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Membrane Technology for Liquid and Gas Separations

  • November 2016
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 221 pages


Use this report to:
- Analyze the global and U.S. markets for membrane modules used in gas and liquid separations.
- Evaluate industrial-scale membrane products and five-year projections for market activity and value.
- Study the industry's structure, technological trends, pricing considerations, R&D, government regulations, company profiles and competitive technologies in membrane technology.
- Examine, analyze and forecast membrane-related information that are very hard (or impossible) to find elsewhere.


Highlights
- The combined U.S. market for membranes used in liquid and gas separations should reach $4.6 billion by 2021 from $3.4 billion in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.2%, from 2016 to 2021.
- Conventional liquid separations should reach $4.1 billion by 2021 from $3.0 billion in 2016 at a CAGR of 6.1%, from 2016 to 2021.
- Gas separations as a market should reach $497.0 million by 2021 from $353.1 million in 2016 at a CAGR of 7.1%, from 2016 to 2021.



STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
This BCC Research report provides an in-depth analysis of the market for membrane technology across a range of filtration types and applications. Covered technologies include reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrochemical processes, gas separation and pervaporation. Applications for these filtration types include potable water, process water and wastewater treatment; food and beverage processing; biopharmaceuticals production; other large-scale liquid separations; and industrial gas separation.

Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current worth of the technologies covered, and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure and dynamics, along with technological developments.



REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
This report is an update of an earlier BCC Research report published in August 2014. It is intended to provide an up-to-date and in-depth analysis of the membrane industry that traces significant developments and forecasts important trends, quantifies the various market sectors and highlights companies active in those areas. Because of the diverse and fragmented nature of the industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather such extensive data from far-reaching resources, and have this data presented in one comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of membrane-related information, analyses, forecasts and conclusions that are very hard (or impossible) to find elsewhere.



INTENDED AUDIENCE
This comprehensive report aims to provide those interested in investment, acquisition, or expansion into the market for membrane technology with the specific, detailed information crucial to making educated decisions. Senior marketing personnel, venture capitalists, executive planners, research directors, government officials and suppliers to the industry who want to discover and exploit current or projected market niches should find this report of value. Readers who wish to understand how regulations, market pressures and technology interact in the arena also will find this study worthwhile.



SCOPE OF REPORT
This report is primarily a study of the U.S. market, but due to the international presence of many industry participants, global activities are included where appropriate. Values are given in U.S. dollars, and revenue is counted at the manufacturer level. Forecasts are in constant U.S. dollars and growth rates are compounded. Five-year projections are provided for market activity and value.

Industry structure, technological trends, pricing considerations, R&D, government regulations, company profiles and competitive technologies are included in the study. Only industrial-scale membrane products will be evaluated. No consumer products (i.e., point-of-use water systems) are included in the analysis.


INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. The information sources for this study include online research; Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings; annual reports; company brochures; patent literature; business, technical and industry journals; conference literature; and interviews with principals in the industry. Statistical and other data also were collected from the U.S.

Department of Commerce, the American Membrane Technology Association, the International Desalination Association, the American Water Works Association, the Water Environment Research Federation, the WateReuse Foundation, the Water Resources Institute, the MBR-Network and various academic institutions.


ANALYST’S CREDENTIALS
The author of the original BCC Research report on which this revised version is based is Susan Hanft. Ms. Haft has authored more than 40 market research reports for BCC Research in the fields of membrane technology, water, and wastewater treatment, and separations used in food and beverage manufacture, medicine and biotechnology. Susan also was the editor for several years of BCC Research’s former newsletter, Membrane & Separation Technology News.

The author of this updated report is Andrew McWilliams. Mr. McWilliams is, a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm of 43rd Parallel LLC. Mr. McWilliams is the author of many other BCC Research studies, including studies of advanced materials and environmental technologies such as ENV003F U.S. Indoor Air Quality Market; ENV011A The U.S. Market for Clean Technologies; NAN031G The Maturing Nanotechnology Market: Products and Applications; and AVM016G Sol-Gel Processing of Ceramics and Glass.

Table Of Contents

Membrane Technology for Liquid and Gas Separations
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN GAS AND LIQUID SEPARATIONS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN GAS AND LIQUID SEPARATIONS, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 9
HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY 9
TABLE 1
A BRIEF HISTORY OF MEMBRANE DEVELOPMENT 10
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 11
MEMBRANE MATERIALS 11
Cellulosics 11
Polycarbonates 12
Polysulfones 12
Fluorinated Polymers 12
Polyamides 12
Inorganics 13
Ceramic 13
Metal 13
Stainless Steel 14
Palladium 14
Carbon 14
Carbon Nanotubes 14
Graphene Oxide 15
Zeolite and Other Novel Inorganic Membranes 15
Mixed-matrix Materials 15
MODULES 15
CONFIGURATION 16
Plate and Frame 16
Tubular Membranes 16
Spiral Wound Membranes 16
Hollow Fiber Membranes 16
MOLECULAR WEIGHT CUTOFF 17
FLUX 17
FOULING 17
METHODS OF FILTRATION 18
DIRECT-FLOW FILTRATION 18
CROSSFLOW FILTRATION 18
CHAPTER 4
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TYPES 20
REVERSE OSMOSIS 20
APPLICATIONS 20
TABLE 2 APPLICATIONS FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES 20
MANUFACTURERS 21
TABLE 3 MANUFACTURERS OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES 21
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 21
Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites 21
Carbon Nanotube Membranes 22
Graphene Oxide Membranes 23
Aquaporins 23
Oxidant-resistant Membranes 24
Forward Osmosis 24
Pressure-retarded Osmosis 25
Concentrate Management, Reuse and Mining 26
Beneficial Brine Reuse 26
Concentrate Minimization 26
Zero Liquid Discharge 26
Recovery and Resale of Salts in Desalination Brine 27
NANOFILTRATION 27
APPLICATIONS 28
TABLE 4 APPLICATIONS FOR NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES 28
MANUFACTURERS 29
TABLE 5 MANUFACTURERS OF NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES 29
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 29
Organic Solvent Nanofiltration 29
DuraMem 30
SolSep 30
New OSN Materials 30
ULTRAFILTRATION 31
APPLICATIONS 31
TABLE 6 APPLICATIONS FOR ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES 31
MANUFACTURERS 32
TABLE 7 MANUFACTURERS OF ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES 32
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 33
Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment 33
MICROFILTRATION 33
APPLICATIONS 34
TABLE 8 APPLICATIONS FOR MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES 34
MANUFACTURERS 34
TABLE 9 MANUFACTURERS OF MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES 35
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 35
Micromachined Silicon Membranes 35
ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES 36
ELECTRODIALYSIS 36
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL 37
ELECTROLYSIS 37
Chloralkali Production 38
ELECTRODEIONIZATION 38
MEMBRANE CHROMATOGRAPHY 39
Membrane Adsorbers 39
APPLICATIONS 39
TABLE 10
APPLICATIONS FOR ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANES 39
MANUFACTURERS 40
TABLE 11
MANUFACTURERS AND ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE PRODUCTS 40
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 41
Bipolar ED 41
Salinity Gradient Power 41
Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production 42
Brine Treatment 42
New ED 43
VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN LIQUID SEPARATIONS BY MEMBRANE TYPE 44
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN LIQUID SEPARATIONS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 44
FIGURE 1 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN LIQUID SEPARATIONS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 44
REVERSE OSMOSIS 45
NANOFILTRATION 46
ULTRAFILTRATION 47
MICROFILTRATION 48
ELECTROCHEMICAL 50
GAS SEPARATION 52
APPLICATIONS 52
TABLE 13 APPLICATIONS FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES 53
MANUFACTURERS 53
TABLE 14 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR GAS SEPARATION 53
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 54
Zeolite and Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes 54
CMS Hybrid Membranes 55
Carbon Nanotube Membranes 55
Graphene Oxide Membranes 55
Mixed Ionic and Electronic Conducting Materials 56
Facilitated Transport 56
CO2 Capture 56
Oxygen Transport Membranes 57
Improved Oxygen Transport Membranes 58
VALUE OF THE MARKET FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES 58
TABLE 15 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 58
FIGURE 2 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 58
PERVAPORATION 60
APPLICATIONS 60
TABLE 16 APPLICATIONS FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES 61 MANUFACTURERS 61
TABLE 17 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR PERVAPORATION 62
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 62
HybSi Ceramic Membranes for Process Intensification 62
Sustainable Furfural Production 63
VALUE OF THE MARKET FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES 63
TABLE 18 U.S. MARKET FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
FIGURE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
CHAPTER 5
APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 67
TABLE 19 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE SEPARATION PROCESSES 67
TABLE 20 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 68
FIGURE 4 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 68
POTABLE WATER PRODUCTION 68
MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER 69
Reverse Osmosis 69
Microfiltration 70
Ultrafiltration 70
Nanofiltration 70
Electrodialysis Reversal 70
MANUFACTURERS 70
TABLE 21 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF MEMBRANES FOR DRINKING-WATER TREATMENT, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 71
TABLE 22 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS AND MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR PO TABLE-WATER PRODUCTION 71
BOTTLED WATER TREATMENT 72
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 72
Membrane Distillation 72
VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANES USED IN POTABLE WATER
TREATMENT 73
Reverse Osmosis 75
Nanofiltration 75
Microfiltration 76
Ultrafiltration 76
Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Desalination 77
Electrodialysis/Electrodialysis Reversal 78
Emerging Contaminants 78
Barriers to Membrane Technology 79
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT BY TYPE, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 79
FIGURE 5 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT BY TYPE, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 79
WASTEWATER TREATMENT 80
DOMESTIC AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER 80
Membrane Bioreactors 81
Wastewater Reuse 82
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER 82
TABLE 24 POTENTIAL WASTEWATER COMPONENTS BY INDUSTRY 82
Heavy Metals 83
Organic Compounds 84
Oily Wastewaters 84
WATER AND RAW MATERIALS RECOVERY/RECYCLING 85
TABLE 25 RECOVERY/RECYCLE OPPORTUNITIES IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 85
MANUFACTURERS 86
TABLE 26 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT 86
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 87
Groundwater Replenishment System 87
Produced Water Reuse 88
VALUE OF THE MARKET FOR MEMBRANES USED IN WASTEWATER APPLICATIONS 89
Municipal Wastewater Treatment 89
The Private Activity Bond Initiative 90
Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Authority 90
Membrane Bioreactors 91
Endocrine-disrupting Compounds 91
Industrial Wastewater Treatment 92
TABLE 27 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONVENTIONAL CROSSFLOW METHODS VS. MBR, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 93
FIGURE 6 U.S. MARKET SHARE FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONVENTIONAL CROSSFLOW METHODS VS. MBR, 2015 (%) 93
PROCESS-WATER TREATMENT 94
POWER-PLANT PROCESS WATER 94
BOILER FEEDWATER 94
Deoxygenation 95
Boiler Blowdown 95
Reusing Boiler Blowdown 96
Cooling-tower Water 96
Cooling-tower Blowdown 96
ULTRAPURE MICROELECTRONICS-GRADE WATER 97
COMPENDIAL WATER 98
OTHER PROCESS WATER 98
Chemicals Manufacturing 98
Oil and Gas Processing 98
MANUFACTURERS 99
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 99
Produced Water Treatment 99
VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN PROCESS WATER TREATMENT 100
Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Feedwater Treatment 101
Semiconductor Water Treatment and Recycling 102
Compendial Water 104
FOOD AND BEVERAGE 104
FOOD PROCESSING APPLICATIONS 105
TABLE 28 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS FOR FOOD PROCESSING 105
BEVERAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS 106
TABLE 29 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS FOR BEVERAGE PROCESSING 106
MANUFACTURERS 107
TABLE 30 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS 107
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 108
Micro-engineered Silicon Membranes 108
Dairy Separations 108
Diafiltration Method for Producing Micellar Casein Concentrate 109
Isolating Minerals from Dairy Process Streams 110
Water Reuse 110
Forward Osmosis in Food Processing 111
VALUE OF THE MARKET FOR MEMBRANES USED IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS 112
Dairy Separations 112
Soy, Corn and Other Mill-product Applications 113
Beverage Applications 114
Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications 114
Sugar, Starch and Sweetener Applications 115
Competitive Technologies and Barriers to Membrane Use 115
TABLE 31 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS BY INDUSTRY SECTOR, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 116
FIGURE 7 U.S. MARKET SHARE FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS BY INDUSTRY SECTOR, 2015 (%) 116
PHARMACEUTICALS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 117
APPLICATIONS 117
TABLE 32 APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBRANES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACEUTICALS 117
Laboratory-scale Applications 118
Downstream Bioprocessing 118
MANUFACTURERS 119
TABLE 33 MANUFACTURERS AND MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR BIOPHARMACEUTICALS PRODUCTION 119
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 120
Disposable Manufacturing 120
Solvent-resistant Nanofiltration in Pharmaceutical Industry Applications 121
Membrane Crystallization 122
VALUE OF THE MARKET FOR MEMBRANES IN THE BIOTECH/ PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 122
The Biopharmaceuticals Market 123
Lab-scale and Small-scale Production Separations 124
Bioprocessing Products 124
Single Use Products 125
Virus Filters and Membrane Adsorbers 125
Water Treatment 125
Biogenerics 126
Competitive Technologies 126
OTHER INDUSTRIAL LIQUID SEPARATIONS 126
TABLE 34 OTHER INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBRANES 127
APPLICATIONS 127
Chemicals and Petrochemicals Manufacturing 127
Semiconductor Chemicals Filtration 127
Electrocoat Paint 128
Automotive Paint Pretreatment 128
Metalworking 128
Removal of Sulfur from Transportation Fuels 129
Radioactive Waste Treatment 129
MANUFACTURERS 130
TABLE 35 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR OTHER LIQUID SEPARATIONS 130
TRENDS AND TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 131
Harvest of Fuel Precursors from Algal Suspensions 131
Biomass Detoxification by Membrane Extraction 132
Sugar Concentration of Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate 132
Extracting Hydrogen from Any Renewable Organic 133
VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN OTHER INDUSTRIAL LIQUID SEPARATIONS 133
Semiconductor Manufacturing 134
Chemical Industry Applications 135
Biofuels Production 135
Other Applications 136
INDUSTRIAL GAS SEPARATIONS 136
APPLICATIONS 137
Nitrogen/Air Separation 137
Aircraft Fuel Tank Inerting 137
Oxygen/Air Separation 138
Hydrogen Separations 139
Natural Gas Purification 139
Natural Gas Dehydration 140
Nitrogen Removal 140
Vapor/Gas Separations 140
Vapor/Vapor Separations 141
Other Applications 141
Air Drying 141
Ultrapure Hydrogen Production 142
Membrane Reactor Processes 142
CO2 Capture 142
TABLE 36 MEMBRANES IN DEVELOPMENT FOR CO2 CAPTURE 143
VALUE OF THE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANES USED IN INDUSTRIAL GAS SEPARATION 144
Nitrogen/Air Separation 145
Hydrogen Separations 145
Natural Gas Treatment 146
Oxygen/Air Separation 146
Separating Vapors from Permanent Gases 147
Vapor/Vapor Separations 147
Other Applications 147
TABLE 37 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
FIGURE 8 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 149
CHAPTER 6 PATENT SURVEY 151
PATENTS BY APPLICATION 151
TABLE 38 U.S. PATENTS BY APPLICATION, SEPTEMBER 1, 2011 TO AUGUST 30, 2016 152
FIGURE 9 U.S. PATENTS BY APPLICATION, SEPTEMBER 1, 2014 TO AUGUST 31, 2016 (NUMBER) 152
PATENTS BY COMPANY 153
TABLE 39 U.S. PATENTS BY COMPANY, SEPTEMBER 1, 2011 TO AUGUST 31, 2016 153
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 156
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 156
TABLE 40 MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS OF COMPANIES INVOLVED IN MEMBRANES, 1996-2016 156
COMPANY PROFILES 159
3M PURIFICATION 159
ADVANTEC MFS INC. 160
AIR LIQUIDE 160
Medal, LP 160
AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INC. 161
Air Products Prism Membranes 161
ALFA LAVAL 162
AMFOR INC. 163
APPLIED MEMBRANES INC. 163
APPLIED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 163
AQUAMARIJN MICROFILTRATION BV 164
AQUAPORIN A/S 164
ASAHI KASEI 165
ASTOM CORP. 166
ATECH INNOVATIONS GMBH 166
BERGHOF FILTRATIONS UND ANLAGENTECHNIK GMBH 166
BWT GROUP 167
CAMERON INTERNATIONAL 168
CANTEL MEDICAL 168
Mar Cor Purification 168
CLEAN MEMBRANES INC. 169
COMPACT MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 169
DAICEN MEMBRANE SYSTEMS LTD. 170
DONALDSON CO. 171
DOW CHEMICAL CO. 171
Dow Water and Process Solutions 171
ECONITY 172
ELTRON RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT 173
ENTEGRIS INC. 173
EVONIK INDUSTRIES AG 174
EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES 175
GENERAL ELECTRIC 175
GE Water and Process Technologies 176
GE Healthcare 176
GEA WESTFALIA SEPARATOR GROUP GMBH 177
Westfalia Separator Membraflow GmbH 177
GENESIS FUELTECH INC. 177
GKN SINTER METALS FILTERS GMBH 178
GRAVER TECHNOLOGIES 178
HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL 178
UOP 179
HY9 CORP. 179
HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS 180
HYDROGENICS CORP. 181
HYFLUX LTD. 181
IMBRIUM SYSTEMS CORP. 182
IMTEX MEMBRANES CORP. 182
INGE GMBH 183
INNOVATIVE GAS SYSTEMS (IGS) 184
ITM POWER PLC 184
ITN NANOVATION AG 185
JIANGSU JIUWU HI-TECH CO. LTD. 186
KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS 186
KUBOTA CORP. 187
LANXESS AG 187
LG WATER SOLUTIONS 188
MANTEC TECHNICAL CERAMICS LTD. 188
MARKEL CORP. 188
MEDIA AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGY 189
MEISSNER FILTRATION PRODUCTS INC. 190
MEMBRANA-CHARLOTTE 190
MEMPORE CORP. 191
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY and RESEARCH INC. 191
MEMBRANES INTERNATIONAL 192
MEMSTAR TECHNOLOGY LTD. 193
MICRODYN-NADIR GMBH 193
MILLIPORESIGMA 194
MITSUBISHI RAYON CO. LTD. 194
MMF MAXFLOW MEMBRAN FILTRATION GMBH 195
MTB TECHNOLOGIES 195
NANOASIS 196
NATRIX SEPARATIONS 196
NEW LOGIC INTERNATIONAL 197
NGK INSULATORS LTD. 197
NITTO DENKO CORP. 198
Hydranautics 198
NOVASEP PROCESS 199
OASYS 200
PALL CORP. 200
PARKER HANNIFIN CORP. 201
PCA-POLYMERCHEMIE ALTMEIER GMBH UND PCCELL GMBH 202
PENTAIR INC. 202
PERMIONICS 203
PERVATECH BV 204
PIONETICS CORP. 204
POLYAN GMBH 205
POLYMEM S.A. 206
PORIFERA INC. 206
PORVAIR PLC 207
Porvair Filtration Group Inc. 207
PRAXAIR INC. 208
PRIME WATER BVBA 208
PWN TECHNOLOGIES 209
QUA GROUP 209
REB RESEARCH AND CONSULTING 210
SAES PURE GAS 210
SARTORIUS 211
SEPARATION DYNAMICS INC. 212
SIMPORE 212
SINOMEM TECHNOLOGY. LTD. 213
SNOWPURE LLC 213
SPECIALTY SILICONE PRODUCTS INC. 214
SPECTRUM LABORATORIES 214
SPINTEK SYSTEMS 215
SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT 215
Infilco Degremont Inc. 215
SULZER CHEMTECH LTD. 216
SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES 217
Sumitomo Electric Fine Polymer Inc. 217
SYNDER FILTRATION 217
SYNKERA TECHNOLOGIES INC. 218
T3 SCIENTIFIC LLC 219
TAMI INDUSTRIES 219
TIANJIN MOTIMO MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY LTD. 220
TOKUYAMA CORP. 221
Tokuyama America Inc. 221
TORAY INDUSTRIES 221
Toray Membrane USA 221
TOYOBO CO. LTD. 222
TRISEP CORP. 223
UBE INDUSTRIES 224
ULTURA GMBH 224
VEOLIA WATER 225
VOLTEA 225
W.L. GORE and ASSOCIATES 226
XYLEM 226
YUASA MEMBRANE SYSTEMS CO. LTD. 227
Kyoto Head Office 227
Tokyo Head Office 227


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN GAS AND LIQUID SEPARATIONS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 A BRIEF HISTORY OF MEMBRANE DEVELOPMENT 10
TABLE 2 APPLICATIONS FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES 20
TABLE 3 MANUFACTURERS OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES 21
TABLE 4 APPLICATIONS FOR NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES 28
TABLE 5 MANUFACTURERS OF NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES 29
TABLE 6 APPLICATIONS FOR ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES 31
TABLE 7 MANUFACTURERS OF ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES 32
TABLE 8 APPLICATIONS FOR MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES 34
TABLE 9 MANUFACTURERS OF MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANES 35
TABLE 10 APPLICATIONS FOR ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANES 39
TABLE 11 MANUFACTURERS AND ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE PRODUCTS 40
TABLE 12 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN LIQUID SEPARATIONS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 44
TABLE 13 APPLICATIONS FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES 53
TABLE 14 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR GAS SEPARATION 53
TABLE 15 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 58
TABLE 16 APPLICATIONS FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES 61
TABLE 17 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR PERVAPORATION 62
TABLE 18 U.S. MARKET FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
TABLE 19 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE SEPARATION PROCESSES 67
TABLE 20 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 21 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF MEMBRANES FOR DRINKING-WATER TREATMENT, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 71
TABLE 22 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS AND MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR PO
TABLE-WATER PRODUCTION 71
TABLE 23 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN PO
TABLE WATER TREATMENT BY TYPE, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 79
TABLE 24 POTENTIAL WASTEWATER COMPONENTS BY INDUSTRY 82
TABLE 25 RECOVERY/RECYCLE OPPORTUNITIES IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES 85
TABLE 26 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT 86
TABLE 27 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONVENTIONAL CROSSFLOW METHODS VS. MBR, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 93
TABLE 28 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS FOR FOOD PROCESSING 105
TABLE 29 MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS FOR BEVERAGE PROCESSING 106
TABLE 30 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS 107
TABLE 31 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS BY INDUSTRY SECTOR, 2015 ($ MILLIONS/%) 116
TABLE 32 APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBRANES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACEUTICALS 117
TABLE 33 MANUFACTURERS AND MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR BIOPHARMACEUTICALS PRODUCTION 119
TABLE 34 OTHER INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR MEMBRANES 127
TABLE 35 MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS FOR OTHER LIQUID SEPARATIONS 130
TABLE 36 MEMBRANES IN DEVELOPMENT FOR CO2 CAPTURE 143
TABLE 37 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
TABLE 38 U.S. PATENTS BY APPLICATION, SEPTEMBER 1, 2011 TO AUGUST 30, 2016 152
TABLE 39 U.S. PATENTS BY COMPANY, SEPTEMBER 1, 2011 TO AUGUST 31, 2016 153
TABLE 40 MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS OF COMPANIES INVOLVED IN MEMBRANES, 1996-2016 156



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN GAS AND LIQUID SEPARATIONS, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN LIQUID SEPARATIONS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 44
FIGURE 2 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 58
FIGURE 3 U.S. MARKET FOR PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 65
FIGURE 4 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 68
FIGURE 5 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT BY TYPE, 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 6 U.S. MARKET SHARE FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CONVENTIONAL CROSSFLOW METHODS VS. MBR, 2015 (%) 93
FIGURE 7 U.S. MARKET SHARE FOR MEMBRANE MODULES USED IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE APPLICATIONS BY INDUSTRY SECTOR, 2015 (%) 116
FIGURE 8 U.S. MARKET FOR MEMBRANE PRODUCTS USED IN GAS SEPARATIONS BY APPLICATION, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 149
FIGURE 9 U.S. PATENTS BY APPLICATION, SEPTEMBER 1, 2014 TO AUGUST 31, 2016 (NUMBER) 152

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