1 Key statistics

2 Covid-19 and its impact on the telecom sector

2.1 Economic considerations and responses

2.2 Mobile devices

2.3 Subscribers

2.4 Infrastructure

3 Regional European Market Comparison

3.1 Europe Telecom Maturity Index by tier

3.1.1 Market Leaders

3.1.2 Market Challengers

3.1.3 Market Emergents

3.2 TMI versus GDP

3.3 Mobile and mobile broadband penetration

3.4 Fixed versus mobile broadband penetration

4 Telecommunications market

4.1 Overview and statistics

5 Regulatory environment

5.1 Historic overview

5.2 Regulatory authority

5.3 Fixed-line developments

5.3.1 Telecom sector liberalisation

5.3.2 Privatisation

5.3.3 Access

5.3.4 Interconnect

5.3.5 Carrier Selection and Carrier PreSelection

5.3.6 Number Portability (NP)

5.4 Mobile network developments

5.4.1 Licensing

5.4.2 Mobile Number Portability (MNP)

5.4.3 Mobile Termination Rates (MTRs)

5.4.4 Roaming

5.4.5 Network sharing

5.4.6 SIM card registration

6 Mobile market

6.1 Market analysis

6.2 Mobile statistics

6.2.1 General statistics

6.3 Mobile infrastructure

6.3.1 Analogue networks

6.3.2 5G

6.3.3 4G (LTE)

6.3.4 3G

6.3.5 Other infrastructure developments

6.4 Mobile voice

6.5 Mobile data

6.5.1 SMS and MMS

6.6 Mobile broadband

6.7 Major mobile operators

6.7.1 Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs)

6.7.2 Mobile Virtual Network Aggregators (MVNAs)

6.8 Mobile content and applications

7 Fixed-line broadband market

7.1 Introduction and statistical overview

7.1.1 Market analysis

7.1.2 Government programs

7.1.3 Broadband statistics

7.2 Hybrid Fibre Coax (HFC) networks

7.3 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) networks

7.4 Fibre-to-the-Premises (FttP) networks

7.5 Other fixed broadband services

7.5.1 Local Area Networks (LANs)

7.5.2 Fixed wireless

8 Digital economy

8.1 E-government

8.1.1 Infrastructure

8.2 E-health

9 Fixed network operators

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Telekom Romania

10 Telecommunications infrastructure

10.1 Overview of the national telecom network

10.1.1 Telekom Romani

10.1.2 Alternative operators

10.2 International infrastructure

10.3 Wholesale

10.4 Smart infrastructure

11 Appendix Historic data

12 Glossary of abbreviations

13 Related reports

List of Tables
Table 1 Top Level Country Statistics and Telco Authorities - Romania 2020 (e)
Table 2 Increase in telecom market revenue 2013 2019
Table 3 Change in the share of telecom market revenue by type 2016 2019
Table 4 Change in retail and wholesale fixed-line market revenue (RON million) 2014 2019
Table 5 Decline in average monthly fixed-line revenue by subscriber and household (RON / month ) 2016 2019
Table 6 Decline in fixed-line traffic by type (billion minutes) 2009 2019
Table 7 CS and CPS providers, fixed network 2008 2018
Table 8 Change in the number of annual fixed number portings 2008 2019
Table 9 Multi-spectrum auction results 2012
Table 10 Multi-spectrum auction results spectrum allocation 2012
Table 11 Increase in the number of annual mobile number portings 2008 2019
Table 12 Increase in international voice roaming traffic 2012 2019
Table 13 Increase in the number of active mobile subscribers and penetration rate 2010 2025
Table 14 Development of mobile market revenue (RON billion) 2013 2019
Table 15 Change in the average monthly mobile revenue by subscriber and household (RON / month) 2016 2019
Table 16 Decline in the proportion of prepaid to active postpaid subscribers 2010 2019
Table 17 Decline in the number of prepaid cards in service (million) 2009 2019
Table 18 Change in the number of Vodafone Romania's prepaid subscribers 2010 2020
Table 19 Decline in the number of Telekom Romania's prepaid subscribers 2008 2020
Table 20 Overview of provider services by technology 2019
Table 21 Increase in mobile network (terminated) traffic 2009 2019
Table 22 Change in the volume of MMS messages sent 2008 2019
Table 23 Change in the volume of SMS messages sent 2008 2019
Table 24 SMS messages sent per subscriber 2010 2019
Table 25 Increase in the number of active mobile broadband subscribers 2010 2025
Table 26 Mobile internet and broadband connections by technology (million) 2012 2019
Table 27 Change in the proportion of mobile internet and broadband connections by technology 2015 2019
Table 28 Change in the number of mobile internet connections via cards/USB 2008 2019
Table 29 Mobile broadband traffic 2011 2019
Table 30 Change in mobile broadband penetration by connection type 2010 2019
Table 31 Development of Vodafone Romania's mobile subscriber base 2010 2020
Table 32 Increase in Vodafone Romania's mobile data traffic 2012 2020
Table 33 Drop in Vodafone Romania's mobile ARPU () 2010 2020
Table 34 Development of Vodafone Romania's mobile service revenue 2013 2020
Table 35 Decline in Orange Romania's mobile subscriber base 2010 2020
Table 36 Development of Orange Romania's revenue ( million) 2009 2020
Table 37 Change in Telekom Romania's mobile financial data ( million) 2010 2020
Table 38 Change in Telekom Romania's mobile financial data by quarter ( million) 2016 2020
Table 39 Decline in Telekom Romania's mobile subscriber base 2010 2020
Table 40 Telekom Romania's mobile ARPU 2010 2020
Table 41 Development of Digi's subscribers by type 2013 2020
Table 42 Growth in Digi's revenue, by type ( million ) 2012 2020
Table 43 Development of Digi's annualised mobile ARPU 2016 2020
Table 44 Development of fixed broadband population penetration, urban and rural 2011 2018
Table 45 Development of fixed broadband household penetration, urban and rural 2011 2018
Table 46 Growth in fixed broadband data traffic 2012 2019
Table 47 Change in the number of fixed broadband providers by access type 2008 2019
Table 48 Change in the number of fixed broadband subscribers by access type (thousand) 2010 2019
Table 49 Change in the proportion of fixed broadband subscribers by access type 2010 2019
Table 50 Change in the number of fixed broadband subscribers, and penetration rate 2010 2025
Table 51 Increase in internet revenue (fixed and mobile) 2013 2019
Table 52 Increase in average monthly internet revenue (RON / month) 2016 2019
Table 53 Change in the number of fixed broadband subscribers by data speed 2011 2019
Table 54 Change in the proportion of fixed broadband subscribers by data speed (Mb/s) 2011 2019
Table 55 Growth in Vodafone Romania's broadband subscriber base 2010 2020
Table 56 Vodafone Romania fixed broadband subscribers 2012 2020
Table 57 Change in the number of cable broadband subscribers 2010 2019
Table 58 Increase in the number of Orange Romania's broadband subscribers 2010 2020
Table 59 Change in the number of DSL broadband subscribers 2010 2019
Table 60 Change in the number of Telecom Romania's broadband subscribers 2010 2020
Table 61 Change in the number of fibre broadband subscribers by type 2011 2019
Table 62 Change in the proportion of fibre broadband subscribers by type 2011 2019
Table 63 Increase in the number of Wi-Fi hotspot locations 2008 2019
Table 64 Decline in Telekom Romania's share of fixed lines in service 2009 2019
Table 65 Decline in the number of fixed-lines in service, by operator (million lines) 2009 2019
Table 66 Decline in the number of fixed-line subscribers 2009 2019
Table 67 Decline in Telekom Romania's fixed-line revenue 2010 2020
Table 68 Change in the number of Telekom Romania's subscribers by type 2010 2020
Table 69 Decline in the number of fixed lines in service and teledensity 2010 2025
Table 70 Increase in international internet bandwidth 2010 2019
Table 71 Historic Fixed lines in service and teledensity (by population) 2000 2009
Table 72 Historic - International internet bandwidth 2000 2009
Table 73 Historic - CS and CPS lines 2008 2017
Table 74 Historic - Telekom Romania's fixed-line telephony subscriber base 2006 2009
Table 75 Historic Mobile subscribers (active SIM) and penetration rate 1997 2009
Table 76 Historic - Ratio of active prepaid to active postpaid subscribers 2000 2009
Table 77 Historic - Mobile market investment 2005 2012
Table 78 Historic - Ratio of active prepaid to active postpaid subscribers 2000 2009
Table 79 Historic - Fixed broadband subscribers and penetration rate 2002 2009
Table 80 Historic - Internet users, subscribers and penetration 1999 2015
Table 81 Historic - Cable broadband subscribers 2003 2009
Table 82 Historic - DSL broadband subscribers 2003 2009
Table 83 Historic - Fixed wireless broadband subscribers 2003 2017

List of Charts
Chart 1 Europe Telecoms Maturity Index Market Leaders (top tier)
Chart 2 Europe Telecoms Maturity Index Market Challengers (middle tier)
Chart 3 Europe Telecoms Maturity Index Market Emergents (bottom tier)
Chart 4 Overall view - Telecoms Maturity Index vs GDP per Capita
Chart 5 Europe - mobile subscriber penetration vs mobile broadband penetration
Chart 6 Scandinavia and Baltics: mobile subscriber penetration vs mobile broadband penetration
Chart 7 Northern Europe mobile subscriber penetration vs mobile broadband penetration
Chart 8 Southern Europe mobile subscriber penetration vs mobile broadband penetration
Chart 9 Eastern Europe mobile subscriber penetration vs mobile broadband penetration
Chart 10 Scandinavia and Baltics fixed and mobile broadband penetration
Chart 11 Northern Europe fixed and mobile broadband penetration
Chart 12 Southern Europe fixed and mobile broadband penetration
Chart 13 Eastern Europe fixed and mobile broadband penetration
Chart 14 Increase in telecom market revenue 2013 2019
Chart 15 Change in the share of telecom market revenue by type 2016 2019
Chart 16 Change in retail and wholesale fixed-line market revenue 2014 2019
Chart 17 Decline in average monthly fixed-line revenue by subscriber and household 2016 2019
Chart 18 Decline in fixed-line traffic by type 2009 2019
Chart 19 Change in the number of annual fixed number portings 2008 2019
Chart 20 Increase in the number of annual mobile number portings 2008 2019
Chart 21 Increase in international voice roaming traffic 2012 2019
Chart 22 Increase in the number of active mobile subscribers and penetration rate 2010 2025
Chart 23 Development of mobile market revenue 2013 2019
Chart 24 Average monthly mobile revenue by subscriber and household 2016 2019
Chart 25 Decline in the proportion of prepaid to active postpaid subscribers 2010 2019
Chart 26 Decline in the number of prepaid cards in service 2009 2019
Chart 27 Change in the number of Vodafone Romania's prepaid subscribers 2010 2020
Chart 28 Decline in the number of Telekom Vodafone Romania's prepaid subscribers 2008 2020
Chart 29 Increase in mobile network (terminated) traffic 2009 2019
Chart 30 Change in the volume of MMS messages sent 2008 2019
Chart 31 Change in the volume of SMS messages sent 2010 2019
Chart 32 Increase in the number of active mobile broadband subscribers 2010 2025
Chart 33 Mobile internet and broadband connections by technology (million) 2012 2019
Chart 34 Change in the proportion of mobile internet and broadband connections by technology 2015 2019
Chart 35 Change in the number of mobile internet connections via cards/USB 2008 2019
Chart 36 Change in mobile broadband penetration by connection type 2010 2019
Chart 37 Development of Vodafone Romania's mobile subscriber base 2010 2020
Chart 38 Increase in Vodafone Romania's mobile data traffic 2012 2020
Chart 39 Drop in Vodafone Romania's mobile ARPU 2010 2020
Chart 40 Development of Vodafone Romania's mobile service revenue 2013 2020
Chart 41 Decline in Orange Romania's mobile subscriber base 2010 2020
Chart 42 Development of Orange Romania's revenue ( million) 2009 2020
Chart 43 Change in Telekom Romania's mobile financial data 2010 2020
Chart 44 Change in Telekom Romania's mobile financial data by quarter 2016 2020
Chart 45 Decline in Telekom Romania's mobile subscriber base 2010 2020
Chart 46 Development of Digi's subscribers by type 2013 2020
Chart 47 Growth in Digi's revenue, by type 2012 2020
Chart 48 Development of fixed broadband population penetration, urban and rural 2011 2018
Chart 49 Development of fixed broadband household penetration, urban and rural 2011 2018
Chart 50 Growth in fixed broadband data traffic 2012 2019
Chart 51 Change in the number of fixed broadband providers by access type 2008 2019
Chart 52 Change in the number of fixed broadband subscribers by access type 2010 2019
Chart 53 Change in the proportion of fixed broadband subscribers by access type 2010 2019
Chart 54 Change in the number of fixed broadband subscribers, and penetration rate 2010 2025
Chart 55 Increase in average monthly internet revenue (RON / month) 2016 2019
Chart 56 Change in the number of fixed broadband subscribers by data speed (thousand) 2011 2019
Chart 57 Change in the proportion of fixed broadband subscribers by data speed (Mb/s) 2011 2019
Chart 58 Growth in Vodafone Romania's broadband subscriber base 2010 2020
Chart 59 Change in the number of cable broadband subscribers 2010 2019
Chart 60 Increase in the number of Orange Romania's broadband subscribers 2010 2020
Chart 61 Change in the number of DSL broadband subscribers 2010 2018
Chart 62 Change in the number of Telecom Romania's broadband subscribers 2010 2020
Chart 63 Change in the number of fibre broadband subscribers by type (thousand) 2011 2019
Chart 64 Change in the proportion of fibre broadband subscribers by type 2011 2019
Chart 65 Increase in the number of Wi-Fi hotspot locations 2008 2019
Chart 66 Decline in Telekom Romania's share of fixed lines in service 2009 2019
Chart 67 Decline in the number of fixed-lines in service, by operator 2009 2019
Chart 68 Decline in the number of fixed-line subscribers 2009 2019
Chart 69 Decline in Telekom Romania's fixed-line revenue 2010 2020
Chart 70 Change in the number of Telekom Romania's subscribers by type 2011 2020
Chart 71 Decline in the number of fixed lines in service and teledensity 2010 2025

List of Exhibits
Exhibit 1 Generalised Market Characteristics by Market Segment
Exhibit 2 Access, the local loop and unbundling an overview

Companies Mentioned
• UPC Romania
• RCS&RDS
• Telekom Romania
• Vodafone Romania
• Orange Romania
• Digi Mobil