Mammography World Markets

  • December 2012
  • -
  • TriMark Publications
  • -
  • 211 pages

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, affecting one in eight during their lives. Mammography is the most valuable method for detecting potentially cancerous anomalies in the breast. As such, the mammography equipment segment is poised for a major new phase of growth fueled by the availability of new technologies. Mammograms are images of the breast tissue produced from low radiation X-rays. The three types of mammography systems are: 1) analog systems, 2) computed tomography (CR) systems and 3) full-field digital mammography (FFDM). The analog systems are the conventional types, and they use X-ray films for capturing the breast images. The CR systems are also film-based, but are retrofitted with digital detectors. In FFDM, the X-ray film is replaced by solid-state detectors that convert X-rays into electrical signals. Digital tomosynthesis is a new technology with improved diagnostic capabilities over standard digital mammography. Moreover, scintimammography (nuclear medicine breast imaging) is an additional breast exam available.

This TriMark Publications report thoroughly reviews: 1) existing and emerging mammography technologies, 2) known risk factors for breast cancer, 3) breast cancer treatments and drugs, 4) types of mastectomy procedures, 5) breast reconstruction surgery, and 6) funding for breast cancer research. The study examines almost all of the companies known to be marketing, manufacturing or developing mammography equipment and breast cancer therapies in the world. Each company is discussed in extensive depth with a section on its history, product lines, business and marketing analysis, and a subjective commentary of the company's market position. Detailed tables and charts with sales forecasts and market share data are also included.

Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Overview 9
1.1 Statement of Report 9
1.2 Scope of This Report 10
1.3 Methodology 10
1.4 Executive Summary 11

2. Breast Cancer: An Overview 14
2.1 Anatomy of a Normal Breast 14
2.1.1 Abnormalities in Breast 14
2.1.2 Selected Types of Breast Cancer 15
2.1.3 Non-Invasive Breast Cancers 15
2.1.4 Invasive Breast Cancers 16
2.1.5 Other Benign Structures Found in the Breast in Screening Mammography 19
2.1.6 Other Breast Anomalies Detected During Diagnostic Mammography 20

3. Global and Regional Data on Breast Cancer 22
3.1 Global Breast Cancer Statistics, 2012 22
3.1.1 The Leading 50 Countries in Breast Cancer Incidence 24
3.2 Breast Cancer Occurrence in the U.S. 25
3.2.1 Probability of U.S. Women for Being Diagnosed with Breast Cancer 25
3.2.2 Breast Cancer by Age in the U.S. 26
3.2.3 Breast Cancer by Age and Ethnicity in the U.S. 26
3.2.4 Geographic Differences in Breast Cancer Rates in the U.S. 27
3.2.5 Changing Trends in In Situ Breast Cancer 29
3.2.6 Changing Trends in Invasive Breast Cancer in the U.S. 29
3.2.7 Breast Cancer in the U.S. by Race and Ethnicity 30
3.2.8 Breast Cancer in the U.S. by Tumor Size 31
3.2.9 Breast Cancer Mortality Rate in the U.S. 34
3.2.10 Incidence and Mortality Trends in Men 34
3.2.11 Factors Influencing Breast Cancer Survival in the U.S. 35
3.2.12 Five-Year Relative Survival Rate in the U.S. by Stage at Diagnosis 35
3.2.13 Five-Year Survival Rate by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Factors in
the U.S. 36
3.2.14 Five-Year Cause-Specific Survival Rate in the U.S. by Race/Ethnicity 37
3.3 Breast Cancer in Canada 38
3.3.1 Breast Cancer Incidence in Canada by Age, 2012 39
3.3.2 Breast Cancer Mortality in Canada 40
3.3.3 Incidence and Mortality Rates for Breast Cancer in Canadian Women 40
3.3.4 The Five-Year Relative Survival Ratio in Canada 41
3.3.5 Age-Standardized Incidence Rates of Ductal and Lobular Breast Cancer in
Canada 42
3.4 Breast Cancer in the U.K. 42
3.4.1 Breast Cancer by Age in the U.K. 43
3.5 Breast Cancer Mortality in OECD Countries 44
3.5.1 Relative Survival Rates from Breast Cancer in OECD Countries 46
3.6 Breast Cancer in Australia 47
3.6.1 Incidence of Breast Cancer by Age in Australia 47
3.6.2 Projected Female Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Australia, 2020 49
3.6.3 Risk of Being Diagnosed with Breast Cancer in Australia 50
3.6.4 Most Common Types of Breast Cancers in Australia 50
3.6.5 Age at Diagnosis by Histological Type in Australia 51
3.6.6 Most Frequently Recorded Anatomical Location of Breast Cancer 51
3.6.7 Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Australia 52
3.6.8 Incidence of DCIS by Age in Australian Women 53
3.6.9 Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Australia by Age 53
3.6.10 Projections of Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Australia 54
3.6.11 Survival after Diagnosis of Female Breast Cancer in Australia 55
3.6.12 Hospitalizations for Female Breast Cancer in Australia 55
3.7 Breast Cancer in East Asia 56
3.8 Breast Cancer in Western Asia 56
3.9 Breast Cancer Mortality in Korea 57
3.10 Age-Specific Incidence of Breast Cancer in Japan 58
3.11 Age-Specific Breast Cancer Rate in China 58
3.12 Breast Cancer in Young Asian Women 59

4. Emerging Technologies in Breast Imaging 60
4.1 The Gold Standard: Full-Field Digital Mammography 60
4.2 Tomosynthesis/3-D Mammography 62
4.3 Molecular Imaging 63
4.4 BSGI 63

5. Mammography: An Overview 66
5.1 Screen-Film Mammography 66
5.2 2D Digital Mammography 67
5.3 3D Digital Mammography 68
5.3.1 Better Visualization in 3D Images 70
5.3.1.1 3D Imaging and Superimposed Breast Tissue 71
5.3.1.2 Status of Tomosynthesis 72
5.3.1.3 Other Companies Working on Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) 73
5.3.1.4 Features of Hologic Tomosynthesis Unit 73
5.3.1.5 GE Tomosynthesis 73
5.3.1.6 Siemens Tomosynthesis 73
5.3.1.7 Philips (Sectra) Tomosynthesis 73
5.3.2 Difference between 3D and 2D Digital Mammography 74
5.3.2.1 Comparative Merits of Digital and Film-Screen Mammography 74
5.4 Basic Physics of Mammography 75
5.4.1 Mammography X-Ray Tubes 75
5.4.2 Mammography Image Receptors 77
5.4.3 Mammography AEC 79
5.4.4 Mammography Scatter Reduction 79
5.4.5 Differences in Dose Levels among Digital Mammography Systems 79
5.4.6 The Irish Study 79
5.4.7 Patient Radiation Doses in Swedish Screening Program 80
5.5 Points to be Considered Before Buying a Mammography System 81
5.6 Cost Containment in Mammography Systems 82

6. Screening Mammography Data from Selected Countries 84
6.1 U.S. Data on Screening Mammography 84
6.1.1 Prevalence of Mammography in the U.S. 84
6.1.2 Drop in U.S. Mammography Rates 84
6.1.3 Guidelines for Screening Mammography in the U.S. 85
6.1.4 Crisis in U.S. Mammography Services 85
6.1.5 Current Mammography Use in the U.S. 87
6.2 Organized Screening Programs in Canada 89
6.2.1 Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Canada 89
6.2.2 Distribution of Breast Cancer Detected during Screening by Stage in Canada
91
6.2.3 Newly Diagnosed Women with Her2+ by Province in Canada 91
6.2.4 Breast Cancer Treatment after Diagnosis in Canada 92
6.2.5 Radiation Therapy after Diagnosis in Canada 93
6.2.6 Chemotherapy after Breast Cancer Screening in Canada 93
6.2.7 Screening Mammography in British Colombia (BC) 94
6.2.7.1 Annual Screening Volume in BC 94
6.2.7.2 Bilateral Mammography Utilization in BC 96
6.2.7.3 Histologic Features of Breast Cancers Detected by SMP in BC 96
6.3 European Data on Screening Mammography 96
6.3.1 Screening Mammography Rates in OECD Countries 100
6.3.2 Screening Mammography in the U.K. 102
6.3.3 Screening Activity in the U.K. 102
6.3.4 Acceptance of Screening Invitation by Age—All Invitation Types in the U.K.
102
6.3.5 Acceptance by Type of Screen in the U.K. 103
6.3.6 Screening Quality—First Screen after First Invitation in the U.K. 103
6.3.7 Screening Quality—Subsequent Screening in the U.K. 103
6.3.8 Screening—Women Aged 71 and Over in the U.K. 104
6.3.9 Assessment Outcomes—Age 50-70 in the U.K. 104
6.3.10 Assessment Outcomes—Age 45-74 in the U.K. 105
6.3.11 Treatment of Screen Detected Breast Cancer in the U.K. 105
6.3.12 Immediate Reconstruction after Mastectomy in the U.K. 106
6.4 Screening Mammography in Korea 107
6.5 Screening Mammography in Japan 107
6.6 National Mammography Screening Program in Israel, 2010 108
6.7 Mammography in Australia 109
6.7.1 MBS-Funded Mammography in 2011 110
6.7.2 Differences in Mammography Services by Age in Australia 111
6.7.3 Hospitalizations for Female Breast Cancer in Australia 111
6.7.4 Most Commonly Undertaken Female Breast Cancer Procedures in Australia 112

7. Mammography: Market Analysis 113
7.1 Global Market for Mammography Equipment 113
7.1.1 Global Market for Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems 114
7.1.2 Leading Vendors in Mammography Sector 115
7.2 U.S. Market for Full-Field Digital Mammography 115
7.2.1 Decline in the Number of Mammography Facilities and Units in the U.S. 116
7.2.2 Growth in Number of Digital Mammography Facilities in the U.S. 117
7.3 Rest of the World Market for Digital Mammography 118
7.4 Mammography Systems Market in Europe 119

8. Profiles of Market Leaders in Mammography 121
8.1 Fujifilm U.S.A., Inc. 121
8.1.1 Amulet f/Amulet s 121
8.1.2 Fuji’s 3D Mammography Viewer 121
8.2 GE Healthcare Ltd. 122
8.2.1 SenoBright 122
8.2.2 Senographe Essential 122
8.2.3 Senographe Essential e 123
8.2.4 Senographe Care 123
8.2.5 Senographe DS 124
8.2.6 GE’s Mammography Workstations 124
8.3 Hologic, Inc. 124
8.3.1 Selenia Dimension 3D 125
8.3.2 Selenia Dimensions 2D 125
8.3.3 SecurView 126
8.3.4 SecurXchange Archiving Solution 126
8.3.5 M-Series (Analog) 126
8.3.5.1 StereoLoc 126
8.3.5.2 Affinity 127
8.4 Philips Healthcare 127
8.4.1 MammoDiagnost (Analog) 127
8.4.2 MammDiagnost DR 128
8.4.3 MammoDiagnost with PCR Eleva 128
8.5 Siemens Healthcare 128
8.5.1 Mammomat 3000 Nova 129
8.5.2 Mammomat 1000 129
8.5.3 Syngo MammoReport 129

Appendix 1: Timeline of Advances Against Breast Cancer 130
Appendix 1.1: Timeline 130
Appendix 2: A Woman’s Guide to Breast Cancer 138
Appendix 2.1: Breast Biopsy 138
Appendix 2.2: Staging of Breast Cancer 139
Appendix 2.3: Treatment Options 141
Appendix 3: A Women’s Guide to Mammograms 146
Appendix 4: A Voice against Screening Mammography 151
Appendix 5: Performance of Tomosynthesis in Different Breast Compositions and
Lesion Types 153
Appendix 5.1: Improved Sensitivity 154
Appendix 5.2: Reduced Recall Rate 154
Appendix 5.3: Greater Performance Using Two-View Tomosynthesis 155
Appendix 5.4: Performance of Tomosynthesis in Different Breast Compositions and
Lesion Types 155
Appendix 5.5: Performance in Calcifications, Masses and Distortions 155
Appendix 5.6: Performance in Invasive and Non-Invasive Breast Cancers 156
Appendix 5.7: Performance in Fatty and Dense Breasts 156
Appendix 5.8: Tomosynthesis Compared to Ultrasound 157
Appendix 5.9: Tomosynthesis Performance in the Evaluation of Symptomatic
Patients 157
Appendix 5.10: Clinical Considerations in Implementing Tomosynthesis 158
Appendix 5.11: One-View vs. Two-View Tomosynthesis 158
Appendix 5.12: Benefits of Combo-Mode Imaging 159
Appendix 5.13: Patient Dose and Risk/Benefit 159
Appendix 6: Cancer Treatment and Survivorship 160
Appendix 6.1: Female Breast Cancer 162
Appendix 6.1.1: Treatment and Survival after Breast Cancer 163
Appendix 6.1.2: Special Concerns of Breast Cancer Survivors 165
Appendix 6.2: Childhood Cancer 165
Appendix 6.3: Colon and Rectum Cancer 166
Appendix 6.4: Leukemias and Lymphomas 169
Appendix 6.5: Lung and Bronchus Cancer 173
Appendix 6.6: Melanoma 175
Appendix 6.7: Prostate Cancer 177
Appendix 6.8: Testicular Cancer 179
Appendix 6.9: Thyroid Cancer 182
Appendix 6.10: Urinary Bladder Cancer 183
Appendix 6.11: Uterine Corpus 185
Appendix 6.12: Challenges for Newly Diagnosed Cancer Patients 187
Appendix 7: U.S. Spending on Cancer 201
Appendix 8: Reimbursement for Screening and Diagnostic Mammography in the U.S.
205
Appendix 8.1: Reimbursement Guidelines for Screening and Diagnostic Mammography
205
Appendix 8.2: Codes and Payment Rates 206
Appendix 8.3: Reimbursement Guidelines for Diagnostic MRI Imaging 207
Appendix 9: Integration of Digital Mammography on PACS 209
Appendix 9.1: Considerations in Deploying Digital Mammography 209


INDEX OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1: Breast Cancer Incidence Worldwide 22
Figure 3.2: Lifetime Risk of Breast Cancer Worldwide 23
Figure 3.3: Age-Specific Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates in
the U.S. 26
Figure 3.4: Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Race and
Ethnicity in the U.S. 27
Figure 3.5: Incidence Rates of In Situ Breast Cancer by Age in the U.S.,
1975-2008 29
Figure 3.6: Incidence Rates of Invasive Breast Cancer by Age, 1975-2008 30
Figure 3.7: Breast Cancer in the U.S. by Race and Ethnicity, 1975-2008 31
Figure 3.8: Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Tumor Size (=2.0 cm) and Race,
1989-2008 32
Figure 3.9: Localized Breast Cancer Rates in the U.S. by Race, 1976-2008 32
Figure 3.10: Breast Cancer Rate (Tumor Size = 2.1-5.0 cm) in the U.S., 1989-2008
33
Figure 3.11: Breast Cancer Rate (Regional Stage) in the U.S., 1976-2008 33
Figure 3.12: Breast Cancer Death Rate in the U.S. by Race and Ethnicity,
1975-2007 34
Figure 3.13: Trend in Male Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the U.S.,
1975-2008 35
Figure 3.14: Five-Year Relative Survival Rate by Stage at Diagnosis and Race 36
Figure 3.15: Breast Cancer Five-Year Relative Survival Rate by Race, 1975-2007
37
Figure 3.16: Percent of All Estimated Cancer Cases in Canadian Women, 2012 39
Figure 3.17: Age-Standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates of Breast Cancer in
Canada, 1992-2007 41
Figure 3.18: Five-Year Relative Survival for Breast Cancer by Age Group in
Canada, 2005 and 2007 41
Figure 3.19: Age-Standardized Incidence Rates of Ductal and Lobular Cancer in
Canada, 1992-2007 42
Figure 3.20: Number of New Breast Cancer Cases per Year and AS Rate in the U.K.,
2009 44
Figure 3.21: Female Breast Cancer Mortality Rate in OECD Countries, 2000 and
2009 45
Figure 3.22: Breast Cancer Five Year Relative Survival Rate in OECD Countries,
1997-2009 46
Figure 3.23: Incidence of Breast Cancer by Age at Diagnosis, Females, Australia,
2008 47
Figure 3.24: Incidence of Female Breast Cancer in Australia, 1982-2008 48
Figure 3.25: Incidence of Female Breast Cancer by Age at Diagnosis in Australia,
1982-2008 49
Figure 3.26: Incidence of Female Breast Cancer in Australia, 2000-2020 49
Figure 3.27: Incidence of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Australia, 2000-2008 52
Figure 3.28: Incidence of Ductal Carcinoma by Age in Australian Women, 1997-2008
53
Figure 3.29: Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Australia by Age,
2008 54
Figure 3.30: Projected Mortality from Female Breast Cancer in Australia,
2000-2020 54
Figure 3.31: Incidence of Breast Cancer in East Asia 56
Figure 3.32: Incidence of Breast Cancer in Western Asia 57
Figure 3.33: Breast Cancer Mortality in Korea, 1985-2020 57
Figure 3.34: Age-Specific Incidence of Breast Cancer in Japan 58
Figure 3.35: Age-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rate in China 59
Figure 5.1: Tissue Superimposition Hiding Pathologies in 2D 69
Figure 5.2: Minimizing the Effects of Structure Overlapping within the Breast by
3D 69
Figure 5.3: Schematic of Tomosynthesis 70
Figure 5.4: A Suspicious Area in the 2D Mammography Image 70
Figure 5.5: The 2D Image Next to One Slice of 3D Image Set Showing a Clear
Difference 71
Figure 5.6: A 2D Image with a Suspicious Area, Next to a 3D Image Set 71
Figure 5.7: Another 3D Image from the Set Showing that the Suspicious Area is
Nothing More than Normal Breast Structures Overlapping 72
Figure 5.8: Detection of Micro-Papillary Type Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in 65
Year Old Woman by 3D 72
Figure 5.9: Comparison of Digital and Film-Screen Breast Images 75
Figure 5.10: X-Ray Energy Spectra for (a) a Mo Anode XRT and (b) with the
Addition of 30 µm Thickness of Mo Filtration 76
Figure 5.11: A Mammographic XRT with Collimation and Breast Support 76
Figure 5.12: (a) A Large Phosphor Screen Coupled to Several OCDs Using Fiber
Optic Tapers (b) A Scanning-Slot System Where a Narrow Phosphor Screen is
Coupled by the Fiber Optics to a Few CCDs and the XRT/Detector is Scanned Across
the Anatomy 77
Figure 5.13: Illustration of Scanned-Slot Digital Mammography 78
Figure 5.14: The Average MGD per Exposure for Different Models of FFDM in both
Screening and Clinical Mammography 81
Figure 6.1: U.S. Mammography Units and Facilities, 2000-2011 86
Figure 6.2: Mammography Use Among Women 40 Years of Age and Over by Age in the
U.S., 2000-2010 87
Figure 6.3: Percentage of Women (Aged 50-69) Who Participated in an Organized
Program in the Past Two Years by Province, 2009-2010 89
Figure 6.4: Distribution by Stage at Diagnosis of Women Diagnosed with Invasive
Breast Cancer in Canada by Province, 2010 90
Figure 6.5: Distribution by Stage at Diagnosis of Women Diagnosed with Breast
Cancer in Canada, 2010 91
Figure 6.6: Percentage of Women Tested as Her2+ by Province in Canada, 2010 91
Figure 6.7: Percentage of Mastectomies by Province in Canada, 2009-2010 92
Figure 6.8: Percentage of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy,
Started Within Two Years of Diagnosis by Province in Canada, 2009 93
Figure 6.9: Percentage of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy Started
Within One Year of Diagnosis by Province in Canada, 2009 94
Figure 6.10: SMP Annual Screening Volume in BC, 2006-2010 95
Figure 6.11: Bilateral Utilization of Mammography by Women Ages 50-69, 2008-2010
95
Figure 6.12: Breast Cancer Screening at Least Once in Life in Europe (Age 50 to
69), 2010 97
Figure 6.13: Breast Cancer Screening at Least Once in Life in Europe (Age andlt;50),
2010 97
Figure 6.14: Proportion of European Women having Undergone Breast Cancer
Screening by
Frequency, 2010 98
Figure 6.15: European Participation in Mammography Screening by National Program
and Other, 2010 99
Figure 6.16: European Participation in Breast Cancer Screening (Age 50-69) by
Educational Status, 2010 99
Figure 6.17: European Participation in Breast Cancer Screening by Income
Quintile, 2010 100
Figure 6.18: Percentage of Women Aged 50 to 69 Screened in OECD Countries,
2000-2009 101
Figure 6.19: Treatment of Screen Detected In Situ Non-Invasive and
Micro-Invasive Breast
Cancer in the U.K. 105
Figure 6.20: Treatment of Screen Detected Invasive Breast Cancer in the U.K. 106
Figure 6.21: Reconstruction after Mastectomy in the U.K., 2009-2010 106
Figure 6.22: Breast Cancer Screening Rates in Korea, 2004-2007 107
Figure 6.23: Participation in Breast Cancer Screening by Age in Japan, 2007 108
Figure 6.24: Participation in BreastScreen Australia by Women Aged 50-69,
2000-2010 110
Figure 6.25: MBS-Funded Mammography Services by Age Group in Australian Women,
2011 111
Figure 7.1: Global Market for Mammography Systems, 2011-2018 113
Figure 7.2: Global Market for FFDM Mammography Equipment, 2011-2018 114
Figure 7.3: Global Market Leaders in Mammography Equipment Market, 2011 115
Figure 7.4: U.S. Market for Full-Field Digital Mammography Market, 2011-2018 116
Figure 7.5: U.S. Mammography Units and Facilities, 2000-2011 117
Figure 7.6: Growth in Number of FFDM Units and Facilities in the U.S., 2004-2010
118
Figure 7.7: Rest of the World Market for Mammography Equipment, 2011-2018 119
Figure 7.8: European Market for Mammography System, 2011-2018 120
Figure A2.1: Tumor Sizes 140
Figure A5.1: Improvement in Cancer Detection 154
Figure A5.2: Increased Breast Cancer Detection Using Tomosynthesis 155
Figure A5.3: Reduced Recall Rates 155
Figure A5.4: Added Value for Calcifications 156
Figure A5.5: Value of Tomosynthesis in Fatty Breasts 157
Figure A5.6: Greater Perception of Extent of Disease Using Tomosynthesis 158
Figure A5.7: Two-View Tomosynthesis Optimizes Chance for Cancer Detection 158
Figure A5.8: Dose Levels of 2D and Tomo Exams Compared to Natural Background
Radiation 159
Figure A6.1: Breast Cancer in the U.S. by Race and Stage at Diagnosis 162
Figure A6.2: Female Breast Cancer Treatment Patterns by Stage 163
Figure A6.3: Five-Year Survival Rates for Breast Cancer Patients by Race and
Stage at Diagnosis 164
Figure A6.4: Distribution of Colon and Rectum Cancer by Race and Stage at
Diagnosis 167
Figure A6.5: Colon Cancer Treatment Patterns by Stage 167
Figure A6.6: Rectal Cancer Treatment Patterns by Stage 168
Figure A6.7: Five-Year Survival Rates for Colon and Rectal Cancer Patients by
Race and
Stage at Diagnosis 169
Figure A6.8: Distribution (%) of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients by Race and Stage
at Diagnosis 170
Figure A6.9: Chemotherapy Use among Leukemia Patients by Age 171
Figure A6.10: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Patterns 172
Figure A6.11: Distribution (%) of Lung and Bronchus Cancer by Race and Stage at
Diagnosis 173
Figure A6.12: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Patterns by Stage 174
Figure A6.13: Five-Year Survival Rates for Lung and Bronchus Cancer Patients by
Race and Stage 175
Figure A6.14: Distribution (%) of Melanoma by Race and Stage 175
Figure A6.15: Five-Year Survival Rates for Melanoma Patients by Race and Stage
176
Figure A6.16: Distribution of Prostate Cancer by Race and Stage 177
Figure A6.17: Prostate Cancer Primary Treatment Patterns by Age 178
Figure A6.18: Five-Year Survival Rates for Prostate Patients by Race and Stage
179
Figure A6.19: Distribution of Testicular Cancer by Race and Stage 179
Figure A6.20: Treatment Patterns for Testicular Cancer Patients 180
Figure A6.21: Treatment Patterns for Non-Seminomatous Testicular Cancer 181
Figure A6.22: Five-Year Survival Rates for Testicular Cancer Patients by Race
and Stage 181
Figure A6.23: Distribution of Thyroid Cancer by Race and Stage 182
Figure A6.24: Five-Year Survival Rates for Thyroid Cancer Patients by Race and
Stage 183
Figure A6.25: Distribution of Urinary Bladder Cancer by Race and Stage 184
Figure A6.26: Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Treatment Patterns 184
Figure A6.27: Five-Year Survival Rates for Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients by
Race and Stage 185
Figure A6.28: Distribution of Uterine Corpus Cancer by Race and Stage 186
Figure A6.29: Uterine Cancer Treatment Patterns by Stage 186
Figure A6.30: Five-Year Survival Rates for Uterine Corpus Cancer Patients by
Race and Stage 187
Figure A6.31: Domains of Quality of Life 193
Figure A6.32: Observed-to-Expected Ratios for Subsequent Cancers by Site, Sex
and Age 20 and Older 196
Figure A6.33: Observed-to-Expected Ratios for Subsequent Cancers by Primary Site
198
Figure A6.34: Unmet Caregiver Needs by Time Since Diagnosis 199
Figure A7.1: Estimates of National Expenditures for Cancer Care in 2010 by Site
201
Figure A7.2: National Expenditure for Cancer Care in 2010 by Site and Phase of
Care 202
Figure A7.3: Proportion of National Expenditure for Cancer Care in 2010 by Site
and Phase of Care 203
Figure A7.4: Percentage of Medicare Payments in the First Year Following
Diagnosis for Cancer Care by Type of Service in 2002 204
Figure A9.1: Workflow Using Philips’ iSite Radiology for Mammography SCR 210
Figure A9.2: Workflow Using Third Party Workstation for Mammography SCR 211


INDEX OF TABLES

Table 3.1: The Top 50 Countries with Leading Breast Cancer Rates 24
Table 3.2: Estimated New Female Breast Cancer Cases and Death by Age in the
U.S., 2011 25
Table 3.3: Probability of U.S. Women fore Being Diagnosed with Breast Cancer 25
Table 3.4: Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Race, Ethnicity
and State 28
Table 3.5: Five-Year Cause-Specific Survival Rate by Race/Ethnicity 38
Table 3.6: New Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed in Canadian Women, 2012 39
Table 3.7: New Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed in Canada by Age Group, 2012 39
Table 3.8: Breast Cancer Mortality Rates in Canada, 2012 40
Table 3.9: Breast Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 Populations in the U.K.,
2009 43
Table 3.10: Number of Breast Cancer Patients in the U.K., 2009-2010 43
Table 3.11: The Five Most Commonly Diagnosed Cancers, Females, Australia, 2008
47
Table 3.12: Risk and Average Age at Diagnosis of Female Breast Cancer in
Australia, 1982-2008 50
Table 3.13: Incidence and Average Age at diagnosis by Type of Breast Cancer in
Australia, 2008 51
Table 3.14: Incidence by Histological Type and Age at Diagnosis in Australia,
2008 51
Table 3.15: Incidence of Breast Cancer by Anatomical Location in Australia, 2008
52
Table 3.16: Relative Survival from Female Breast Cancer in Australia, 2006-2010
55
Table 3.17: Hospitalization for Female Breast Cancer in Australia, 2009-2010 55
Table 3.18: Breast Cancer in Asian Younger Women 59
Table 5.1: DR System Comparisons 68
Table 5.2: Average Mean Glandular Dose per Exposure According to Model 80
Table 5.3: Examination Dose According to Model 80
Table 5.4: Average MGD per Exposure in Screening and Clinical Use for Various
Mammography Technologies and Vendors of FFDM 81
Table 6.1: Mammography Screening Prevalence Among Women 40 and Older in the
U.S., 2010 84
Table 6.2: Mammography Screening Prevalence by Age and Poverty Status in the
U.S., 1987-2010 85
Table 6.3: Certified Mammography Facilities and Accredited Units in the U.S.,
2000-2011 86
Table 6.4: Prevalence of Screening Mammography in the U.S. by State, 2010 87
Table 6.5: Histologic Features of Breast Cancers Detected by SMP in BC, 2009 96
Table 6.6: Breast Cancer Screening Activity in the U.K., 2008-2010 102
Table 6.7: Acceptance of Breast Screening Invitations by Age—All Invitation
Types 102
Table 6.8: Acceptance by Type of Screen: Women Aged 45-74 103
Table 6.9: Screening Quality—First Screen after First Invitation 103
Table 6.10: Screening Quality—Subsequent Screening 104
Table 6.11: Screening—Women Aged 71 and Over in the U.K. 104
Table 6.12: Assessment Outcomes—Age 50-70 104
Table 6.13: Assessment Outcomes—Age 45-74 in the U.K. 105
Table 6.14: Medicare Benefits Schedule-Funded Mammography Services in Australia,
2011 110
Table 6.15: Hospitalization for Female Breast Cancer in Australia, 2009-2010 111
Table 6.16: Same-Day Hospitalizations and Overnight Hospitalizations for Female
Breast Cancer in Australia,
2009-2010 112
Table 7.1: Certified Mammography Facilities and Accredited Units in the U.S.,
2000-2011 117
Table A2.1: Staging of Breast Cancer 139
Table A6.1: Estimated Number of Cancer Survivors in the U.S. as of January 1,
2012 160
Table A6.2: Estimated Numbers of U.S. Cancer Survivors by Site as of January 1,
2012 161
Table A6.3: Estimated U.S. Cancer Survivors by Sex and Time since Diagnosis as
of January 1, 2012 161
Table A6.4: Estimated U.S. Cancer Survivors by Sex and Age as of January 1, 2012
162
Table A8.1: Mammography Reimbursement Rates—All Sites of Services 206
Table A8.2: Reimbursement for Breast MRI—Hospital Outpatient 207
Table A8.3: Reimbursement for MRI Breast Imaging—Offices and Imaging
Centers/Physician 208

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Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the Global Diagnostic Imaging Market 2014: Strategic Assessments of Leading Suppliers

Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the Global Diagnostic Imaging Market 2014: Strategic Assessments of Leading Suppliers

  • $ 14 500
  • Industry report
  • August 2014
  • by Venture Planning Group

Complete report $14,500.  Individual company assessments $2,450.  The report is available by company, section, market segment, and can be custom-tailored to your specific information needs and budget. ...

Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the Global Ultrasound Market 2014: Strategic Assessments of Leading Suppliers

Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the Global Ultrasound Market 2014: Strategic Assessments of Leading Suppliers

  • $ 12 500
  • Industry report
  • August 2014
  • by Venture Planning Group

Complete report $12,500.  Individual company assessments $1,850.  The report is available by company, section, market segment, and can be custom-tailored to your specific information needs and budget. ...

Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the Global MRI Market 2014: Strategic Assessments of Leading Suppliers

Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the Global MRI Market 2014: Strategic Assessments of Leading Suppliers

  • $ 7 400
  • Industry report
  • August 2014
  • by Venture Planning Group

This report provides diagnostic imaging industry executives with strategically significant competitor information, analysis and insight crucial to the development and implementation of effective business, ...


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