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The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Manufacturing Punching, Sheering, Bending, Forming, Pressing, Forging and Die-Casting Machines and Other Metal Forming Machine Tools Excluding Hand Tools

The 2019-2024 World Outlook for Manufacturing Punching, Sheering, Bending, Forming, Pressing, Forging and Die-Casting Machines and Other Metal Forming Machine Tools Excluding Hand Tools

  • January 2018
  • 304 pages
  • ID: 1993246

Summary

Table of Contents

This study covers the world outlook for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools across more than 190 countries. For each year reported, estimates are given for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for the country in question (in millions of U.S. dollars), the percent share the country is of the region, and of the globe.

These comparative benchmarks allow the reader to quickly gauge a country vis-à-vis others. Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each country and across countries, latent demand estimates are created.

This report does not discuss the specific players in the market serving the latent demand, nor specific details at the product level. The study also does not consider short-term cyclicalities that might affect realized sales.

The study, therefore, is strategic in nature, taking an aggregate and long-run view, irrespective of the players or products involved. This study does not report actual sales data (which are simply unavailable, in a comparable or consistent manner in virtually all of the countries of the world).

This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools. It also shows how the P.I.E. is divided across the world’s regional and national markets. For each country, I also show my estimates of how the P.I.E. grows over time (positive or negative growth). In order to make these estimates, a multi-stage methodology was employed that is often taught in courses on international strategic planning at graduate schools of business.

1.3 THE METHODOLOGY
In order to estimate the latent demand for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools on a worldwide basis, I used a multi-stage approach. Before applying the approach, one needs a basic theory from which such estimates are created.

In this case, I heavily rely on the use of certain basic economic assumptions. In particular, there is an assumption governing the shape and type of aggregate latent demand functions.

Latent demand functions relate the income of a country, city, state, household, or individual to realized consumption. Latent demand (often realized as consumption when an industry is efficient), at any level of the value chain, takes place if an equilibrium is realized.

For firms to serve a market, they must perceive a latent demand and be able to serve that demand at a minimal return. The single most important variable determining consumption, assuming latent demand exists, is income (or other financial resources at higher levels of the value chain). Other factors that can pivot or shape demand curves include external or exogenous shocks (i.e., business cycles), and or changes in utility for the product in question.

Ignoring, for the moment, exogenous shocks and variations in utility across countries, the aggregate relation between income and consumption has been a central theme in economics. The figure below concisely summarizes one aspect of problem.

In the 1930s, John Meynard Keynes conjectured that as incomes rise, the average propensity to consume would fall. The average propensity to consume is the level of consumption divided by the level of income, or the slope of the line from the origin to the consumption function.

He estimated this relationship empirically and found it to be true in the short-run (mostly based on cross-sectional data). The higher the income, the lower the average propensity to consume.

This type of consumption function is shown as "B" in the figure below (note the rather flat slope of the curve). In the 1940s, another macroeconomist, Simon Kuznets, estimated long-run consumption functions which indicated that the marginal propensity to consume was rather constant (using time series data across countries). This type of consumption function is show as "B" in the figure below (note the higher slope and zero-zero intercept).

The average propensity to consume is constant. For a general overview of this subject area, see Principles of Macroeconomics by N. Gregory Mankiw, South-Western College Publishing; ISBN: 0030340594; 2nd edition (February 2002).

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles.

In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted).

While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools across some 190 countries.

The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function.

This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools. Since ICON Group has asked me to apply this methodology to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools.

1.3.1 STEP 1. PRODUCT DEFINITION AND DATA COLLECTION
Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others.

These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for "efficiency".

High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita).

Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies.

Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.

Is it declining or is it constant? A number of other economists, notably Franco Modigliani and Milton Friedman, in the 1950s (and Irving Fisher earlier), explained why the two functions were different using various assumptions on intertemporal budget constraints, savings, and wealth. The shorter the time horizon, the more consumption can depend on wealth (earned in previous years) and business cycles.

In the long-run, however, the propensity to consume is more constant. Similarly, in the long-run, households, industries, or countries with no income eventually have no consumption (wealth is depleted).

While the debate surrounding beliefs about how income and consumption are related and interesting, in this study a very particular school of thought is adopted. In particular, we are considering the latent demand for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools across some 190 countries.

The smallest have fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. I assume that all of these counties fall along a "long-run" aggregate consumption function.

This long-run function applies despite some of these countries having wealth; current income dominates the latent demand for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools. So, latent demand in the long-run has a zero intercept. However, I allow firms to have different propensities to consume (including being on consumption functions with differing slopes, which can account for differences in industrial organization, and end-user preferences).

Given this overriding philosophy, I will now describe the methodology used to create the latent demand estimates for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools. Since ICON Group has asked me to apply this methodology to a large number of categories, the rather academic discussion below is general and can be applied to a wide variety of categories, not just manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools.

1.3.1 STEP 1. PRODUCT DEFINITION AND DATA COLLECTION
Any study of latent demand across countries requires that some standard be established to define "efficiently served". Having implemented various alternatives and matched these with market outcomes, I have found that the optimal approach is to assume that certain key countries are more likely to be at or near efficiency than others.

These countries are given greater weight than others in the estimation of latent demand compared to other countries for which no known data are available. Of the many alternatives, I have found the assumption that the world’s highest aggregate income and highest income-per-capita markets reflect the best standards for "efficiency".

High aggregate income alone is not sufficient (i.e., China has high aggregate income, but low income per capita and cannot be assumed to be efficient). Aggregate income can be operationalized in a number of ways, including gross domestic product (for industrial categories), or total disposable income (for household categories; population times average income per capita, or number of households times average household income per capita).

Brunei, Nauru, Kuwait, and Lichtenstein are examples of countries with high income per capita, but not assumed to be efficient, given low aggregate level of income (or gross domestic product); these countries have, however, high incomes per capita but may not benefit from the efficiencies derived from economies of scale associated with large economies.

Only countries with high income per capita and large aggregate income are assumed efficient. This greatly restricts the pool of countries to those in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), like the United States, or the United Kingdom (which were earlier than other large OECD economies to liberalize their markets).

The selection of countries is further reduced by the fact that not all countries in the OECD report have industry revenues at the category level. Countries that typically have ample data at the aggregate level that meet the efficiency criteria include the United States, the United Kingdom, and in some cases France and Germany.

Latent demand is therefore estimated using data collected for relatively efficient markets from independent data sources (e.g. Euromonitor, Mintel, Thomson Financial Services, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, the World Resources Institute, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, various agencies from the United Nations, industry trade associations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank).

Depending on original data sources used, the definition of manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools is established. In the case of this report, the data were reported at the aggregate level, with no further breakdown or definition. In other words, any potential products and/or services that might be incorporated within manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools fall under this category.

Public sources rarely report data at the disaggregated level in order to protect private information from individual firms that might dominate a specific product-market. These sources will therefore aggregate across components of a category and report only the aggregate to the public. While private data are certainly available, this report only relies on public data at the aggregate level without reliance on the summation of various category components.

In other words, this report does not aggregate a number of components to arrive at the "whole". Rather, it starts with the "whole", and estimates the whole for all countries and the world at large (without needing to know the specific parts that went into the whole in the first place).

Given this caveat, this study covers manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools as defined by the North American Industrial Classification system or NAICS (pronounced "nakes").

The NAICS code for manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools is 333513. It is for this definition that aggregate latent demand estimates are derived.

Manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools is specifically defined as follows:
333513 This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing metal forming machine tools (except handtools), such as punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines.
3335131 Punching, shearing, bending, and forming machines
33351310 Metal punching and shearing machines (including power and manual) and bending and forming machines (power only)
3335131000 Metal punching and shearing machines (including power and manual) and bending and forming machines (power only)
3335131001 Metal forming type machine tools, all punching and shearing machines valued under $3,025 each
3335131006 Metal forming type machine tools, punching and shearing machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power~operated, punches, including combination punching and shearing machines
3335131011 Metal forming type machine tools, punching and shearing machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power~operated, punching machines, fixed position and two axes positioning table
3335131016 Metal forming type machine tools, punching and shearing machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power~operated, plate shearing machines (squaring, slitting, etc.), mechanical
3335131021 Metal forming type machine tools, punching and shearing machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power~operated, plate shearing machines (squaring, slitting, etc.), hydraulic
3335131026 Metal forming type machine tools, punching and shearing machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power~operated, other power~operated punching and shearing machines
3335131031 Metal forming type machine tools, all bending and forming machines, power~operated, valued under $3,025 each
3335131036 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power~ operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, press brakes
3335131041 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power~ operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, bending rolls, sheet, and plate number . S MQ333W
3335131046 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power~ operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, bending rolls, angles, bars, shapes, and tubes
3335131051 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power~ operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, rotary bending and forming machines, including rotary head
3335131056 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power~ operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, ram and press bending machines
3335131061 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power~ operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, other bending and forming machines, including folders
33351311 Metal punching and shearing machines (including power and manual) and bending and forming machines (power only)
3335131100 Metal punching and shearing machines (including power and manual) and bending and forming machines (power only)
3335131101 Punching and shearing machines, valued under $3,025 each
3335131106 Punches, valued at $3,025 each or more, power-operated, including combination punching and shearing machines
3335131111 Punching machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power-operated, fixed position and two axes positioning table
3335131116 Plate shearing machines (squaring, slitting, etc.), valued at $3,025 each or more, power-operated, mechanical
3335131121 Plate shearing machines (squaring, slitting, etc.), valued at $3,025 each or more, power-operated, hydraulic
3335131126 Other punching and shearing machines, valued at $3,025 each or more, power-operated
3335131131 Bending and forming machines, valued under $3,025 each
3335131136 Press brakes, valued at $3,025 each or more
3335131142 Roll bending machines (including sheet, plate, angles, bars, shapes, and tubes), valued at $3,025 each or more
3335131151 Rotary bending and forming machines (including rotary head), valued at $3,025 each or more
3335131161 Metal forming type machine tools, bending and forming machines, power- operated, valued at $3,025 each or more, other bending and forming machines, including folders
3335132 Presses, except forging
3335133 Other metal forming machine tools and forging machines
33351330 Metalworking presses (except forging and die~stamping presses)
3335133000 Metalworking presses (except forging and die~stamping presses)
3335133001 Metal forming type machine tools, all presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued under $3,025 each
3335133006 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, mechanical presses, open back inclinable, gap type, 50 tons and under
3335133011 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, mechanical presses, open back inclinable, gap type, 51 tons to 120 tons
3335133016 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, mechanical presses, open back inclinable, gap type, 121 tons and over
3335133021 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (exc forging presses & die stamping presses) val at $3,025 each or more, mechanical presses, vert. straight sided & arch frame, single action, single point
3335133026 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (exc forg presses & die stmpng presses) val at $3,025 each or more, mechan presses, vert straight sided & arch frame single action, two pt, 300 tons & under
3335133031 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (exc forg presses & die stmpng presses) val at $3,025 each or more, mechan presses, vert straight sided & arch frame single action, two pt, 301 tons and over
3335133036 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, mechanical presses, automatic, strip or coil field
3335133041 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, mechanical presses, other mechanical presses
3335133046 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (exc forg presses & die stmp presses) val at $3,025 each or more, hydraul presses (mtlwrking only), vert sngl action, all tonnages, housing or straight side
3335133051 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (exc forg presses & die stmpng presses) val at $3,025 each or more, hydraul presses (mtlworking only), vert sngl action, all tonnages, column type (open rod)
3335133056 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, hydraulic presses (metalworking only), gap or C~frame, 15 tons and under
3335133061 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, hydraulic presses (metalworking only), gap or C~frame, 16 tons to 35 tons
3335133066 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die~stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, hydraulic presses (metalworking only), gap or C~frame, over 35 tons
3335133071 Metal forming type machine tools, presses (except forging presses and die stamping presses) valued at $3,025 each or more, other hydraulic & pneumatic presses (metalworking only), incld. horizontal
33351331 Metalworking presses (except forging and die-stamping presses)
3335133100 Metalworking presses (except forging and die-stamping presses)
3335133101 Presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued under $3,025 each
3335133106 Mechanical presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more, gap or C-frame, 50 tons and under
3335133113 Mechanical presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more, gap or C-frame, over 50 tons
3335133121 Mechanical presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more, vertical straight sided and arch frame, single action, single point
3335133128 Mechanical presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more, vertical straight sided and arch frame, single action, two point, 150 tons and under
3335133133 Mechanical presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more, vertical straight sided and arch frame, single action, two point, over 150 tons
3335133136 Automatic presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more, strip or coil fed
3335133141 Other mechanical presses (except forging and die-stamping), valued at $3,025 each or more (including end wheel type, bulldozer, etc.), excluding automated lines of standard equipment
3335133146 Hydraulic presses (metalworking only), valued at $3,025 each or more, vertical single action, all tonnages, housing or straight side type
3335133151 Hydraulic presses (metalworking only), valued at $3,025 each or more, vertical single action, all tonnages, column type (open rod)
3335133156 Hydraulic presses (metalworking only), valued at $3,025 each or more, gap or C-frame, 15 tons and under
3335133161 Hydraulic presses (metalworking only), valued at $3,025 each or more, gap or C-frame, 16 to 35 tons
3335133166 Hydraulic presses (metalworking only), valued at $3,025 each or more, gap or C-frame, over 35 tons
3335133171 Other hydraulic and pneumatic presses (metalworking only), valued at $3,025 each or more, including horizontal
3335134 Rebuilt metal forming machine tools and parts for metal forming machine tools
3335135 OTHER METAL FORMING MACHINE TOOLS, INCLUDING FORGING AND DIE-STAMPING MACHINES (EXCEPT METALWORKING PRESSES)
33351350 Other metal forming machine tools, including forging and die~stamping machines (except metalworking presses)
3335135000 Other metal forming machine tools, including forging and die~stamping machines (except metalworking presses)
3335135001 Metal forming type machine tools, all other metal forming type machine tools valued under $3,025
3335135006 Metal forming type machine tools, valued at $3,025 each or more, thread rolling machinery
3335135011 Metal forming type machine tools, valued at $3,025 each or more, metal container~making machinery
3335135016 Metal forming type machine tools, valued at $3,025 each or more, die~ casting machines
3335135021 Metal forming type machine tools, valued at $3,025 each or more, riveting machines, except handheld portable types
3335135026 Metal forming type machine tools, valued at $3,025 each or more, all other metal forming type machine tools, nec
3335135076 Metal forming type machine tools, forging machines (including forging presses and die~stamping presses)
33351351 Other metal forming machine tools, including forging and die-stamping machines (except metalworking presses)
3335135100 Other metal forming machine tools, including forging and die-stamping machines (except metalworking presses)
3335135101 All other metal forming type machine tools, valued under $3,025 each
3335135106 Thread rolling machinery, valued at $3,025 each or more
3335135111 Metal container-making machinery, valued at $3,025 each or more
3335135116 Die casting machines, valued at $3,025 each or more
3335135121 Riveting machines (except hand held portable types), valued at $3,025 each or more
3335135126 All other metal forming type machine tools, valued at $3,025 each or more
3335135176 Forging machines (including forging presses and die stamping presses)
3335137 PARTS FOR METAL FORMING MACHINE TOOLS (SOLD SEPARATELY), INCLUDING REBUILT AND REMANUFACTURED METAL FORMING MACHINE TOOLS
33351371 Parts for metal forming machine tools (sold separately), die-casting machines, rebuilt metal forming machine tools, and remanufactured metal forming machine tools
3335137101 Parts for die-casting machines
3335137111 Other parts for metal forming machine tools
3335137116 Rebuilt metal forming machine tools
3335137117 Rebuilt metal forming machine tools (including machines returned to same configuration they were in when new from factory)
3335137121 Remanufactured metal forming machine tools (including machines in which the basic carcass is reused and all possible modern improvements have been incorporated)
333513M Miscellaneous receipts
333513P Primary products
333513S Secondary products
333513SM Secondary products and miscellaneous receipts

This report was prepared from a variety of sources including excerpts from documents and official reports or databases published by the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. State Department, various national agencies, the International Monetary Fund, the Central Intelligence Agency, various agencies from the United Nations (e.g. ILO, ITU, UNDP, etc.), and non-governmental sources, including ICON Group Ltd., Euromonitor, the World Resources Institute, Mintel, the U.S. Industrial Outlook, and various public sources cited in the trade press.

1.3.2 STEP 2. FILTERING AND SMOOTHING
Based on the aggregate view of manufacturing punching, sheering, bending, forming, pressing, forging and die-casting machines and other metal forming machine tools excluding hand tools as defined above, data were then collected for as many similar countries as possible for that same definition, at the same level of the value chain. This generates a convenience sample of countries from which comparable figures are available.

If the series in question do not reflect the same accounting period, then adjustments are made. In order to eliminate short-term effects of business cycles, the series are smoothed using a 2-year moving average weighting scheme (longer weighting schemes do not substantially change the results).

If data are available for a country, but these reflect short-run aberrations due to exogenous shocks (such as would be the case of beef sales in a country stricken with foot and mouth disease), these observations were dropped or "filtered" from the analysis.

1.3.3 STEP 3. FILLING IN MISSING VALUES
In some cases, data are available for countries on a sporadic basis. In other cases, data from a country may be available for only one year.

From a Bayesian perspective, these observations should be given the greatest weight in estimating missing years. Assuming that other factors are held constant, the missing years are extrapolated using changes and growth in aggregate national income.

Based on the overriding philosophy of a long-run consumption function (defined earlier), countries which have missing data for any given year are estimated based on historical dynamics of aggregate income for that country.

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Purchase Reports From Reputable Market Research Publishers
Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing in the US - Industry Market Research Report

Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing in the US - Industry Market Research Report

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In good shape: global economic growth fuels downstream demand boosting industry revenueAbstractMetalworking Machinery Manufacturing in the USOver the five years to 2018, the Metalworking Machinery Manufacturing ...

2018 Future of Global Metal Cutting Machine Market to 2025- Growth Opportunities, Competition, Trends and Outlook of Metal Cutting Machine Across Applications and Regions Report

2018 Future of Global Metal Cutting Machine Market to 2025- Growth Opportunities, Competition, Trends and Outlook of Metal Cutting Machine Across Applications and Regions Report

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The global demand for Metal Cutting Machine is forecast to report strong growth driven by consumption in major emerging markets.More growth opportunities will turn up between 2018 and 2025 as compared ...

Powder Metallurgy – A Global Market Overview

Powder Metallurgy – A Global Market Overview

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Report SynopsisDemand for Powder Metallurgy parts in automobiles is likely to surge over the coming years because of concerns regarding reducing vehicle weight and increasing fuel economy. One major facto ...

Steel Market Report 2018-2028 $ 3628 August 2018


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