helicopters 46
Prices 46
FIGURE 21 ALUMINUM ALLOY PRICE TRENDS, 1995 THROUGH 2012 ($/SHORT TON) 47
Manufacturers 48
TABLE 14 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF ALUMINUM FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 48
Titanium 48
Description 48
Material Types 49
TABLE 15 TITANIUM ALLOYS COMMONLY USED IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 49
End Users and Applications 50
Motor Vehicles 50
TABLE 16 TITANIUM APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 50
Exhausts 51
Springs 51
Engine Valves 51
Shipbuilding 51
Aircraft 51
Prices 52
Manufacturers 52
TABLE 17 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 52
Magnesium 53
Description 53
Material Types 53
End Users and Applications 54
Motor Vehicles 54
Aircraft 54
Prices 54
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN AVERAGE MAGNESIUM PRICES, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 54
Manufacturers 55
TABLE 18 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 56
PLASTICS 56
Description 56
Material Types 57
Commonly Used Plastics 57
TABLE 19 COMMONLY USED PLASTICS IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 57
Polypropylene 58
Polyvinyl Chloride 58
Thermoplastic Olefins 58
Polycarbonate 59
Polyurethane 59
Polyethylene 59
Nylon 59
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 60
Polyetheretherketone 60
Polyphenyl Sulfone 60
Polyetherimide 61
End Users and Applications 61
Motor Vehicles 61
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 62
Aircraft 62
TABLE 21 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT 63
Other End Uses and Applications 63
Prices 63
TABLE 22 PRICES OF PLASTICS USED IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS (AVERAGE
$/LB.) 63
Manufacturers 64
TABLE 23 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF PLASTICS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 64
FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES 65
Description 65
Material Types 65
Thermoset Composites 65
Resin Systems 65
Polyester 65
TABLE 24 TYPICAL SMC/BMC FORMULATION 66
Epoxies 66
Reinforcements 66
Glass 67
Carbon 67
Thermoplastic Composites 67
Resin Systems 68
Reinforcements 68
Nanocomposites 68
Resin Systems 68
Fillers 68
Montmorillonite 69
Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 69
End Users and Applications 69
Motor Vehicles 69
TABLE 25 TYPICAL COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 70
TABLE 26 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 70
Automotive Applications 71
Railway Equipment 72
Shipbuilding 72
Aircraft 73
Prices 74
Manufacturers 74
TABLE 27 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 74
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES 75
Description 75
Types of Materials 75
Aluminum Composites 75
Superalloy Composites 76
Titanium Composites 76
End Users and Applications 76
Motor Vehicles 76
TABLE 28 POTENTIAL AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 77
Railway Equipment 77
Aircraft 77
TABLE 29 POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL/GENERAL AVIATION APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 78
Prices 78
Manufacturers 78
TABLE 30 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 78
HYBRID MATERIALS 79
Description 79
Material Types 79
Plastic/Metal Hybrids 79
Fiber-Reinforced Metal Laminates 80
End Users and Applications 80
Motor Vehicles 80
Front Ends 80
Other Components 81
Aircraft 81
Manufacturers 81
TABLE 31 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF HYBRID MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 81

CHAPTER 5 PATENT ANALYSIS 83
OVERVIEW 83
PATENTS BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 83
FIGURE 23 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE OF MATERIAL (PERCENTAGE
OF ALL PATENTS) 83
PATENTS BY TYPE OF TRANSPORT APPLICATION 84
FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 AND PATENT APPLICATIONS
RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE
OF APPLICATION (PERCENTAGE OF ALL PATENTS) 84

CHAPTER 6 PUBLIC POLICY DIMENSIONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 86
BACKGROUND 86
UNITED STATES 86
FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 86
Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 86
National Energy Act of 1978 87
State and Local Legislation 87
SAFETY STANDARDS 88
EUROPEAN UNION 88
FISCAL POLICY 88
Motor Vehicle Fuel Taxes 88
Taxes on Jet Fuel 88
Carbon Charges 89
SAFETY STANDARDS 89
JAPAN 89
FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 90
FUEL TAXES 90
SAFETY STANDARDS 90
OTHER COUNTRIES 90
CHINA 91
Fuel Economy Standards 91
Vehicle Safety Standards 91
INDIA 91

CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT 93
SUMMARY 93
OVERALL MARKET 93
FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 93
MARKET BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 93
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY
TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS CONSUMED) 94
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET DOLLAR
SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL VALUE OF
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 95
MARKET BY END-USER SEGMENT 96
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 34 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY
END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS/VALUE OF
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 97
DETAILED MARKET ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS 98
MOTOR VEHICLES 98
Summary 98
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN MOTOR
VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 28 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS TONNAGE SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,
2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100
FIGURE 29 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS DOLLAR SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,
2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100
Automobiles and Light Trucks 101
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 101
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND
LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 101
FIGURE 31 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,
TONNAGE AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 102
TABLE 36 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED IN PRODUCTION OF PASSENGER CARS
AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 104
High-Strength Steel 105
Aluminum 105
Titanium 105
Magnesium 105
Plastics 105
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites 105
Metal Matrix Composites 106
Hybrid Materials 106
Market Drivers 106
Production of Passenger Cars and Light Trucks 106
TABLE 37 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT
VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106
FIGURE 32 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT
VEHICLES, 2011-2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106
Market Penetration 107
FIGURE 33 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
AUTOS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011-2017 (PERCENT OF TOTAL MATERIALS BY WEIGHT) 108
Price Levels 108
FIGURE 34 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND LIGHT
TRUCKS, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 108
Market Projections, 2011 to 2017 110
TABLE 38 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN PASSENGER CARS
AND LIGHT TRUCKS THROUGH 2017* 111
FIGURE 35 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,
2017 (%) 112
Heavy Trucks 113
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 113
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 114
Market Drivers 114
Production of Heavy Trucks 114
TABLE 39 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 115
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 115
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 115
TABLE 40 PROJECTED AVERAGE PRICE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
THROUGH 2017 ($/TON) 115
Market Projections, 2011 to 2017 116
TABLE 41 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN HEAVY TRUCKS
THROUGH 2017 116
Buses 116
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 116
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES, 2011
(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 116
FIGURE 38 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,
TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 117
TABLE 42 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, 2011
(MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 119
Market Drivers 119
Bus Shipments 119
FIGURE 39 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF BUSES AND RELATED MATERIALS
CONSUMPTION, 2011-2017 (UNITS/MILLION TONS) 120
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 120
TABLE 43 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,
2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 121
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 121
TABLE 44 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,
2011 ($) 121
Market Projections 122
TABLE 45 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES
THROUGH 2017* 122
FIGURE 40 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,
TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 122
RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK 124
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 124
FIGURE 41 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 124
FIGURE 42 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF
RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 124
TABLE 46 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT,
2011 (TONS/$ MILLIONS) 126
High-Strength Steel 126
Aluminum Alloy 126
Plastics 126
FRP Composites 126
Metal Matrix Composites 127
Market Drivers 127
Railway Car Shipments 127
FIGURE 43 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS RAILWAY CARS, 2011-2017 (UNITS/TONS) 127
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 128
TABLE 47 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 128
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 129
TABLE 48 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($) 129
Market Projections 2011 Through 2017 130
TABLE 49 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN RAILWAY
LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS, THROUGH 2017 131
FIGURE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE
FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 132
SHIPBUILDING 133
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 133
FIGURE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 133
FIGURE 46 ONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,
TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 133
TABLE 50 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL SHIPS, 2011
(MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 135
Market Drivers 135
Ship Production 135
TABLE 51 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,
2011-2017 135
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 135
TABLE 52 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 136
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 136
TABLE 53 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 136
Market Projections, 2011 Through 2017 137
TABLE 54 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN SHIPBUILDING,
THROUGH 2017 137
FIGURE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 137
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT 139
Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 139
FIGURE 48 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 139
FIGURE 49 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 140
TABLE 55 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 141
Market Drivers 142
Production of Civilian Aircraft 142
TABLE 56 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (TONS) 142
Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 143
TABLE 57 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS
WEIGHT)
143
Lightweight Materials Price Trends 144
TABLE 58 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT,
2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 144
Projected Market through 2017 144
TABLE 59 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2017 144
FIGURE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL
AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 145

CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 149
3M CO. 149
ADVANCED MAGNESIUM ALLOYS CORP. 149
AEROSPACE METAL COMPOSITES 149
AKZO NOBEL NV 149
ALCOA INC. 150
AZDEL INC. 150
BASF SE 150
BAYER MATERIAL SCIENCE AG 151
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. 151
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 151
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND CO. 152
DWA ALUMINUM COMPOSITES 152
EXATEC LLC 152
FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS INC. 152
FREIGHTCAR AMERICA 153
HEXCEL CORP. 153
HOLLAND CO. 153
LANXESS AG 154
LYONDELLBASELL INDUSTRIES 154
MAGNESIUM ELEKTRON 154
MARTIN MARIETTA COMPOSITES 155
MERITOR INC. 155
MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY 155
METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES LLC 155
MX COMPOSITES AB 156
POLYONE CORP. 156
RAYMOR INDUSTRIES INC. 156
RENTON COIL SPRING CO. 157
RHODIA SA 157
SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS 157
SIEMENS AG 157
SOLVAY SA 158
TICONA ENGINEERING POLYMERS 158
TITANIUM METALS CORP. 158
UBE INDUSTRIES LTD. 159
U.S. STEEL CORP. 159
VERKHNAYA SALDA METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION ASSOC. 159
VICTREX PLC 160



LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN TRANSPORTATION,
THROUGH 2017 6
TABLE 1 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2017
(MILLION TONS) 18
TABLE 2 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION
UNITS) 21
TABLE 3 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011
(UNITS) 24
TABLE 4 PROJECTED SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,
THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 24
TABLE 5 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011 (TONS
PER UNIT) 25
TABLE 6 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2011 (MILLION TONS) 26
TABLE 7 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 27
TABLE 8 GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 30
TABLE 9 CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT AVERAGE UNLOADED WEIGHT BY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT, 2011
(LBS.) 31
TABLE 10 MAJOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL 36
TABLE 11 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 39
TABLE 12 ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS 40
TABLE 13 AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF MANUFACTURE
AND YEAR, 2002 THROUGH 2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42
TABLE 14 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF ALUMINUM FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 48
TABLE 15 TITANIUM ALLOYS COMMONLY USED IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 49
TABLE 16 TITANIUM APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 50
TABLE 17 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 52
TABLE 18 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM PRODUCTS FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 56
TABLE 19 COMMONLY USED PLASTICS IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 57
TABLE 20 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 62
TABLE 21 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT 63
TABLE 22 PRICES OF PLASTICS USED IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS (AVERAGE $/LB.) 63
TABLE 23 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF PLASTICS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 64
TABLE 24 TYPICAL SMC/BMC FORMULATION 66
TABLE 25 TYPICAL COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 70
TABLE 26 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 70
TABLE 27 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 74
TABLE 28 POTENTIAL AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 77
TABLE 29 POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL/GENERAL AVIATION APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 78
TABLE 30 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FOR
TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 78
TABLE 31 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF HYBRID MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION
APPLICATIONS 81
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 34 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY
END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS/VALUE OF
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 97
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN MOTOR
VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 36 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED IN PRODUCTION OF PASSENGER CARS
AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 37 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT
VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106
TABLE 38 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN PASSENGER CARS
AND LIGHT TRUCKS THROUGH 2017* 111
TABLE 39 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 115
TABLE 40 PROJECTED AVERAGE PRICE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
THROUGH 2017 ($/TON) 115
TABLE 41 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN HEAVY TRUCKS
THROUGH 2017 116
TABLE 42 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, 2011 (MILLION
TONS/$ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 43 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,
2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 121
TABLE 44 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,
2011 ($) 121
TABLE 45 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES
THROUGH 2017* 122
TABLE 46 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2011
(TONS/$ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 47 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 128
TABLE 48 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($) 129
TABLE 49 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN RAILWAY
LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS, THROUGH 2017 131
TABLE 50 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL SHIPS, 2011
(MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 135
TABLE 51 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,
2011-2017 135
TABLE 52 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 136
TABLE 53 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 136
TABLE 54 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN SHIPBUILDING,
THROUGH 2017 137
TABLE 55 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 56 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (TONS) 142
TABLE 57 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS
WEIGHT) 143
TABLE 58 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT,
2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 59 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND
CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2017 144



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 TRANSPORTATION SECTOR SHARE OF GLOBAL LIQUID FUELS CONSUMPTION,
2008 AND 2035 (%) 9
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL FUEL CONSUMPTION BY TRANSPORT MODE, 2011 (%) 10
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
(%) 11
FIGURE 4 COMPARATIVE COST/STRENGTH OF STEEL VERSUS LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS
FOR VEHICLE PRIMARY STRUCTURES, 2011 ($/LB AND GPA) 14
FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION,
2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 18
FIGURE 6 MAJOR END-USER SHARES OF TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS
CONSUMPTION, 2011 VERSUS 2017 18
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 (%) 19
FIGURE 8 FUTURE TRENDS IN PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 2017
(MILLION UNITS) 21
FIGURE 9 AVERAGE VEHICLE WEIGHTS BY CLASS, 2011 (LBS.) 21
FIGURE 10 TOTAL MOTOR VEHICLE MATERIAL USAGE, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 23
FIGURE 11 TOTAL RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE AND ROLLING STOCK MATERIAL USAGE, 2011
THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 25
FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, 2004-2011 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 26
FIGURE 13 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 27
FIGURE 14 STEELWEIGHT OF PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 28
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2011 (% OF TOTAL UNITS DELIVERED) 29
FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (UNITS) 30
FIGURE 17 TOTAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS USAGE, 2011-2017 (TONS) 30
FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN GLOBAL CARBON STEEL PRICES, 1995-2012 (APRIL 1994 = 100) 38
FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF
MANUFACTURE AND YEAR, 2002-2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42
FIGURE 20 MAIN ALUMINUM APPLICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2012
(LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42
FIGURE 21 ALUMINUM ALLOY PRICE TRENDS, 1995 THROUGH 2012 ($/SHORT TON) 47
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN AVERAGE MAGNESIUM PRICES, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 54
FIGURE 23 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE OF MATERIAL (PERCENTAGE
OF ALL PATENTS) 83
FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 AND PATENT APPLICATIONS
RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE
OF APPLICATION (PERCENTAGE OF ALL PATENTS) 84
FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 93
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS CONSUMED) 94
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET DOLLAR SHARES
BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL VALUE OF LIGHTWEIGHT
MATERIALS CONSUMED) 95
FIGURE 28 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS TONNAGE SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,
2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100
FIGURE 29 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS DOLLAR SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,
2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND
LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 101
FIGURE 31 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,
TONNAGE AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 102
FIGURE 32 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT
VEHICLES, 2011-2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106
FIGURE 33 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS
AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011-2017 (PERCENT OF TOTAL MATERIALS BY WEIGHT) 108
FIGURE 34 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND LIGHT
TRUCKS, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 108
FIGURE 35 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,
2017 (%) 112
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,
2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 114
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES, 2011
(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 116
FIGURE 38 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,
TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 117
FIGURE 39 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF BUSES AND RELATED MATERIALS
CONSUMPTION, 2011-2017 (UNITS/MILLION TONS) 120
FIGURE 40 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,
TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 122
FIGURE 41 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 124
FIGURE 42 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF RAILWAY
EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 124
FIGURE 43 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS RAILWAY CARS, 2011-2017 (UNITS/TONS) 127
FIGURE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION
OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 132
FIGURE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 133
FIGURE 46 ONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,
TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 133
FIGURE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL
SHIPBUILDING, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 137
FIGURE 48 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL
AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 139
FIGURE 49 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN
AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 140
FIGURE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 145

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