1 Cars and Personal Mobility Services 4
1.1 Introduction 4
1.1.1 Passenger cars in use by region 4
1.1.2 New passenger car registration trends 6
1.2 Market trends 8
1.2.1 Peak car use and car ownership 8
1.2.2 The sharing economy 8
1.3 Car-based mobility services 8
1.3.1 Overview of carsharing services 10
1.3.2 Carsharing operational models 11
1.4 Carsharing services worldwide 12
1.4.1 Carsharing in Europe 12
1.4.2 Carsharing in North America 14
1.4.3 Carsharing in Asia-Pacific 15
1.4.4 Carsharing in ROW 16
1.4.5 Overview of carsharing service providers 17
1.5 Car telematics infrastructure 22
1.5.1 Vehicle segment 24
1.5.2 Tracking segment 24
1.5.3 Network segment 25
1.5.4 Service segment 27

2 Car OEM Mobility Service Initiatives 29
2.1 The BMW and Daimler joint venture SHARE NOW 30
2.1.1 SHARE NOW 31
2.2 Mobility projects and services from Ford 33
2.3 Hyundai Motor Group carsharing and mobility programmes 33
2.4 Nissan carsharing services 34
2.5 Stellantis 35
2.5.1 Free2Move 36
2.6 Renault Group's carsharing initiatives 38
2.7 Toyota mobility services platform and KINTO services 39
2.7.1 KINTO 40
2.8 New mobility concepts from the Volkswagen Group 41
2.8.1 Urban Mobility International (WeShare) 42
2.8.2 Audi mobility service programmes 43
2.8.3 Škoda Auto's HoppyGo 44
2.9 Volvo Car Mobility 44

3 Carsharing Organisations 47
3.1 Specialist carsharing companies in Europe 50
3.1.1 Autonap?l 51
3.1.2 Bolt Drive 51
3.1.3 Cambio 52
3.1.4 Citiz 52
3.1.5 CityBee 53
3.1.6 Co-Wheels 54
3.1.7 Enjoy 54
3.1.8 Flinkster 54
3.1.9 GoCar 55
3.1.10 GreenMobility 55
3.1.11 Greenwheels 56
3.1.12 LetsGo and LetsGo Fleet Systems 57
3.1.13 Miles 58
3.1.14 Mobility Carsharing Switzerland 59
3.1.15 MOL Limo 60
3.1.16 Move About Group 60
3.1.17 MyWheels 61
3.1.18 Panek 61
3.1.19 Poppy 62
3.1.20 Share'Ngo 62
3.1.21 Stadtmobil 62
3.1.22 Zity 63
3.2 Specialist carsharing companies in the Americas 63
3.2.1 Awto 64
3.2.2 BlueLA (Blink Mobility) 65
3.2.3 Communauto 65
3.2.4 Envoy Technologies 66
3.2.5 Evo Car Share 66
3.2.6 GIG CarShare 67
3.2.7 Keko 67
3.2.8 Modo 68
3.2.9 Turbi 68
3.3 Specialist carsharing companies in Asia-Pacific 69
3.3.1 BlueSG 69
3.3.2 EvCard 70
3.3.3 GoGet 70
3.3.4 GreenShareCar 71
3.3.5 Liandong Cloud 72
3.3.6 Mevo 72
3.3.7 Morefun Travel (BAIC Mobility) 73
3.3.8 Socar 73
3.3.9 Zoomcar 74
3.4 Specialist carsharing companies in ROW 75
3.4.1 Carmine 75
3.4.2 Delimobil 76
3.4.3 Ekar 76
3.4.4 Electrip 77
3.4.5 GoTo Global Mobility 77
3.4.6 iDRIVE 78
3.4.7 Udrive 79
3.4.8 Yandex Drive 79
3.5 Car rental and leasing companies 80
3.5.1 Avis Budget Group and Zipcar 81
3.5.2 Enterprise Rent-A-Car and Enterprise CarShare 83
3.5.3 Europcar Mobility Group and Ubeeqo 84
3.5.4 Hertz 86
3.5.5 Lotte Rental and Green Car 87
3.5.6 ORIX Auto Corporation and ORIX CarShare 88
3.5.7 Sixt Group 89
3.5.8 Alphabet 91
3.5.9 ALD Automotive 91
3.5.10 Leasys 92

4 Technology Vendors 95
4.1 End-to-end carsharing solutions 97
4.1.1 BMW Mobility Services 97
4.1.2 Geotab 98
4.1.3 IER-Polyconseil (Bolloré Group) 99
4.1.4 IMS 100
4.1.5 INVERS 101
4.1.6 Mobiag 103
4.1.7 Mobility Tech Green 104
4.1.8 MoboKey 105
4.1.9 Octo Telematics 105
4.1.10 OpenFleet 106
4.1.11 Targa Telematics 107
4.1.12 TomTom 108
4.1.13 Vulog 109
4.1.14 Webfleet 111
4.1.15 WeGo Carsharing 111
4.2 Carsharing software platforms 112
4.2.1 Cantamen 113
4.2.2 Eccocar 113
4.2.3 Fleetster (Next Generation Mobility) 114
4.2.4 Glide.io 115
4.2.5 Good Travel Software 115
4.2.6 Humax 116
4.2.7 Moove Connected Mobility 117
4.2.8 Moqo 118
4.2.9 Navigator Group of Companies 118
4.2.10 Ridecell 119
4.2.11 Wunder Mobility 120
4.2.12 Zemtu 122
4.3 In-vehicle systems 123
4.3.1 Astus 124
4.3.2 Bosch 124
4.3.3 Continental 125
4.3.4 Convadis 126
4.3.5 Kuantic 128
4.3.6 Ruptela 128
4.3.7 Teltonika 130

5 Market Forecasts and Trends 132
5.1 Carsharing market forecasts 132
5.1.1 Carsharing in the EU27+EFTA+UK 133
5.1.2 Carsharing in North America 135
5.1.3 Carsharing in Asia-Pacific 136
5.1.4 Carsharing in ROW 137
5.1.5 Connected carsharing platform forecast 138
5.1.6 Corporate carsharing forecast 140
5.2 Mergers and acquisitions in the carsharing telematics space 141
5.3 Market trends 145
5.3.1 Carsharing is becoming increasingly integrated with other mobility services 146
5.3.2 Carsharing and public transport ecosystems to converge 146
5.3.3 Cities and municipalities are important for CSOs 147
5.3.4 Electric cars are a natural fit for carsharing 147
5.3.5 Carsharing operators build wider ecosystems of partners 148
5.3.6 Free floating carsharing services on the rise 148
5.3.7 Hybrid station-based and free floating models show promise 149
5.3.8 Autonomous cars are expected to change the playing field for carsharing 149
5.3.9 Carsharing becomes a popular means to reduce corporate mobility costs 149
5.3.10 Carsharing operators introduce new pricing models 150
5.3.11 Last mile carsharing add-on services is emerging in Europe 150
5.3.12 Shared mobility operators are increasingly offering more similar services 151
5.3.13 Covid-19 affected the majority of carsharing operators only temporarily 151
5.3.14 Semiconductor shortage affects the carsharing market 152
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 154

List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Car parc by region (World 2014-2020) 4
Figure 1.2: Passenger car density per 1,000 inhabitants (EU27 + UK 2020) 5
Figure 1.3: New car registration data (World 2014-2021) 6
Figure 1.4: Top 10 countries by new passenger car and light truck registrations (2021) 7
Figure 1.5: Carsharing membership and fleet size (World 2017-2021) 12
Figure 1.6: Carsharing service providers by industry background 17
Figure 1.7: Leading carsharing service providers (World Q4-2021) 19
Figure 1.8: Carsharing telematics system overview 23
Figure 1.9: On-board computer and vehicle access telematics device 24
Figure 2.1: Carmaker CSO membership and fleet size (World 2017-2021) 29
Figure 2.2: Examples of carsharing services by carmakers (World 2022) 30
Figure 3.1: Carsharing service providers (Europe and ROW 2022) 47
Figure 3.2: Carsharing service providers (Americas and APAC 2022) 49
Figure 3.3: Carsharing services by car rental companies (World 2022) 50
Figure 3.4: Major car rental companies 81
Figure 4.1: Carsharing technology vendors (2022) 95
Figure 4.2: End-to-end carsharing system vendors (2022) 96
Figure 4.3: Carsharing software platform vendors (2022) 112
Figure 4.4: In-vehicle system vendors (2022) 123
Figure 5.1: Carsharing members by region (2021-2026) 132
Figure 5.2: Carsharing vehicles by region (2021-2026) 133
Figure 5.3: Carsharing fleet and members (EU27+EFTA+UK 2021-2026) 134
Figure 5.4: Carsharing fleet and members (North America 2021-2026) 135
Figure 5.5: Carsharing fleet and members (Asia-Pacific 2021-2026) 136
Figure 5.6: Carsharing fleet and members (ROW 2021-2026) 138
Figure 5.7: Aftermarket carsharing TCUs and connected cars (World 2021-2026) 139
Figure 5.8: Carsharing aftermarket system revenues (World 2021-2026) 140
Figure 5.9: Corporate carsharing telematics market (World 2021-2026) 141
Figure 5.10: M&As in the carsharing telematics space (2016-2022) 143