Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 16
The gas metering landscape 16
Long-term demand for gas meters 17
Changes in the demand cycles for gas meters caused national smart meter deployments 17
Changes in the demand cycles for gas meter markets by country 18
Meter types……from 1843 to the future 19
Gas sources, types and delivery 20
The origins of the global gas industry 21
Electricity versus Gas 21
1. THE GAS METERING LANDSCAPE IN 2016 23
Shifting trends of demand 25
2. DEMAND FOR GAS METERS FROM 2016 TO 2020 26
Meter demand 26
3. LONG-TERM DEMAND TREND FOR GAS METERS 27
The long-term demand trends 28
4. METER TYPES……FROM 1843 TO THE FUTURE 32
Diaphragm, positive displacement meters 32
Rotary meters 32
Turbine meters 33
Orifice meters 33
MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) 33
Ultrasonic flow meters 34
Coriolis meters 34
Smart/advanced meters 35
Turndown ratio and rangeability 36
Typical turndown ratio of various meter types 36
Heating value 36
5. THE GAS METER MARKET IN EUROPE 37
Establishment of gas in Europe 37
Smart meters 40
Meter demand 41
AUSTRIA 42
Smart meters 42
Meter demand 43
BELGIUM 44
Smart meters 45
Flanders 45
Brussels and Wallonia 45
Meter demand 46
BULGARIA 47
Smart meters 48
Meter demand 48
CZECH REPUBLIC 49
Smart meters 50
Meter demand 50
DENMARK 51
Smart meters 52
Meter demand 52
ESTONIA 53
Smart meters 53
Meter demand 53
FINLAND 54
Smart meters 55
Meter demand 55
FRANCE 56
Smart meters 58
Meter demand 59
Long-term demand cycle 59
GERMANY 61
Smart meters 64
Meter demand 64
GREECE 65
Smart meters 66
Meter demand 66
HUNGARY 67
Smart meters 67
Meter demand 68
IRELAND 69
Smart meters 70
Meter demand 70
Long-term demand cycle 71
ITALY 72
Smart meters 74
Smart meters definition 74
Meter demand 75
Long-term demand cycle 75
LATVIA 76
Smart meters 76
Meter demand 77
LITHUANIA 78
Smart meters 79
Meter demand 79
NETHERLANDS 80
Smart meters 81
Meter demand 82
Long-term demand cycle 82
POLAND 83
Smart meter progress 84
Meter demand 84
PORTUGAL 85
Smart meters 86
Meter demand 86
ROMANIA 87
Smart meters 87
Meter demand 88
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 89
Smart meters 89
Meter demand 90
SLOVENIA 91
Smart meters 91
Meter demand 92
SPAIN 93
Smart meters 93
Meter demand 94
SWEDEN 95
Smart meters 96
Meter demand 96
SWITZERLAND 97
Meter demand 98
Meter manufacturers 98
TURKEY 99
Prepayment gas meters 99
Smart meter progress 100
Meter demand 100
UNITED KINGDOM 101
Certification 104
Remanufacturing meters for the secondary or sub-metering market 104
Smart meters 105
Pulse transmission of data for AMR 105
Meter demand 106
Long-term demand cycle 107
6. THE GAS METER MARKET IN THE CIS 108
Smart meters 108
Meter demand 109
Long-term demand cycle 109
RUSSIA 110
Smart meters 112
Meter demand 113
Meter manufacturers 113
UKRAINE 114
Smart meter progress 116
Meter demand 117
Meter manufacturers 117
7. THE GAS METER MARKET IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 118
MIDDLE EAST 118
IRAN 119
Meter demand 120
Meter manufacturers 120
NORTH AFRICA 121
Meter demand 121
ALGERIA 122
Meter demand 123
Meter manufacturers 123
EGYPT 124
Meter demand 125
Meter manufacturers 125
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 126
8. THE GAS METER MARKET IN ASIA PACIFIC 127
Meter demand Asia Pacific 128
AUSTRALIA 129
Smart meter progress 130
Meter demand 130
CHINA 131
The development of distributed gas in china 131
Manufactured gas 132
LPG 133
Natural gas 134
Smart meter progress 135
Meter demand 136
Meter manufacturers 136
INDIA 138
Smart meter progress 141
Meter demand 141
INDONESIA 141
Smart meter progress 142
Meter demand 143
JAPAN 144
1. The intelligent Micon gas meter 145
2. Ultrasonic intelligent gas meter 146
3. Smart meters 147
LPG meters 147
Meter demand 148
Meter manufacturers 148
SOUTH KOREA 150
Smart meters 151
Meter demand 151
Meter manufacturers 152
NEW ZEALAND 153
Smart meter progress 154
Meter demand 154
PAKISTAN 155
Meter demand 155
TAIWAN 156
Smart meters 157
Meter demand 157
Meter manufacturers 157
THAILAND 158
9. THE GAS METER MARKET IN NORTH AMERICA 159
UNITED STATES 159
Gas industry structure 160
Smart meters 161
Meter demand 162
Long-term demand cycle 163
Meter manufacturers 163
CANADA 164
Smart meters 165
Meter demand 165
MEXICO 166
Meter demand 167
10. THE GAS METER MARKET IN SOUTH AMERICA 168
Meter demand 169
ARGENTINA 170
Meter demand 171
BRAZIL 172
Meter demand 173
CHILE 174
Meter demand 175
COLOMBIA 176
Meter demand 177
11. THE GAS METER MARKET IN CENTRAL AMERICA 178
12. THE ORIGINS OF THE GLOBAL GAS INDUSTRY 179
The conversion process of distribution networks from manufactured gas to natural gas 180
Electricity versus Gas 181
13. GAS SOURCES, TYPES AND DELIVERY 183
GAS CATEGORIES 183
Natural gas 183
Manufactured gas 183
Coke-oven gas 184
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 184
Coal gas 184
Biogas 184
Blast furnace gas 184
Gas hydrates 184
Refinery gas 185
Syngas - SNG 185
PG Autogas 185
GAS DELIVERY AND STORAGE 185
Piped gas 186
Natural gas liquids, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 186
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 186
Compressed natural gas (CNG) 186

Figures
Figure 1: The growth in manufactured city gas and natural gas consumers from 1900 to 2020 25
Figure 2: The installed base of households - All, Electrified and Gasified - 1900 to 2050 27
Figure 3: Annual demand trend for gas meters, World by region, 1950-2050 27
Figure 4: Long-term demand trend with continuation of diaphragm meters, France, 1900 to 2050 28
Figure 5: Long-term demand trend, France, reconfigured by deployment of smart gas meters. 29
Figure 6: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Europe,1990-2020 39
Figure 7: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Austria, 1990-2020 42
Figure 8: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Belgium, 1990-2013 44
Figure 9: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Bulgaria, 1990-2013 47
Figure 10: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Czech Republic, 1990-2020 49
Figure 11: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Denmark, 1990-2020 51
Figure 12: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Estonia, 1900-2020 53
Figure 13: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Finland, 1990-2020 54
Figure 14: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in France, 1900-2020. 57
Figure 15: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, France, 1990-2020 57
Figure 16: Gazpar smart gas meter 58
Figure 17: Long-term annual demand trend in France, reconfigured by deployment of smart meters. 60
Figure 18: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in Germany, 1900-2020 62
Figure 19: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Germany, 1990-2020 63
Figure 20: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Greece, 1990-2020 65
Figure 21: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Hungary, 1990-2020 67
Figure 22: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Ireland, 1990-2020 69
Figure 23: Long-term annual demand trend in Ireland, reconfigured by deployment of smart meters. 71
Figure 24: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in Italy, 1900-2020 73
Figure 25: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers Italy, 1990-2020 73
Figure 26: Long-term annual demand trend in Italy, reconfigured by deployment of smart meters. 75
Figure 27: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Latvia, 1990-2020 76
Figure 28: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Lithuania, 1990-2020 78
Figure 29: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Netherlands, 1990-2020 80
Figure 30: Long-term demand trend, Netherlands, reconfigured by deployment of smart meters. 82
Figure 31: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Poland, 1990-2020 83
Figure 32: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Portugal, 1990-2020 85
Figure 33: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Romania, 1990-2020 87
Figure 34 : Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Slovak Republic 1990-2020 89
Figure 35: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Slovenia, 1990-2020 91
Figure 36: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Spain, 1990-20 93
Figure 37: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Sweden, 1990-2020 95
Figure 38: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Switzerland, 1990-2020 97
Figure 39: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Turkey, 1990-2020 99
Figure 40: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in the UK, 1900-2020 102
Figure 41: Penetration of electricity and gas in the UK from 1900 to 2015 102
Figure 42: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, UK, 1990-2020 103
Figure 43: Long-term annual demand trend in the UK, reconfigured by deployment of smart meters. 107
Figure 44: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, CIS, 1990-2020 108
Figure 45: Long-term annual demand trend in the CIS 109
Figure 46: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in Russia, 1900-2020 111
Figure 47: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Russia, 1990-2020 112
Figure 48: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Ukraine, 1990-2020 115
Figure 49: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Middle East, 1990-2020 118
Figure 50: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Iran, 1990-2020 119
Figure 51: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, North Africa, 1990-2020 121
Figure 52: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Algeria, 1990-2020 122
Figure 53: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Egypt, 1990-2020 124
Figure 54: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990-2020 126
Figure 55: Numbers of housing units, all gas and residential consumers, Asia Pacific, 1990-2020 127
Figure 56: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Australia, 1990-2020 129
Figure 57: Length of pipelines for Manufactured Gas, LPG and Natural Gas in China, 1978-2010 131
Figure 58: Urban housing units, PNG and manufactured gas and cylinder LPG, China, 1990-2020 135
Figure 59: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, India, 1990-2020 140
Figure 60: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Indonesia, 1990-2020 142
Figure 61: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in Japan, 1900-2020 144
Figure 62: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Japan, 1990-2020 145
Figure 63: Micon, conventional diaphragm intelligent gas meter 146
Figure 64: Ultrasonic gas meter 147
Figure 65: Household penetration of natural gas and LPG in South Korea, 1948-2020 150
Figure 66: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, South Korea, 1990-2020 151
Figure 67: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, New Zealand, 1990-2020 153
Figure 68: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Taiwan, 1990-2020 156
Figure 69: Household penetration of manufactured gas, natural gas and LPG in the US, 1900-2020 160
Figure 70: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, United States, 1990-2020 161
Figure 71: Long-term annual demand trend for gas meters, United States, 1900 to 2050 163
Figure 72: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Canada, 1990-2020 164
Figure 73: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Mexico, 1990-2020 166
Figure 74: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, South America, 1990-2020 168
Figure 75: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Argentina, 1990-2020 170
Figure 76: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Brazil, 1990-2020 173
Figure 77: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Chile, 1990-2020 174
Figure 78: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Colombia, 1990-2020 176
Figure 79: Numbers of housing units and gas consumers, Central America, 1990-20203 178
Figure 80: Timeline of global gas and electricity distribution 180

Tables
Table 1: Demographics, consumers and demand for gas meters in units and $ value, by region 2016 23
Table 2: Demographics, consumers and demand for gas meters in units and $ value, major countries 2016 23
Table 3: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, the World, 2016-2021 26
Table 4: Changes in the demand cycles for gas meter markets by country 30
Table 5: Basic population and gas statistics, Europe 37
Table 6: The European gas grid around 1965. 38
Table 7: Numbers of metered residential and industrial end-users of gas, Europe, thousands, 2014 40
Table 8: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Europe, 2016-2021 41
Table 9: Basic population and gas statistics, Austria 42
Table 10: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Austria, 2016-2021 43
Table 11: Basic population and gas statistics, Belgium 44
Table 12: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Belgium, 2016-2021 46
Table 13: Basic population and gas statistics, Bulgaria 47
Table 14: Basic population and gas statistics, Czech Republic 49
Table 15: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Czech Republic, 2016-2021 50
Table 16: Basic population and gas statistics, Denmark 51
Table 17: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Denmark, 2016-2021 52
Table 18: Basic population and gas statistics, Estonia 53
Table 19: Basic population and gas statistics, Finland 54
Table 20: Basic population and gas statistics, France 56
Table 21: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, France, 2016-2021 59
Table 22: Basic population and gas statistics, Germany 61
Table 23: Gas meters in use in Germany by type, 2011 63
Table 24: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Germany, 2016-2021 64
Table 25: Basic population and gas statistics, Greece 65
Table 26: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Greece, 2016-2021 66
Table 27: Basic population and gas statistics, Hungary 67
Table 28: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Hungary, 2016-2021 68
Table 29: Basic population and gas statistics, Ireland 69
Table 30: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Ireland, 2016-2021 70
Table 31: Basic population and gas statistics, Italy 72
Table 32: The Italian plan for the installation of smart gas meters for all Customers 74
Table 33: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Italy, 2016-2021 75
Table 34: Basic population and gas statistics, Latvia 76
Table 35: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Latvia, 2016-2021 77
Table 36: Basic population and gas statistics, Lithuania 78
Table 37: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Lithuania, 2016-2021 79
Table 38: Basic population and gas statistics, Netherlands 80
Table 39: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Netherlands, 2016-2021 82
Table 40: Basic population and gas statistics, Poland 83
Table 41: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Poland, 2016-2021 84
Table 42: Basic population and gas statistics, Portugal 85
Table 43: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Portugal, 2016-2021 86
Table 44: Basic population and gas statistics, Romania 87
Table 45: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Romania, 2016-2021 88
Table 46: Basic population and gas statistics, Slovak Republic 89
Table 47: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Slovak Republic, 2016-2021 90
Table 48: Basic population and gas statistics, Slovenia 91
Table 49: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Slovenia, 2016-2021 92
Table 50: Basic population and gas statistics, Spain 93
Table 51: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Spain, 2016-2021 94
Table 52: Basic population and gas statistics, Sweden 95
Table 53: Basic population and gas statistics, Switzerland 97
Table 54: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Switzerland, 2016-2021 98
Table 55: Basic population and gas statistic, Turkey 99
Table 56: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Turkey, 2016-2021 100
Table 57: Basic population and gas statistics, United Kingdom 101
Table 58: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, United Kingdom, 2016-2021 106
Table 59: Basic population and gas statistics, CIS 108
Table 60: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, CIS, 2016-2021 109
Table 61: Basic population and gas statistics, Russia 110
Table 62: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Russia, 2016-2021 113
Table 63: Basic population and gas statistics, Ukraine 114
Table 64: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Ukraine, 2016-2021 117
Table 65: Basic population and gas statistics, Middle East, 2013 118
Table 66: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Middle East, 2016-2021 118
Table 67: Basic population and gas statistics, Iran, 2013 119
Table 68: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Iran, 2016-2021 120
Table 69: Basic population and gas statistics, North Africa, 2013 121
Table 70: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, North Africa, 2016-2021 121
Table 71: Basic population and gas statistics, Algeria, 2013 122
Table 72: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Algeria, 2016-2021 123
Table 73: Basic population and gas statistics, Egypt 124
Table 74: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Egypt, 2016-2021 125
Table 75: Basic population and gas statistics, sub-Saharan Africa 126
Table 76: Basic population and gas statistics, Asia Pacific, 2013 127
Table 77: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Asia Pacific, 2016-2021 128
Table 78: Basic population and gas statistics, Australia 129
Table 79: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Australia, 2016-2021 130
Table 80: Basic population and gas statistics, China 131
Table 81: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, China, 2016-2021 136
Table 82: Leading gas meter companies in China 137
Table 83: Basic population and gas statistics, India, 2013 138
Table 84: The PNG network in India, 2016 139
Table 85: CNG network in India, 2016 140
Table 86: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Indonesia, 2016-2021 141
Table 87: Basic population and gas statistics, Indonesia 141
Table 88: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Indonesia, 2016-2021 143
Table 89: Basic population and gas statistics, Japan 144
Table 90: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Japan, 2016-2021 148
Table 91: Basic population and gas statistics, South Korea 150
Table 92: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Korea, 2016-2021 151
Table 93: Basic population and gas statistics, New Zealand 153
Table 94: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, New Zealand, 2016-2021 154
Table 95: Basic population and gas statistics, New Zealand 155
Table 96: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, New Zealand, 2016-2021 155
Table 97: Basic population and gas statistics, Taiwan, 2013 156
Table 98: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Taiwan, 2016-2021 157
Table 99: Basic population and gas statistics, Thailand 158
Table 100: Basic population and gas statistics, United States, 2013 159
Table 101: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, United States, 2016-2021 162
Table 102: Basic population and gas statistics, Canada 164
Table 103: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Canada, 2016-2021 165
Table 104: Basic population and gas statistics, Mexico 166
Table 105: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Mexico, 2016-2021 167
Table 106: Basic population and gas statistics, South America 168
Table 107: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, South America 2016-2021 169
Table 108: Basic population and gas statistics, Argentina, 2013 170
Table 109: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Argentina, 2016-2021 171
Table 110: Basic population and gas statistics, Brazil, 2013 172
Table 111: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Brazil, 2016-2021 173
Table 112: Basic population and gas statistics, Chile, 2013 174
Table 113: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Chile, 2016-2021 175
Table 114: Basic population and gas statistics, Colombia, 2013 176
Table 115: Annual demand trend for gas meters, IGC and residential, in units, $ value, with average selling price per meter, Columbia, 2016-2021 177
Table 116: Basic population and gas statistics, Central America (excluding Mexico) , 2013 178

Companies Mentioned
Elster, Itron, Landis+Gyr, H+H Engineered Molded Products Inc, Sensus, Toshiba, Aichi Tokei Denki, Toyo Gas Meters, Yazaki Gas Meters, Azbil Kimmon, Keuk Dong, Daehan GM Corp, Dandong Gas Meter Co, Dandong Iwatani Toyo Gas Meter Co, Dandong Dongfa Gas Measurement & Control Instrument Co, Goldcard, Shaanxi Aerospace Power Hi-Tech Co, Zhejiang HangZhou Innover Technology Co, El Sewedy, AMC/Entreprise Nationale des Appareils de Mesure et de Controle SPA, Gas Souzan Ind & Mfg Company, Hadid Sazeh Pishro Co, Mahak Motlagh Co, ZAO Gasdevice , FGUP VPO Tochmash, Electropribor, Elster Gazelectronika, OJSC Arzamas, Electromed