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The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Manufacturing Ball and Roller Bearings

The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Manufacturing Ball and Roller Bearings

  • January 2018
  • 275 pages
  • ID: 1991187

Summary

Table of Contents

This study covers the world outlook for manufacturing ball and roller bearings across more than 190 countries. For each year reported, estimates are given for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for the country in question (in millions of U.S. dollars), the percent share the country is of the region, and of the globe.

These comparative benchmarks allow the reader to quickly gauge a country vis-à-vis others. Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each country and across countries, latent demand estimates are created.

This report does not discuss the specific players in the market serving the latent demand, nor specific details at the product level. The study also does not consider short-term cyclicalities that might affect realized sales.

The study, therefore, is strategic in nature, taking an aggregate and long-run view, irrespective of the players or products involved. This study does not report actual sales data (which are simply unavailable, in a comparable or consistent manner in virtually all of the countries of the world).

This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for manufacturing ball and roller bearings. It also shows how the P.I.E. is divided across the world’s regional and national markets. For each country, I also show my estimates of how the P.I.E. grows over time (positive or negative growth). In order to make these estimates, a multi-stage methodology was employed that is often taught in courses on international strategic planning at graduate schools of business.

1.3 THE METHODOLOGY
In order to estimate the latent demand for manufacturing ball and roller bearings on a worldwide basis, I used a multi-stage approach. Before applying the approach, one needs a basic theory from which such estimates are created.

In this case, I heavily rely on the use of certain basic economic assumptions. In particular, there is an assumption governing the shape and type of aggregate latent demand functions.

Latent demand functions relate the income of a country, city, state, household, or individual to realized consumption. Latent demand (often realized as consumption when an industry is efficient), at any level of the value chain, takes place if an equilibrium is realized.

For firms to serve a market, they must perceive a latent demand and be able to serve that demand at a minimal return. The single most important variable determining consumption, assuming latent demand exists, is income (or other financial resources at higher levels of the value chain). Other factors that can pivot or shape demand curves include external or exogenous shocks (i.e., business cycles), and or changes in utility for the product in question.

Ignoring, for the moment, exogenous shocks and variations in utility across countries, the aggregate relation between income and consumption has been a central theme in economics. The figure below concisely summarizes one aspect of problem.

In the 1930s, John Meynard Keynes conjectured that as incomes rise, the average propensity to consume would fall. The average propensity to consume is the level of consumption divided by the level of income, or the slope of the line from the origin to the consumption function.

He estimated this relationship empirically and found it to be true in the short-run (mostly based on cross-sectional data). The higher the income, the lower the average propensity to consume.

This type of consumption function is shown as "B" in the figure below (note the rather flat slope of the curve). In the 1940s, another macroeconomist, Simon Kuznets, estimated long-run consumption functions which indicated that the marginal propensity to consume was rather constant (using time series data across countries). This type of consumption function is show as "B" in the figure below (note the higher slope and zero-zero intercept).

The average propensity to consume is constant. For a general overview of this subject area, see Principles of Macroeconomics by N. Gregory Mankiw, South-Western College Publishing; ISBN: 0030340594; 2nd edition (February 2002).

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles.

In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted).

While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for manufacturing ball and roller bearings across some 190 countries.

The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function.

This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for manufacturing ball and roller bearings. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for manufacturing ball and roller bearings. Since ICON Group has asked me to apply this methodology to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just manufacturing ball and roller bearings.

1.3.1 STEP 1. PRODUCT DEFINITION AND DATA COLLECTION
Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others.

These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for "efficiency".

High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita).

Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles.

In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted).

While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for manufacturing ball and roller bearings across some 190 countries.

The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function.

This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for manufacturing ball and roller bearings. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for manufacturing ball and roller bearings. Since ICON Group has asked me to apply this methodology to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just manufacturing ball and roller bearings.

1.3.1 STEP 1. PRODUCT DEFINITION AND DATA COLLECTION
Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others.

These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for "efficiency".

High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita).

Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies. Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.

Latent demand is therefore estimated using data collected for relatively efficient markets from independent data sources (e.g. Euromonitor, Mintel, Thomson Financial Services, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, the World Resources Institute, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, various agencies from the United Nations, industry trade associations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank).

Depending on original data sources used, the definition of manufacturing ball and roller bearings is established. In the case of this report, the data were reported at the aggregate level, with no further breakdown or definition.

In other words, any potential products and/or services that might be incorporated within manufacturing ball and roller bearings fall under this category. Public sources rarely report data at the disaggregated level in order to protect private information from individual firms that might dominate a specific product-market.

These sources will therefore aggregate across components of a category and report only the aggregate to the public. While private data are certainly available, this report only relies on public data at the aggregate level without reliance on the summation of various category components.

In other words, this report does not aggregate a number of components to arrive at the "whole". Rather, it starts with the "whole", and estimates the whole for all countries and the world at large (without needing to know the specific parts that went into the whole in the first place).

Given this caveat, this study covers manufacturing ball and roller bearings as defined by the North American Industrial Classification system or NAICS (pronounced "nakes").

The NAICS code for manufacturing ball and roller bearings is 332991. It is for this definition that aggregate latent demand estimates are derived.

Manufacturing ball and roller bearings is specifically defined as follows:
332991 This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ball and roller bearings of all materials.
3329911 Ball bearings, unmounted
33299110 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted
3329911000 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted
3329911001 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, miniature (below 9mm O.D.), regular (ABEC 1 and 3)
3329911002 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, miniature (below 9mm O.D.), precision (ABEC 5 and up)
3329911003 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), 9mm O.D. through 30 mm O.D.
3329911004 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), over 30 mm O.D. through 52 mm O.D.
3329911005 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), over 52 mm O.D. through 100 mm O.D.
3329911007 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), over 100 mm O.D.
3329911009 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), 9mm O.D. through 30 mm O.D.
3329911011 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), over 30 mm O.D. through 52 mm O.D.
3329911012 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), over 52 mm O.D. through 100 mm O.D.
3329911013 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), over 100 mm O.D.
3329911014 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, single row maximum capacity type
3329911018 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, integral shaft and integral spindle ball bearings
3329911019 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, angular contact, regular
3329911020 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, double row
3329911023 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, angular contact, precision
3329911024 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, all other ground or precision bearings (ABEC 1 and up)
3329911027 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, ground or precision, ground bearings of less than ABEC 1 precision
3329911029 Complete ball bearings, unmounted, annular, including self~aligning, unground, (less than ABEC 1)
3329911033 Thrust ball bearings, ground
3329911035 Thrust ball bearings, unground
3329911055 Other ball bearings
33299111 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted
3329911100 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted
3329911101 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, miniature (below 9mm O.D.), regular (ABEC 1 and 3)
3329911102 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, miniature (below 9mm O.D.), precision (ABEC 5 and up)
3329911103 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), 9mm O.D. to 30mm O.D.
3329911104 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), over 30mm O.D. to 52mm O.D.
3329911105 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), over 52mm O.D. to 100mm O.D.
3329911107 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other regular (ABEC 1 and 3), over 100mm O.D.
3329911109 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), 9mm O.D. to 30mm O.D.
3329911111 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), over 30mm O.D. to 52mm O.D.
3329911112 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), over 52mm O.D. to 100mm O.D.
3329911113 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, other precision (ABEC 5 and up), over 100mm O.D.
3329911114 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, single-row maximum capacity type
3329911118 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, integral shaft and integral spindle
3329911119 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, angular contact, regular
3329911120 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, double row
3329911123 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, angular contact, precision
3329911124 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, all other (ABEC 1 and up)
3329911127 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), ground or precision, single row conrad, ground less than ABEC 1 precision
3329911129 Ball bearings, complete, unmounted, annular (including self-aligning), unground (less than ABEC 1)
3329911133 Thrust ball bearings, ground
3329911135 Thrust ball bearings, unground
3329911155 Other ball bearings
3329913 Tapered roller bearings (including cups & cones), unmounted
33299130 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted
3329913000 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted
3329913032 Tapered roller bearings, cup and cone assemblies shipped as a set
3329913033 Tapered roller bearings, cups shipped separately
3329913034 Tapered roller bearings, cone assemblies shipped separately
33299131 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted
3329913100 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted
3329913132 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted, cup and cone assemblies shipped as a set
3329913133 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted, cups shipped separately
3329913134 Tapered roller bearings (including cups and cones), unmounted, cone assemblies shipped separately
3329915 Roller bearings, except tapered, unmounted
33299150 Roller bearings, except tapered, unmounted
3329915000 Roller bearings, except tapered, unmounted
3329915011 Other roller bearings, cylindrical roller bearings, regular (ABEC 1 and 3)
3329915012 Other roller bearings, cylindrical roller bearings, precision (ABEC 5 and up)
3329915024 Other roller bearings, spherical roller bearings, including hourglass and barrel, single row
3329915025 Other roller bearings, spherical roller bearings, including hourglass and barrel, double row
3329915041 Other roller bearings, needle roller bearings
3329915093 Other roller bearings, nec
33299151 Other roller bearings, unmounted
3329915100 Other roller bearings, unmounted
3329915111 Roller bearings (except tapered), unmounted, cylindrical, regular (ABEC 1 and 3)
3329915112 Roller bearings (except tapered), unmounted, cylindrical, precision (ABEC 5 and up)
3329915124 Roller bearings (except tapered), unmounted, spherical (including hourglass and barrel), single-row
3329915125 Roller bearings (except tapered), unmounted, spherical (including hourglass and barrel), double-row
3329915141 Roller bearings (except tapered), unmounted, needle
3329915193 All other roller bearings
3329917 Mounted bearings, except plain
33299170 Mounted bearings, except plain
3329917000 Mounted bearings, except plain
3329917017 Mounted bearings, except plain, ball bearings, unit and~or split mounted
3329917053 Mounted bearings, except plain, roller, unit mounted
3329917055 Mounted bearings, except plain, roller, split mounted
33299171 Mounted bearings (except plain)
3329917100 Mounted bearings (except plain)
3329917117 Mounted bearings (except plain), ball, unit and/or split mounted
3329917153 Mounted bearings (except plain), roller, unit-mounted
3329917155 Mounted bearings (except plain), roller, split-mounted
3329919 Ball and roller bearing parts and components, including balls and rollers sold separately
33299190 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, except cups and cones (including ball and rollers sold separately)
3329919000 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, except cups and cones (including ball and rollers sold separately)
3329919011 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, balls
3329919021 Other anti~friction ball bearing components and parts, including unassembled ball bearings, cages, races, seals, shields, etc. (except balls)
3329919031 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, rollers
3329919035 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, other roller bearing parts and components (except rollers), for tapered roller bearings (except cup and cone assemblies)
3329919036 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, other roller bearing parts and components (except rollers), for cylindrical roller bearings
3329919037 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, other roller bearing parts and components (except rollers), for spherical roller bearings
3329919049 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, other roller bearing parts and components (except rollers), for other roller bearings
3329919059 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings, housings, parts and components for housings, including housing closures, collars, spacers, sleeves, adapters, and other miscellaneous items
33299191 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings (including balls and rollers), sold separately (excluding cups and cones)
3329919100 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings (including balls and rollers), sold separately (excluding cups and cones)
3329919111 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings (except cups and cones), balls
3329919121 Other antifriction ball bearing components and parts (including unassembled ball bearings, cages, races, seals, shelds, etc.), except balls
3329919131 Parts and components for ball and roller bearings (except cups and cones), rollers
3329919135 Tapered roller bearing parts and components (except rollers), except cup and cone assemblies
3329919136 Cylindrical roller bearing parts and components (except rollers)
3329919137 Spherical roller bearing parts and components (except rollers)
3329919149 Other roller bearing parts and components (except rollers)
3329919159 Housings and parts and components for housings (including housing closures, collars, spacers, sleeves, adapters, etc.)
332991M Miscellaneous receipts
332991P Primary products
332991S Secondary products
332991SM Secondary products and miscellaneous receipts

This report was prepared from a variety of sources including excerpts from documents and official reports or databases published by the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. State Department, various national agencies, the International Monetary Fund, the Central Intelligence Agency, various agencies from the United Nations (e.g. ILO, ITU, UNDP, etc.), and non-governmental sources, including ICON Group Ltd., Euromonitor, the World Resources Institute, Mintel, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, and various public sources cited in the trade press.

1.3.2 STEP 2. FILTERING AND SMOOTHING
Based on the aggregate view of manufacturing ball and roller bearings as defined above, data were then collected for as many similar countries as possible for that same definition, at the same level of the value chain. This generates a convenience sample of countries from which comparable figures are available.

If the series in question do not reflect the same accounting period, then adjustments are made. In order to eliminate short-term effects of business cycles, the series are smoothed using a 2-year moving average weighting scheme (longer weighting schemes do not substantially change the results).

If data are available for a country, but these reflect short-run aberrations due to exogenous shocks (such as would be the case of beef sales in a country stricken with foot and mouth disease), these observations were dropped or "filtered" from the analysis.

1.3.3 STEP 3. FILLING IN MISSING VALUES
In some cases, data are available for countries on a sporadic basis. In other cases, data from a country may be available for only one year.

From a Bayesian perspective, these observations should be given the greatest weight in estimating missing years. Assuming that other factors are held constant, the missing years are extrapolated using changes and growth in aggregate national income.

Based on the overriding philosophy of a long-run consumption function (defined earlier), countries which have missing data for any given year are estimated based on historical dynamics of aggregate income for that country.

1.3.4 STEP 4. VARYING PARAMETER, NON-LINEAR ESTIMATION
Given the data available from the first three steps, the latent demand in additional countries is estimated using a "varying-parameter cross-sectionally pooled time series model".

The interested reader can find longer discussions of this type of modeling in Studies in Global Econometrics (Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics V. 30), by Henri Theil, et al., Kluwer Academic Publishers; ISBN: 0792336607; (June 1996), and in Principles of Econometrics, by Henri Theil John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471858455; (December 1971), and in Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts by Robert S. Pindyck, Daniel L.

Rubinfeld McGraw Hill Text; ISBN: 0070500983; 3rd edition (December 1991). Simply stated, the effect of income on latent demand is assumed to be constant across countries unless there is empirical evidence to suggest that this effect varies (i.e., the slope of the income effect is not necessarily the same for all countries).

This assumption applies across countries along the aggregate consumption function, but also over time (i.e., not all countries are perceived to have the same income growth prospects over time and this effect can vary from country to country as well). Another way of looking at this is to say that latent demand for manufacturing ball and roller bearings is more likely to be similar across countries that have similar characteristics in terms of economic development (i.e., African countries will have similar latent demand structures controlling for the income variation across the pool of African countries). This approach is useful across countries for which some notion of non-linearity exists in the aggregate cross-country consumption function.

For some categories, however, the reader must realize that the numbers will reflect a country’s contribution to global latent demand and may never be realized in the form of local sales. For certain country-category combinations this will result in what at first glance will be odd results. For example, the latent demand for the category "space vehicles" will exist for Togo even though they have no space program.

The assumption is that if the economies in these countries did not exist, the world aggregate for these categories would be lower. The share attributed to these countries is based on a proportion of their income (however small) being used to consume the category in question (i.e., perhaps via resellers).

1.3.5 STEP 5. FIXED-PARAMETER LINEAR ESTIMATION
Nonlinearities are assumed in cases where filtered data exist along the aggregate consumption function. Because the world consists of more than 200 countries, there will always be those countries, especially toward the bottom of the consumption function, where non-linear estimation is simply not possible.


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    • The license that you should acquire depends on the number of persons that need to access the report. This can range from Single User (only one person will have the right to read or access the report), or Department License (up to 5 persons), to Site License (a group of persons based in the same company location), or Corporate License (the entire company personnel based worldwide). However, as publishers have different terms and conditions, we can look into this for you.

ref:plp2018

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